|Deutsche Bank Building|
View from the southeast in 1997
|Location||130 Liberty Street, Manhattan, New York, United States 10007|
|Roof||157.6 m (517 ft)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Shreve, Lamb and Harmon|
|Structural engineer||James Ruderman|
|Main contractor||Turner Construction Company|
The Deutsche Bank Building (formerly Bankers Trust Plaza) was a 39-story office skyscraper located at 130 Liberty Street in New York City, adjacent to the World Trade Center site. The building opened in 1974 and closed following the September 11 attacks, due to contamination that spread from the collapse of the South Tower. The structure existed from 1974 to 2007, and was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, which also designed the famous Empire State Building.
An office is generally a room or other area where an organization's employees perform administrative work in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization. The word "office" may also denote a position within an organization with specific duties attached to it ; the latter is in fact an earlier usage, office as place originally referring to the location of one's duty. When used as an adjective, the term "office" may refer to business-related tasks. In law, a company or organization has offices in any place where it has an official presence, even if that presence consists of a storage silo rather than an establishment with desk-and-chair. An office is also an architectural and design phenomenon: ranging from a small office such as a bench in the corner of a small business of extremely small size, through entire floors of buildings, up to and including massive buildings dedicated entirely to one company. In modern terms an office is usually the location where white-collar workers carry out their functions. As per James Stephenson, "Office is that part of business enterprise which is devoted to the direction and co-ordination of its various activities."
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately 150 m (492 ft). Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s. The definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host offices, residential spaces, and retail spaces. For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term supertall skyscrapers can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as megatall skyscrapers.
Liberty Street is a street in New York City that stretches east-west from the middle of Lower Manhattan almost to the East River. It borders such sites as One Chase Manhattan Plaza, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, One Liberty Plaza, Liberty Plaza Park, the World Trade Center site, the World Financial Center, Gateway Plaza, Liberty Park, and the North Cove marina. A FDNY Firehouse, Engine Co. # 10 and Ladder Co. # 10, is located at 124 Liberty Street, directly across from Ground Zero.
The building was purchased by Deutsche Bank when it acquired Bankers Trust in 1998. It was part of the skyline of Lower Manhattan, and was demolished between 2007 and 2011. 5 World Trade Center will eventually replace the building, expanding the ground space on which the World Trade Center stands, as this land was not part of the original World Trade Center.
Deutsche Bank AG is a German multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany.
Bankers Trust was a historic American banking organization. The bank merged with Alex. Brown & Sons before being acquired by Deutsche Bank in 1999.
Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.
The collapse of the South Tower during the September 11 attacks tore a 24-story gash into the facade of the building. Steel and concrete protruded from the building for months afterward, which was eventually cleaned up. However, due to extensive contamination, Deutsche Bank decided that the 39-story ruin was to be taken down. During the cleanup and recover period, netting was placed inside gashes and holes to prevent collapse. The owner maintained that the building could not be restored to habitable condition, while its insurers sought to treat the incident as recoverable damage rather than a total loss.Work on the building was deferred for over two years during which the condition of the building deteriorated.
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.
A façade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face".
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, and sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.
In September 2005, human remains were found on the roof,and in March 2006, construction workers found more bone fragments and remains. This prompted calls from victims' family members for another search of the building by forensic experts. Between April 7 and April 14, 2006, more than 700 human bone fragments were discovered in the ballast gravel on the roof.
Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae. A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel is categorized into granular gravel and pebble gravel. ISO 14688 grades gravels as fine, medium, and coarse with ranges 2 mm to 6.3 mm to 20 mm to 63 mm. One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg.
The cost of demolition had steadily increased to $75 million by Bovis Lend Lease, as large amounts of asbestos, dioxin, lead, silica, quartz, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chromium, and manganese had been found within the building.
Asbestos is a term used to refer to six naturally occurring silicate minerals. All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals, each fiber being composed of many microscopic 'fibrils' that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes. Asbestos is a well known health hazard, and use of it as a building material is now banned in many countries. Inhalation of the fibres can lead to various lung conditions, including asbestosis and cancer.
Dioxin may refer to:
Lead is a chemical element with the symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes are endpoints of major nuclear decay chains of heavier elements.
In 2004, an agreement was announced to settle the disposition of the building and insurance claims. As part of this agreement, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation acquired the land and commenced demolition work.On December 7, 2006, the Associated Press reported that the building would be dismantled. The report indicated that nearby residents were fearful of possible toxic dust associated with the Twin Towers within the building.
The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation was formed in November 2001, following the September 11 attacks, to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute nearly $10 billion in federal funds aimed at rebuilding downtown Manhattan. It is a subsidiary of the Empire State Development Corporation, which is a New York state public-benefit corporation.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters.
