American Society of Civil Engineers

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American Society of Civil Engineers
ASCE logo.svg
AbbreviationASCE
FoundedNovember 5, 1852;166 years ago (1852-11-05)
Type Engineering society
FocusPurpose of the group is the advancement of the science and profession of Civil engineering and the enhancement of human welfare through the activities of society members. [1]
Location
Area served
Worldwide
MethodIndustry standards, conferences, publications
Members
152,000 [2]
Official language
English
President
Kristina L. Swallow
Executive Director
Thomas W. Smith III
Revenue
US $56.9 million (2018) [3]
Endowment US $31.3 million (2016) [2]
Employees
308 (2015)
Website asce.org

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Headquartered in Reston, Virginia, it is the oldest national engineering society in the United States. [4] Its constitution was based on the older Boston Society of Civil Engineers from 1848. [5]

Civil engineering engineering discipline specializing in design, construction and maintenance of the built environment

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways.

Reston, Virginia Place in Virginia, United States

Reston is a census-designated place in Fairfax County, Virginia. Founded in 1964, Reston was influenced by the Garden City movement that emphasized planned, self-contained communities that intermingled green space, residential neighborhoods, and commercial development. The intent of Reston's founder, Robert E. Simon, was to build a town that would revolutionize post–World War II concepts of land use and residential/corporate development in suburban America. In 2018, Reston was ranked as the Best Places to Live in Virginia by Money magazine for its expanses of parks, lakes, golf courses, and bridle paths as well as the numerous shopping and dining opportunities in Reston Town Center. Beginning in 2017, however, high-density commercial and residential developments along the Dulles Toll Road began to spark concerns among residents about local government's ability to ensure that key infrastructure, including roads, schools, and parks, would remain in sync with the accelerating pace of new construction.

Engineering applied science

Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application. See glossary of engineering.

Contents

ASCE is dedicated to the advancement of the science and profession of civil engineering and the enhancement of human welfare through the activities of society members. [1] It has about 152,000 members in about 177 countries. [2] Its mission is to provide essential value to members, their careers, partners, and the public; facilitate the advancement of technology; encourage and provide the tools for lifelong learning; promote professionalism and the profession; develop and support civil engineers. [1]

History

The first serious and documented attempts to organize civil engineers as a professional society in the newly created United States were in the early 19th century. [6] [7] In 1828, John Kilbourn of Ohio, managed a short-lived "Civil Engineering Journal", editorializing about the recent incorporation of the Institution of Civil Engineers in Great Britain that same year, Kilbourn suggested that the American corps of engineers could constitute an American society of civil engineers. [7] [6] Later, in 1834, an American trade periodical, the "American Railroad Journal" advocated for similar national organization of civil engineers. [7]

Institution of Civil Engineers independent professional association, headquartered in central London

The Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association for civil engineers and a charitable body in the United Kingdom. Based in London, ICE has over 92,000 members, of whom three quarters are located in the UK, while the rest are located in more than 150 other countries. The ICE aims to support the civil engineering profession by offering professional qualification, promoting education, maintaining professional ethics, and liaising with industry, academia and government. Under its commercial arm, it delivers training, recruitment, publishing and contract services. As a professional body, ICE aims to support and promote professional learning, managing professional ethics and safeguarding the status of engineers, and representing the interests of the profession in dealings with government, etc. It sets standards for membership of the body; works with industry and academia to progress engineering standards and advises on education and training curricula.

Institution of American Civil Engineers

On December 17, 1838, a petition started circulating asking civil engineers to meet in 1839 in Baltimore, Maryland to organize a permanent society of civil engineers. [7] Prior to that, thirteen notable civil engineers largely identifiable as being from New York, Pennsylvania, or Maryland met in Philadelphia. This group presented the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia with a formal proposal that an Institution of American Civil Engineers be established as an adjunct of the Franklin..." [7] Some of them were: [7]

Baltimore Largest city in Maryland, United States

Baltimore is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with a population of 602,495 in 2018 and also the largest such independent city in the country. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. As of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.802 million, making it the 21st largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Washington, D.C., making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2018 population of 9,797,063.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

Franklin Institute Science museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is named after the American scientist and statesman, Benjamin Franklin, and houses the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial. Founded in 1824, the Franklin Institute is one of the oldest centers of science education and development in the United States.

