Taipei 101 Tower in August 2007
|Alternative names||Taipei Financial Center|
|Tallest in the world from 2004 to 2010 [I]|
|Preceded by||Petronas Towers|
|Surpassed by||Burj Khalifa|
|Location|| Xinyi Special District, Xinyi District |
|Opening||31 December 2004|
|Cost|| NT$ 58 billion|
|Owner||Taipei Financial Center Corporation|
|Management||Urban Retail Properties|
|Architectural||509.2 m (1,671 ft)|
|Tip||509.2 m (1,671 ft)|
|Roof||449.2 m (1,474 ft)|
|Top floor||439.2 m (1,441 ft)|
|Observatory||391.8 m (1,285 ft)|
5 below ground/basements
|Floor area||412,500 m2 (4,440,100 sq ft)|
|Lifts/elevators||61 Toshiba/KONE elevators, including double-deck shuttles and 2 high speed observatory elevators|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||C.Y. Lee & Partners|
|Main contractor||KTRT Joint Venture|
|Literal meaning||"Tai[wan] North 101"|
|Taipei World Financial Center|
Taipei 101, sometimes stylized TAIPEI 101 – is a landmark supertall skyscraper in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan. The building was officially classified as the world's tallest from its opening in 2004 until the 2010 completion of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Its elevators, capable of 60.6 km/h (37.7 mph) used to transport passengers from the 5th to 89th floor in 37 seconds, set new records. In 2011 Taipei 101 received a Platinum rating under the LEED certification system to become the tallest and largest green building in the world. The structure regularly appears as an icon of Taipei in international media, and its fireworks displays are a regular feature of New Year's Eve broadcasts., formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately 150 m (492 ft). Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s. The definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host commercial offices or residential space, or both. For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term supertall skyscrapers can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as megatall Skyscraper.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan. Located in the northern part of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City that sits about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located in the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed. The basin is bounded by the relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.
The Burj Khalifa, known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. With a total height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft) and a roof height of 828 m (2,717 ft), the Burj Khalifa has been the tallest structure and building in the world since its topping out in 2009.
Taipei 101's postmodernist architectural style evokes Asian traditions in a modern structure employing industrial materials. Its design incorporates a number of features that enable the structure to withstand the Pacific Rim's earthquakes and the region's tropical storms. The tower houses offices and restaurants as well as both indoor and outdoor observatories. The tower is adjoined by a multi-level shopping mall that claims the world's largest ruyi symbol as an exterior feature.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism, marking a departure from modernism. The term has been more generally applied to the historical era following modernity and the tendencies of this era.
The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Basin includes the Pacific Rim and the islands in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Rim roughly overlaps with the geologic Pacific Ring of Fire.
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Historically, observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant or Stonehenge.
Taipei 101 is owned by Taipei Financial Center Corporation. The skyscraper opened on 31 December 2004.
The Taipei Financial Center Corporation is a Taiwanese company notable for its ownership of Taipei 101.
Taipei 101 comprises 101 floors above ground, as well as 5 basement levels. It was not only the first building in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height, As of 18 April 2019 [update] , it is still the world's largest and highest-use green building.but also the world's tallest building from 31 March 2004 to 10 March 2010.
Upon its completion, Taipei 101 was the world's tallest inhabited building, at 509.2 m (1,671 ft) as measured to its height architectural top (spire), exceeding the Petronas Towers, which were previously the tallest inhabited skyscraper at 451.9 m (1,483 ft). The height to the top of the roof, at 449.2 m (1,474 ft), and highest occupied floor, at 439.2 m (1,441 ft), surpassed the previous records of 442 m (1,450 ft) and 412.4 m (1,353 ft), respectively; the Willis Tower had previously held that distinction. It also surpassed the 85-story, 347.5 m (1,140 ft) Tuntex Sky Tower in Kaohsiung as the tallest building in Taiwan and the 51-story, 244.15 m (801 ft) Shin Kong Life Tower as the tallest building in Taipei. Taipei 101 claimed the official records for the world's tallest sundial and the world's largest New Year's Eve countdown clock.