On May 17, 2007, work was halted after a 22-foot section of pipe fell 35 stories and landed on the roof of "The Ten House", home to Engine 10 and Ladder 10 of the New York City Fire Department. Two firefighters were injured by falling debris, although they were not struck by the pipe itself.
On August 18, 2007, at approximately 3:40 p.m., a seven-alarm fire broke out on the 17th floor of the building, caused by workers smoking in violation of the building's safety rules. Around this time, crews were removing one floor per week, and the building had only 26 more. At the time of the fire, crews were removing asbestos. The fire spread in both directions, affecting a total of 10 floors. The floors were also filled with a maze of protective polyethylene sheets, which were designed to prevent the spread of asbestos, and also trapped smoke. The building lacked a standpipe, making it extremely difficult to put out the fire. The building had not been inspected since March, when it should have been inspected every 15 days. The fire burned into the night before being extinguished, and numerous special and support units responded from the New York City Fire Department to combat the fire. The fire killed two FDNY firefighters, Robert Beddia of Engine Company 24, and Joseph Graffagnino of Ladder Company 5, who succumbed on the 14th floor to smoke inhalation and carbon monoxide poisoning. The fire also injured 115 other firefighters, 46 of which were seriously enough to require medical leave. Plans to demolish the building continued as quickly as possible. In 2008, the Manhattan District Attorney indicted three construction supervisors and the demolition subcontractor, John Galt Corporation. A city stop-work order was lifted in April 2008 and decontamination work began again in May of the same year.
Dismantling was originally scheduled to be completed by the end of 2008, and later by the end of 2010. In October 2009, it was announced that dismantling of the building would finally resume.
Demolition was completed on January 20, 2011 with the removal of the crane.Demolition of the first floor and foundation was finished on February 28, 2011. It was the last part of the building to be removed.
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey took over the site as its developer. Current use includes the Vehicular Security Center, and Liberty Park, with 5 World Trade Center in planning stages.
Negotiations over the World Trade Center site concluded in April 2006 with private developer Larry Silverstein yielding his right to develop on the site designated for One World Trade Center and Tower Five to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in exchange for assistance in financing Towers Two, Three, and Four.[ citation needed ] Mayor Michael Bloomberg claimed there wasn't enough demand for office space to fill the five skyscrapers included in the World Trade Center's master plan, and called for a major revision of the plan to include housing or hotels. However, the demand for Manhattan office space, including downtown, has been booming since 2006, and on January 16, 2007, the investment bank JPMorgan Chase was in talks with the Port Authority about developing a 42-story skyscraper, which would prevent Mayor Bloomberg's push to use the site for housing.
Several sources familiar with JPMorgan Chase's talks with Port Authority officials said the firm's bid to develop a proposed 42-story tower for major corporate tenants is being taken seriously by the bistate agency. To make the commercial deal work, the Port Authority would have to agree to expand the size of Tower 5's base in order to accommodate the large, lower-level floors needed for trading rooms, a requirement for most large financial-services firms. The Port Authority hired Kohn Pederson Fox to design a 42-story skyscraper with a cantilevered section starting at the 14th floor to accommodate the large trading floors. [ citation needed ]
On June 14, 2007, Bloomberg and then-Governor Eliot Spitzer announced that JPMorgan Chase had won the bid to buy and build the new tower at 130 Liberty Street to replace the Deutsche Bank Building. However, after the acquisition of Bear Stearns by JPMorgan Chase in March 2008, the future of 130 Liberty Street has been put into question as JPMorgan Chase has announced that it intends to move into Bear Stearns' old headquarters at 383 Madison Avenue. If JPMorgan Chase does not renew their bid, the site would likely be used for a residential or hotel tower, as per Bloomberg's plan prior to JPMorgan Chase's bid. Recently, community and civic leaders met to discuss the site's future with community leaders favoring a hotel or residential development and outgoing deputy mayor Robert Lieber favoring an office tower.
On October 14, 2011, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which controls rebuilding at Ground Zero, and St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church announced an agreement that allows the church to build a 4,100-square-foot church and interfaith bereavement center at 130 Liberty Street.The original church, which was located at 155 Cedar Street and founded by Greek immigrants in 1916, was the only religious building to be completely destroyed during the 9/11 attacks.
Delays in taking down the Deutsche Bank at Ground Zero forced the Port Authority to delay the expected completion date of the crucial Vehicular Security Center. Repeated delays had also added roughly $100 million to the cost of rebuilding the World Trade Center. Originally delayed to 2013,it opened in June 2016 following the completion of Liberty Park, which is on top of the garage.
The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" or "the Pile" immediately after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the site's land. The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks.