Benjamin Wright American civil engineer

Benjamin Wright was an American civil engineer who was chief engineer of the Erie Canal and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. In 1969, the American Society of Civil Engineers declared him the "Father of American Civil Engineering".

William Strickland (architect) American architect

William Strickland, was a noted architect and civil engineer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Nashville, Tennessee. A student of Benjamin Latrobe and mentor to Thomas Ustick Walter, Strickland helped establish the Greek Revival movement in the United States. A pioneering engineer, he wrote a seminal book on railroad construction, helped build several early American railroads, and designed the first ocean breakwater in the Western Hemisphere.

Allegheny Portage Railroad United States historic place

The Allegheny Portage Railroad was the first railroad constructed through the Allegheny Mountains in central Pennsylvania, United States; it operated from 1834 to 1854 as the first transportation infrastructure through the gaps of the Allegheny that connected the midwest to the eastern seaboard across the barrier range of the Allegheny Front. Approximately 36 miles (58 km) long overall, both ends connected to the Pennsylvania Canal, and the system was primarily used as a portage railway, haulting river boats and barges over the divide between the Ohio and the Susquehanna Rivers.

Forty engineers actually appeared at the February 1839 meeting Baltimore including J. Edgar Thomson (Future Chief Engineer and later President of the Pennsylvania Railroad), Wright, Roberts, Edward Miller, and the Maryland engineers Isaac Trimble and architect Benjamin H. Latrobe and attendees from as far as Massachusetts, Illinois, and Louisiana. [7] Subsequently, a group met again in Philadelphia, led by its Secretary, Edward Miller to take steps to formalize the society, participants now included such other notable engineers as: [7]

Miller drafted up a proposed constitution which gave the society's purpose as "the collection and diffusion of professional knowledge, the advancement of mechanical philosophy, and the elevation of the character and standing of the Civil Engineers of the United States." [7] Membership in the new society restricted membership to engineers and "architects and eminent machinists were to be admitted only as Associates." [9] The proposed constitution failed, and no further attempts were made to form another society. [7] Miller later ascribed the failure due to the difficulties of assembling members due available means for traveling in the country at time. [7] One of the other difficulties members would have to contend with was the requirement to produce each year, one previously unpublished paper or "...present a scientific book, map, plan or model, not already in the possession of the Society, under the penalty of $10." [9] In that same period, the editor of the American Railroad Journal commented that effort had failed in part due to certain jealousies which arose due to the proposed affiliation with the Franklin Institute. [7] That journal continued discussion on forming an engineers' organization from 1839 thru 1843 serving its own self interests in advocating its journal as a replacement for a professional society but to no avail.

The American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects

During the 1840s, professional organizations continued to develop and organize in the United States. The organizers motives were largely to "improve common standards, foster research, and disseminate knowledge through meetings and publications." [10] Unlike earlier associations such as the American Philosophical Society, these newer associations were not seeking to limit membership as much as pursue "more specialized interests." [10] Examples of this surge in new professional organizations in America were the American Statistical Association (1839), American Ethnological Society (1842), American Medical Association (1847), American Association for the Advancement of Science, (1848) and National Education Association (1852). [10]