A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, often a skyscraper or a church tower, similar to a steep tented roof. Etymologically, the word is derived from the Old English word spir, meaning a sprout, shoot, or stalk of grass.
The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers, are twin skyscrapers. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.
The Willis Tower, built as and still commonly referred to as the Sears Tower, is a 110-story, 1,450-foot (442.1 m) skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. At completion in 1973, it surpassed the World Trade Center in New York to become the tallest building in the world, a title it held for nearly 25 years; it remained the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere until the completion of a new building at the rebuilt World Trade Center site in 2014. Willis Tower is considered a seminal achievement for architect Fazlur Rahman Khan. It is currently the second-tallest building in the United States and the Western hemisphere – and the 16th-tallest in the world. More than one million people visit its observation deck each year, making it one of Chicago's most popular tourist destinations. The structure was renamed in 2009 by the Willis Group as a term of its lease.
Various sources, including the building's owners, give the height of Taipei 101 as 508 m (1,667 ft), roof height and top floor height as 448 m (1,470 ft) and 438 m (1,437 ft). This lower figure is derived by measuring from the top of a 1.2 m (4 ft) platform at the base. CTBUH standards, though, include the height of the platform in calculating the overall height, as it represents part of the man-made structure and is above the level of the surrounding pavement. Taipei 101 displaced the Petronas Towers as the tallest building in the world by 57.3 m (188 ft). The record it claimed for greatest height from ground to pinnacle was surpassed by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, which is 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in height. Taipei 101's records for roof height and highest occupied floor briefly passed to the Shanghai World Financial Center in 2008, which in turn yielded these records as well to the Burj.
A pinnacle is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. The pinnacle looks like a small spire. It was mainly used in Gothic architecture.
The Shanghai World Financial Center is a supertall skyscraper located in the Pudong district of Shanghai. It was designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and developed by the Mori Building Company, with Leslie E. Robertson Associates as its structural engineer and China State Construction Engineering Corp and Shanghai Construction (Group) General Co. as its main contractor. It is a mixed-use skyscraper, consisting of offices, hotels, conference rooms, observation decks, and ground-floor shopping malls. Park Hyatt Shanghai is the tower's hotel component, comprising 174 rooms and suites occupying the 79th to the 93rd floors, which at the time of completion was the highest hotel in the world. It is now the third-highest hotel in the world after the Ritz-Carlton, Hong Kong, which occupies floors 102 to 118 of the International Commerce Centre.
Taipei 101 is designed to withstand the typhoon winds and earthquake tremors that are common in the area east of Taiwan. Evergreen Consulting Engineering, the structural engineer, designed Taipei 101 to withstand gale winds of 60 metres per second (197 ft/s), (216 km/h or 134 mph), as well as the strongest earthquakes in a 2,500-year cycle.
Taipei 101 was designed to be flexible as well as structurally resistant, because while flexibility prevents structural damage, resistance ensures comfort for the occupants and for the protection of glass, curtain walls, and other features. 660 ft (200 m) away from a major fault line —Taipei 101 used high-performance steel construction and 36 columns, including eight "mega-columns" packed with 10,000 psi (69 MPa) concrete. Outrigger trusses, located at eight-floor intervals, connect the columns in the building's core to those on the exterior.Most designs achieve the necessary strength by enlarging critical structural elements such as bracing. Because of the height of Taipei 101, combined with the surrounding area's geology—the building is located just
These features, combined with the solidity of its foundation, made Taipei 101 one of the most stable buildings ever constructed.[ citation needed ] The foundation is reinforced by 380 piles driven 80 m (262 ft) into the ground, extending as far as 30 m (98 ft) into the bedrock. Each pile is 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter and can bear a load of 1,000–1,320 tonne s (1,100–1,460 short ton s). During construction, on 31 March 2002, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake rocked Taipei; two construction cranes from the 56th floor, the highest floor at the time, toppled. Five people died in the accident, but an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction soon resumed.