The Singer Building or Singer Tower was a 41-story office building in Manhattan, New York City, completed in 1908 as the headquarters of the Singer Manufacturing Company. It was located at Liberty Street and Broadway in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan.
28 Liberty Street, formerly known as One Chase Manhattan Plaza, is a banking skyscraper located in the Financial District of Manhattan, New York City, between Pine, Liberty, Nassau, and William Streets. Construction on the building was completed in 1961. It has 60 floors, with 5 basement floors, and is 813 feet (248 m) tall, making it the 26th tallest building in New York City, the 43rd tallest in the United States, and the 200th tallest building in the world.
60 Wall Street is a 47-story skyscraper on Wall Street in the heart of the Financial District in Lower Manhattan. Originally built as the headquarters for J.P. Morgan & Co., it currently serves as the American headquarters of Deutsche Bank. However, Deutsche Bank plans to leave the building for the Time Warner Center in 2021.
The JPMorgan Chase Building, formerly the Gulf Building, is a 37-story 130 m (430 ft) Art Deco skyscraper in downtown Houston, Texas. Completed in 1929, it remained the tallest building in Houston until 1963, when the Exxon Building surpassed it in height. The building is the Houston headquarters of JPMorgan Chase Bank, and was formerly the headquarters of Texas Commerce Bank.
One World Trade Center is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest in the world. The supertall structure has the same name as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bounded by West Street to the west, Vesey Street to the north, Fulton Street to the south, and Washington Street to the east.
5 World Trade Center is a planned skyscraper at the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The site is across Liberty Street, to the south of the main 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site. As of June 2018, the project is on standby while the Port Authority explores a potential sale of the lot to a developer and looks for tenants to occupy the skyscraper. The proposed building shares its name with the original 5 World Trade Center, which was heavily damaged as a result of the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks and was later demolished. The Port Authority has no plans to construct a building at 130 Liberty Street, although it is open to future development of the site as office, retail, hotel, residential or some mix of those uses.
4 World Trade Center is a skyscraper that is part of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. It is located on the southeast corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, where the original nine-story 4 World Trade Center stood. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Fumihiko Maki was awarded the contract to design the 978-foot-tall (298 m) building. It houses the headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ).
270 Park Avenue is a high-rise office building located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was designed by Gordon Bunshaft and Natalie de Blois for Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. 270 Park Avenue was built between 1957 and 1960, and is 708 ft (216 m) tall. The building is expected to be demolished between 2019 and 2020, making it the tallest voluntarily demolished building in the world, overtaking the current record holder Singer Building that was demolished in 1968.
2 World Trade Center is a skyscraper under construction as part of the World Trade Center complex in Manhattan, New York City. It will replace the original 2 World Trade Center, which was completed in 1972, and subsequently destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001, and it will occupy the position of the original 5 World Trade Center. The foundation work was completed in 2013.
Liberty Park is a one-acre (4,000 m2) elevated public park at the World Trade Center in New York City, overlooking the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. It is located above the Vehicular Security Center and opened on June 29, 2016. The St. Nicholas National Shrine is located within the park, as well as The Sphere, the iconic sculpture salvaged from the World Trade Center site. Another statue, America's Response Monument, is also located in the park.
The World Trade Center Vehicle Security Center and Tour Bus Parking Facility, or simply the Vehicular Security Center (VSC), is a secure complex for truck delivery and underground parking at the World Trade Center. The entrance to the VSC is located at street-level along the southern edge of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum on Liberty Street. The VSC is connected via underground tunnels that feed the entire 16-acre (65,000 m2) WTC complex, linking the security checkpoint at its entrance with the buildings and services at the complex requiring vehicular services. Underground garages provide parking for tenants, visitors, and tour buses.
125 Greenwich Street is a residential skyscraper being built in the Financial District in Lower Manhattan, New York City. Located at 130 Liberty Street, the tower is two blocks south of One World Trade Center and directly across from the site of the demolished Deutsche Bank Building. The building was designed by architect Rafael Viñoly, who previously designed 432 Park Avenue, with interiors designed by British duo March & White. When complete, the tower will stand at a height of 912 feet (278 m), making it the 20th tallest building in New York.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.
The World Trade Center is a mostly completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven buildings on the same site that were destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The site is being rebuilt with up to six new skyscrapers, four of which have been completed; a memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks; the elevated Liberty Park adjacent to the site; and a transportation hub. The 104-story One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is the lead building for the new complex.
David Emil is an American restaurateur and New York State government official. At the time of the September 11, 2001 attacks, David Emil was the president of the company that owned and operated the restaurant Windows on the World on the 106th and 107th floors of One World Trade Center, New York, New York. All the employees and guests at the restaurant during the attacks lost their lives, 79 of whom were Windows on the World employees.
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