During this same period of association incorporations on the 1840s, attempts were again made at organizing an American engineer association. They succeeded at first with the Boston Society of Civil Engineers, organized in 1848 and then in October 1852, with an effort to organize a Society of Civil Engineers and Architects in New York. [7] [9] Led by Alfred W. Craven, Chief Engineer of the Croton Aqueduct and future ASCE president, the meeting resolved to incorporate the society under the name "American Society of Civil Engineers And Architects". [9] Membership eligibility was restricted to “civil, geological, mining and mechanical Engineers, architects, and other persons who, by profession, are interested in the advancement of science.” [9] James Laurie was elected the society's first president. The meetings only went through 1855 and with the advent of the American Civil War, the society suspended its activities. [9] The next meeting was more than twelve years later in 1867. [9] A number of the original founders such as James Laurie, J.W. Adams, C. W. Copeland and W. H. Talcott were at this meeting and were dedicated to the objective of resuscitating the Society. They also planned to put the society on a more permanent footing as well as electing fifty-four new members to the Society. [9] With success in that effort, the young engineering society passed a resolution noting that its preservation was mainly due to the persevering efforts of its first president, James Laurie. [9] The address of President James Pugh Kirkwood delivered at that meeting in 1867 was the first publication of the Society, appearing in Volume 1 of “Transactions,” bearing date of 1872. [9]

19th century

At an early meeting of the Board of Direction in 1852, instructions were given for the incorporation of the “American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects” but this was the proper steps were never taken, and therefore this name never legally belonged to the Association. On March 4, 1868, by a vote of 17 to 4, the name was changed to “American Society of Civil Engineers,” but it was not until April 17, 1877, that the lack of incorporation was discovered and the proper steps taken to remedy the defect. [9] The society was then chartered and incorporated in New York state. [11]

Nora Stanton Blatch Barney 1921 Mrs. Nora Stanton Blatch.jpg
Nora Stanton Blatch Barney 1921

20th century

Nora Stanton Barney was among the first women in the United States to earn a civil engineering degree, graduating from Cornell University in 1905 with a degree in civil engineering. In the same year, she was accepted as a junior member of the organization and began work for the New York City Board of Water Supply. [12] [13] She was the first female member of ASCE, where she was allowed to be a junior member, but was denied advancement to associate member in 1916 because of her gender. In 2015, she was posthumously advanced to ASCE Fellow status. [14]

U.S. stamp commemorating the 100th anniversary of the ASCE in 1952 Engineering Centennial 3c 1952 issue U.S. stamp.jpg
U.S. stamp commemorating the 100th anniversary of the ASCE in 1952

In 1999, the ASCE elected the top-ten "civil engineering achievements that had the greatest positive impact on life in the 20th century" in "broad categories". Monuments of the Millennium were a "combination of technical engineering achievement, courage and inspiration, and a dramatic influence on the development of [their] communities". [15] The achievements and monuments that best exemplified them included:

Overview

ASCE's mission is to deliver essential value to "its members, their careers, our partners, and the public" as well as enable "the advancement of technology, encourage and provide the tools for lifelong learning, promote professionalism and the profession." [16] [17] The Society also seeks to "develop and support civil engineer leaders, and advocate infrastructure and environmental stewardship." [16] The Society as an exempt organization in the United States (Section 501(c)(3)) was required to reported its program service accomplishments and related expenses and revenues. [16]

Publications

ASCE stated that dissemination of technical and professional information to the civil engineering profession was a major goal of the society. [16] This is accomplished through a variety of publications and information products, including 36 technical and professional journals amongst them the ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, the Journal of Environmental Engineering, the Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, the Journal of Structural Engineering, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Civil Engineering, the Society’s monthly magazine, an online bibliographic database, conference proceedings, standards, manuals of practice and technical reports. [16]

Conferences, meetings, and education

Each year, more than 55,000 engineers earn continuing education units (CEUs) and/or professional development hours (PDHs) by participating in ASCE’s continuing education programs. ASCE hosts more than 15 annual and specialty conferences, over 200 continuing education seminars and more than 300 live web seminars. [16] Meetings include "...committees, task forces, focus groups, workshops and seminars designed to bring together civil engineering experts either from specific fields or those with a broad range of experience and skills. These meetings deal with specific topics and issues facing civil engineers such as America’s failing infrastructure, sustainability, earthquakes, and bridge collapses." [16]