RWDI designed a 660-tonne (728-short-ton) steel pendulum that serves as a tuned mass damper, at a cost of NT$132 million (US$4 million). Suspended from the 92nd to the 87th floor, the pendulum sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong gusts. Its sphere, the largest damper sphere in the world, consists of 41 circular steel plates of varying diameters, each 125 mm (4.92 in) thick, welded together to form a 5.5 m (18 ft) diameter sphere. Two additional tuned mass dampers, each weighing 6 tonnes (7 short tons), are installed at the tip of the spire which help prevent damage to the structure due to strong wind loads. On 8 August 2015, strong winds from Typhoon Soudelor swayed the main damper by 100 centimetres (39 in) – the largest movement ever recorded by the damper.
The damper has become such a popular tourist attraction, the city contracted Sanrio to create a mascot: the Damper Baby. Four versions of the Damper Baby: "Rich Gold", "Cool Black", "Smart Silver" and "Lucky Red" were designed and made into figurines and souvenirs sold in various Taipei 101 gift shops. Damper Baby, with its cute all-ages appeal, has become a popular local icon, with its own comic book and website.
Taipei 101's characteristic blue-green glass curtain walls are double paned and glazed, offer heat and UV protection sufficient to block external heat by 50 percent, and can sustain impacts of 7 tonnes (8 short tons). The façade system of glass and aluminum panels installed into an inclined moment-resisting lattices contributes to overall lateral rigidity by tying back to the mega-columns with one-story high trusses at every eighth floor. This façade system is therefore able to withstand up to 95 mm (4 in) of seismic lateral displacements without damage.
The original corners of the façade were tested at RWDI in Ontario. A simulation of a 100-year storm at RWDI revealed a vortex that formed during a 3-second 105 miles per hour (169 km/h) wind at a height of 10 meters, or equivalent to the lateral tower sway rate causing large crosswind oscillations. A double chamfered step design was found to dramatically reduce this crosswind oscillation, resulting in the final design's "double stairstep" corner façade. Architect C.Y. Lee also used extensive façade elements to represent the symbolic identity he pursued. These façade elements included the green tinted glass for the indigenous slender bamboo look, eight upper outwards inclined tiers of pagoda each with eight floors, a Ruyi and a money box symbol between the two façade sections among others.
Taipei 101's own roof and façade recycled water system meets 20 to 30 percent of the building's water needs. In July 2011, Taipei 101 was certified "the world's tallest green building" under LEED standards.
The height of 101 floors commemorates the renewal of time: the new century that arrived as the tower was built (100+1) and all the new years that follow (1 January = 1-01). It symbolises high ideals by going one better on 100, a traditional number of perfection. The number also evokes the binary numeral system used in digital technology.
The main tower features a series of eight segments of eight floors each. In Chinese-speaking cultures the number eight is associated with abundance, prosperity and good fortune.
The repeated segments simultaneously recall the rhythms of an Asian pagoda (a tower linking earth and sky, also evoked in the Petronas Towers), a stalk of bamboo (an icon of learning and growth), and a stack of ancient Chinese ingots or money boxes (a symbol of abundance). Popular humor sometimes likens the building's shape to a stack of take-out boxes as used in Western-style Chinese food; of course, the stackable shape of such boxes is likewise derived from that of ancient money boxes.The four discs mounted on each face of the building where the pedestal meets the tower represent coins. The emblem placed over entrances shows three gold coins of ancient design with central holes shaped to imply the Arabic numerals 1-0-1. The structure incorporates many shapes of squares and circles to reach a balance between yin and yang.