Engineering programs

The engineering programs division directly advances the science of engineering by delivering technical content for ASCE’s publications, conferences and continuing education programs. It consists of eight discipline specific institutes, four technical divisions and six technical councils. The work is accomplished by over 600 technical committees with editorial responsibility for 28 of ASCE's 33 journals. On an annual basis, the division conducts more than twelve congresses and specialty conferences. [16] As a founding society of ANSI and accredited standards development organization, ASCE committees use an established and audited process to produce consensus standards under a program supervised by the Society’s Codes and Standards Committee. [18]

Civil Engineering Certification Inc. (CEC), affiliated with ASCE, has been established to support specialty certification academies for civil engineering specialties and is accredited by the Council of Engineering and Scientific Specialty Boards (CESB). CEC also handles safety certification for state, municipal, and federal buildings, formerly the province of the now-defunct Building Security Council. The Committee on Critical Infrastructure (CCI) provides vision and guidance on ASCE activities related to critical infrastructure resilience, including planning, design, construction, O&M, and event mitigation, response and recovery.

Certification is the recognition of attaining advanced knowledge and skills in a specialty area of civil engineering. ASCE offers certifications for engineers who demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in their area of engineering.

Institutes

ASCE also has nine full-service institutes created to serve working professionals working within specialized fields of civil engineering: [19]

Advocacy

To advance its policy mission, ASCE "...identifies legislation to improve the nation's infrastructure, and advance the profession of engineering specifically, ASCE lobbied on legislation at the Federal, State and local levels. [16] In 2015, ASCE's Lobbying at the Federal level was focused primarily upon: [16]

Lobbying at the state and local level focused primarily upon licensure of civil engineers, procurement of engineering services, continuing education, and the financing of infrastructure improvements as well as lobbying at the state level to raise the minimum requirements for licensure as a professional engineer as part of ASCE's Raise the Bar (RTB) and Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge (CEBoK) initiatives. [16]

For 2018, ASCE identified Federal advocacy priorities as follows: [21]

The State advocacy priorities in 2018 are as follows: [21]

Strategic issues and initiatives

To promote the Society's objectives and address key issues facing the civil engineering profession, ASCE developed three strategic initiatives: Sustainable Infrastructure, the ASCE Grand Challenge, and Raise the Bar. [22]

Policy statements

ASCE developed policy statements on major technical, professional and educational issues of interest to the civil engineering community and the nation in the following areas: [23]

Awards and designations

ASCE Historical Marker at Philadelphia City Hall. PhilaCityHall 03.JPG
ASCE Historical Marker at Philadelphia City Hall.

ASCE honors civil engineers through many Society Awards including the Norman medal (1874), Wellington prize (1921), Huber Civil Engineering Research Prize, the Outstanding Projects and Leaders (OPAL) awards in the categories of construction, design, education, government and management, [32] the Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement (OCEA) for projects, the Henry L. Michel Award for Industry Advancement of Research and the Charles Pankow Award for innovation, 12 scholarships and fellowships for student members. Created in 1968 by ASCE's Sanitary Engineering Division, the Wesley W. Horner award is named after former ASCE President Wesley W. Horner, and given to a recently peer reviewed published paper in the fields of hydrology, urban drainage, or sewerage. Special consideration is given to private practice engineering work that is recognized as a valuable contribution to the field of environmental engineering. [33] The Lifetime Achievement Award has been presented annually since 1999 and recognizes five different individual leaders. One award is present in each category of design, construction, government, education, and management. [34]

Walter L. Huber Civil Engineering Research Prize

In July 1946, the Board of Direction authorized annual awards on recommendation by the Society’s Committee on Research to stimulate research in civil engineering. In October 1964, Mrs. Alberta Reed Huber endowed these prizes in honor of her husband, Walter L. Huber, Past President, ASCE. [35] The Huber Prize is considered the highest level mid-career research prize in civil engineering and is awarded for outstanding achievements and contributions in research with respect to all disciplines of civil engineering.