Curled ruyi figures appear throughout the structure as a design motif. Though the shape of each ruyi at Taipei 101 is traditional, its rendering in industrial metal is plainly modern. The ruyi is a talisman of ancient origin associated in art with Heavenly clouds. It connotes healing, protection and fulfillment. It appears in celebrations of the attainment of new career heights. 8 m (26 ft) tall.The sweeping curved roof of the adjoining mall culminates in a colossal ruyi that shades pedestrians. Each ruyi ornament on the exterior of the Taipei 101 tower stands at least
At night the bright yellow gleam from its pinnacle casts Taipei 101 in the role of a candle or torch upholding the ideals of liberty and welcome. From 6:00 to 10:00 each eveningthe tower's lights display one of seven colors in the spectrum. The colors coincide with the days of the week:
The adjoining Taipei 101 on the east side connects the landmark further with the symbolism of time. The design of the circular park doubles as the face of a giant sundial. The tower itself casts the shadow to mark afternoon hours for the building's occupants. The park's design is echoed in a clock that stands at its entrance. The clock runs on energy drawn from the building's wind shear.
Taipei 101, like many of its neighbours, shows the influence of feng shui philosophy. An example appears in the form of a large granite fountain at the intersection of Songlian Road and Xinyi Road near the tower's east entrance.A ball at the fountain's top spins toward the tower. As a work of public art the fountain offers a contrast to the tower in texture even as its design echoes the tower's rhythms. The fountain also serves a practical function in feng shui philosophy. A T intersection near the entrance of a building represents a potential drain of positive energy, or ch'i , from a structure and its occupants. Placing flowing water at such spots is thought to help redirect the flow of ch'i.
Taipei 101 is the first record-setting skyscraper to be constructed in the 21st century. It exhibits a number of technologically advanced features as it provides a center for business and recreation.
The original 2004 fiber-optic and satellite Internet connections permitted transfer speeds up to a gigabit per second.
The double-deck elevators built by the Japanese Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation (TELC) set a new record in 2004 with the fastest ascending speeds in the world. At 60.6 kilometres (37.7 mi) per hour, 16.83 m (55.22 ft) per second, or 1010 m/min, the speed of Taipei 101's elevators is 34.7 percent faster than the previous record holders of the Yokohama Landmark Tower elevator, Yokohama, Japan, which reaches speeds of 12.5 m (41 ft) per second (45.0 km/h, 28.0 mi/h). Taipei 101's elevators sweep visitors from the fifth floor to the 89th-floor observatory in only 37 seconds. Each elevator features an aerodynamic body, full pressurization, state-of-the art emergency braking systems, and the world's first triple-stage anti-overshooting system. The cost for each elevator is NT$80 million (US$2.4 million).
A 660-tonne (728-short-ton) tuned mass damper (TMD), located between the 87th and 91st floors, stabilizes the tower against movements caused by high winds. The damper can reduce up to 40 percent of the tower's movements. The TMD is visible to all visitors on the 87th through 91st floors.
Two restaurants have opened on the 85th floor: Diamond Tony's, which offers European-style seafood and steak, and Shin Yeh 101 (欣葉), which offers Taiwanese-style cuisine. Occupying all of the 86th floor is Taiwanese restaurant Ding Xian 101.Din Tai Fung, several international dining establishments and retail outlets also operate in the adjoining mall. The multi-story retail mall adjoining the tower is home to hundreds of fashionable stores, restaurants, clubs and other attractions. The mall's interior is modern in design even as it makes use of traditional elements. The curled ruyi symbol is a recurring motif inside the mall. Many features of the interior also observe feng shui traditions.
A tenant directory is posted in the first-floor lobby (from the Xinyi entrance).
The number 4 is considered an unlucky number in Chinese culture, [ citation needed ]so what would have been the 44th floor has been replaced by Level 43, with 42A replacing the actual 43 to compensate for the skipped floor number.
As of 1 January 2011, the highest occupied office floor (excluding the observatory and restaurants) was 75. The building appears to be at least 70 percent occupied at this point.