LTPP International Data Analysis Contest Award

The LTPP International Data Analysis Contest is an annual data analysis contest held by the ASCE in collaboration with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The participants are supposed to use the LTPP data. [36]

ASCE Foundation

The ASCE Foundation is a charitable foundation established in 1994 to support and promote civil engineering programs that "... enhance quality of life, promote the profession, advance technical practices, and prepare civil engineers for tomorrow." It is incorporated separately from the ASCE, although it has a close relationship to it and all the Foundation's personnel are employees of ASCE. [16] The Foundation Board of Directors has seven persons and its bylaws require that four of the seven directors must be ASCE officers as well and the ASCE executive director and Chief financial officer must also be ASCE employees. [16] The Foundation's support is most often to ASCE's charitable, educational and scientific programs. [16] The Foundation's largest program is supporting three strategic areas; lifelong learning and leadership, advocacy for infrastructure investment and the role of civil engineers in sustainable practices. [16] In 2014, this foundation's support in these areas was almost US$4 million. [16]

Criticisms and historical controversies

Controversies in New Orleans levee investigations

Press release of expert review panel 2007

ASCE provides peer reviews at the request of public agencies and projects as a "means to improve the management and quality of [public agency] services and thus better protect the public health and safety with which they are entrusted". [37] [38] After the 2005 levee failures in Greater New Orleans, the commander of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Lt Gen Carl Strock P.E., M.ASCE) requested that ASCE create an expert review panel to peer review the Corps-sponsored Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force, the body commissioned by the Corps to assess the performance of the hurricane protection system in metro New Orleans. Lawrence Roth, Deputy Executive Director of the ASCE led the ERP development, served as the panel's chief of staff and facilitated its interaction with IPET. [39] The expert panel´s role was to provide an independent technical review of the IPET's activities and findings, as stated at a National Research Council meeting in New Orleans: "an independent review panel ensure[s] that the outcome is a robust, credible and defensible performance evaluation". [40] On February 12, 2007 Lt. Gen Strock gave all expert review panel members an Outstanding Civilian Service Medals. [39]

On June 1, 2007, the ASCE issued its expert review panel report, [41] and an accompanying press release. [42] The press release was considered controversial because it contained information not present in the report, conflicting with the report, and minimized the Army Corps' involvement in the catastrophe: "Even without breaching, Hurricane Katrina’s rainfall and surge overtopping would have caused extensive and severe flooding—and the worst loss of life and property loss ever experienced in New Orleans." The report stated that had levees and pump stations not failed, "far less property loss would have occurred and nearly two-thirds of deaths could have been avoided." [41] :39 The ASCE administration was criticized by the Times-Picayune for an attempt to minimize and understate the role of the Army Corps in the flooding. [43]

Ethics complaint

In October 2007, Raymond Seed, a University of California-Berkeley civil engineering professor and ASCE member submitted a 42-page ethics complaint to the ASCE alleging that the Corps of Engineers with ASCE´s help sought to minimize the Corps' mistakes in the flooding, intimidate anyone who tried to intervene, and delay the final results until the public's attention had turned elsewhere. [44] The Corps acknowledged receiving a copy of the letter and refused to comment until the ASCE's Committee on Professional Conduct (CPC) had commented on the complaint. [45] It took over a year for the ASCE to announce the results of the CPC. [46] The ASCE self-study panel did not file charges of ethical misconduct and blamed errors on "staff" and not review panel members having created the June press release." [47]

Review panels to examine alleged ethics breaches

On November 14, 2007, ASCE announced that U.S. Congressman Sherwood Boehlert, R‑N.Y. (ret), would lead an independent task force of outside experts to review how ASCE participated in engineering studies of national significance. [48] ASCE President David Mongan said the review was to address criticism of ASCE´s role in assisting the Army Corps of Engineers-sponsored investigation of Katrina failures. Mongan assured citizens of metro New Orleans in a letter to the Times Picayune , that ASCE took "this matter very seriously and that appropriate actions are being taken". [49]

The panel recommended in results released on September 12, 2008, that ASCE should immediately take steps to remove the potential for conflict of interest in its participation in post-disaster engineering studies. [50] The most important recommendations were that peer review funds over $1 million should come from a separate source, like the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), that ASCE should facilitate but not control the assessment teams, and that information to the public and press should be disseminated not under the extremely tight controls that Ray Seed and his team experienced. It concluded that ASCE should draw up an ethics policy to eliminate questions of possible conflicts of interest. [50]

On April 6, 2009, an internal probe with the ASCE issued a report that ordered a retraction of the ASCE's June 1, 2007 press release. [47] The panel determined that the press release had "inadvertently conveyed a misleading impression regarding the role of engineering failures in the devastation of New Orleans", that it incorrectly said that surge levels along Mississippi's coastline were higher than water levels caused by a tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004, and that it had incorrectly repeated estimates of deaths and property damage in New Orleans that might have occurred if levees and floodwalls hadn't been breached.

Grassroots group spoof of ASCE - USACE relationship

On November 5, 2007, New Orleans-based grassroots group Levees.org led by Sandy Rosenthal criticized the ASCE's close relationship with the United States Army Corps of Engineers in a spoof online public service announcement. [51] On November 12, 2007, the ASCE asked Levees.org to remove the video from the internet, threatening the organization with legal action if it did not comply. [52] On November 13, the Times-Picayune posted the video on its website. [53] Flanked by lawyers with Adams and Reese in the presence of extensive media coverage, the group ignored the threat and posted the video to YouTube citing Louisiana's Anti-SLAPP statute, a "strategic lawsuit against public participation", which allows courts to weed out lawsuits designed to chill public participation on matters of public significance. [54] In a response for comment, ASCE President Mongan replied, "Since the video has already been widely reposted by other organizations, moving forward, we feel our time and expertise are best utilized working to help protect the residents of New Orleans from future storms and flooding." [54]

USACE grant money for disinformation, 2008

In March 2008, Levees.org announced that records obtained under the Freedom of Information Act revealed that as early October 2005, the Army Corps of Engineers had directed and later paid the ASCE more than $1.1 million for its peer review (Grant Number: W912HZ-06-1-0001). The grant also paid for a series of misleading ASCE presentations attempting to shift blame away from the corps and onto local levee officials. [55] Members of the ASCE are forbidden from making false or exaggerated statements and also from making statements for an interested party unless this is disclosed. Levees.org claimed the records showed how the external peer review would be done in four phases: Phase 1 was research and analysis on the performance of the levees, floodwalls and other important structures. Phase 2 was provision of information on the current system to prevent future flooding. Phase 3 was provision of information to evaluate alternative approaches to flood protection. Phase 4 was transfer information and knowledge gained to a broader audience within Corps and its consultancy community to communicate lessons learned. The group claimed that these records [56] were proof that ASCE´s routine powerpoint presentation from 2007 and 2008 were a public relations campaign to repair the corps' reputation. [57] ASCE officials responded that ASCE paid for the powerpoint presentations itself and had not used USACE grant money for that purpose.

See also

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There are three outfall canals in New Orleans, Louisiana – the 17th Street, Orleans Avenue and London Avenue canals. These canals are a critical element of New Orleans’ flood control system, serving as drainage conduits for much of the city. There are 13 miles (21 km) of levees and floodwalls that line the sides of the canals. The 17th Street Canal is the largest and most important drainage canal and is capable of conveying more water than the Orleans Avenue and London Avenue Canals combined.

Hurricane & Storm Damage Risk Reduction System

The greater New Orleans Hurricane & Storm Damage Risk Reduction System (HSDRRS) is an infrastructure systems in southern Louisiana which seeks to provide the greater New Orleans area a 100-year level of risk reduction, meaning reduced risk from a storm surge that has a 1% chance of occurring or being exceeded in any given year. In 2019, the Army Corps of Engineers announced that due to increased rate of sea level rise and continued sinking of soil the levee system would no longer offer original planned levels of protection as early as the year 2023.

This article delineates the relationship between infrastructure and various economic issues.

The Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure (ISI) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by the American Public Works Association (APWA), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), and the American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC) in 2010, and operates under their oversight. The organization was created to develop and maintain a sustainability rating system for all civil infrastructure.

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