There is a freight elevator that stops at every level from B5 to 91, with a button for every floor.[ citation needed ]
The 92nd through 100th floors are officially designated as communication floors, although it's unknown if there are any radio or TV stations currently broadcasting from the top of Taipei 101. The 91st-floor observatory is the highest floor that is open to the public, but unlike the leased/private floors from 7~90F, there is no sign of even a visible access point to the topmost floors on Level 91. The top 10 floors are to have stated on their website to contain a radio and television relay station, Emergency system receiving/signaling relay station, telecommunications stations, and an outdoor antenna frame on 96F, which offers power, fire protection, telecom systems, and security related systems, according to their website.[ citation needed ]
The 101st floor is home to a private VIP club named Summit 101, according to the observatory brochure. Before 2014, no information about this club was ever made public. million in purchases) had been invited to the VIP club.In 2014, photos of the exclusive club were shown on TV for the first time. A Taipei Financial Center Corporation spokesman said that only foreign dignitaries, Hollywood film actors, and high spenders in the Taipei 101 Mall (over NT $1
Access to the 101st floor requires two elevator transfers on the 89th and 93rd floors, respectively. There is only one service elevator that facilitates access to the top nine floors (93–101). The 101st floor is divided into three levels: 101F (lower), 101MF (mezzanine) and 101RF (roof). The VIP club exists on the lower level, while 101RF, a mechanical floor, provides access to the 60-metre tall spire, which has 24 levels (numbered R1 through R24) that can only be accessed via ladder.[ citation needed ]
Taipei 101 includes two high-speed observatory elevators manufactured by Toshiba. Their highest speed is 1,010 meters per minute (about 60.6 kilometers per hour). It only takes 37 seconds to travel from the 5th floor to the 89th floor of the skyscraper. In 2016, the title for the fastest elevator was given to the Shanghai Tower in Shanghai.Shortly after, the title for the world's fastest lift was passed on yet again to the Guangzhou Finance Centre.
|101st floor||Summit 101 (Private VIP Club)|
|92nd – 100th floor||Communication|
|91st floor||Outdoor Observatory Deck|
|88th – 89th floor||Indoor Observatory Deck|
|85th – 86th floor||Observatory Restaurant|
|59th – 84th floor||High Zone Office|
|59th – 60th floor||Sky lobbies|
|35th – 58th floor||Mid Zone Office|
|36th floor||Taipei 101 Conference Center|
|35th – 36th floor||Sky lobbies|
|9th – 34th floor||Low Zone Office|
|B1 – 5th floor||Taipei 101 Mall|
|B5 – B2||Parking Levels|
Taipei 101 features an Indoor Observation deck (88th and 89th floor) and an Outdoor Observation deck (91st floor). Both offer 360-degree views and attract visitors from around the world. The Indoor Observatory stands 383.4 m (1,258 ft) above ground, offering a comfortable environment, large windows with UV protection, recorded voice tours in eight languages, and informative displays and special exhibits. Here one may view the skyscraper's main damper, which is the world's largest and heaviest visible damper, and buy food, drinks and gift items. Two more flights of stairs take visitors up to the Outdoor Observatory. The Outdoor Observatory, at 391.8 m (1,285 ft) above ground, is the second-highest observation deck ever provided in a skyscraper and the highest such platform in Taiwan.
The Indoor Observatory is open thirteen hours a day (9:00 am–10:00 pm) throughout the week as well as on special occasions; the Outdoor Observatory is open during the same hours as weather permits. Tickets may be purchased on site in the shopping mall (5th floor) or in advance through the Observatory's website. Tickets cost NT$600 (US$19.42, as of 20 October 2018) and allow access to the 88th through 91st floors via high-speed elevator.
Many works of art appear in and around Taipei 101. These include: German artist Rebecca Horn's Dialogue between Yin and Yang in 2002 (steel, iron), American artist Robert Indiana's 1-0 in 2002 and Love in 2003 (aluminum), French artist Ariel Moscovici's Between Earth and Sky in 2002 (rose de la claret granite), Taiwanese artist Chung Pu's Global Circle In 2002 (black granite, white marble), British artist Jill Watson's City Composition in 2002 (Bronze), and Taiwanese artist Kang Mu Hsiang's Infinite Life in 2013 (aluminum).Moreover, the Indoor Observatory hosts a regular series of exhibitions. The artists represented have included Wu Ching (gold sculpture), Ping-huang Chang (traditional painting) and Po-lin Chi (aerial photography).
Planning for Taipei 101 began in July 1997during Chen Shui-bian's term as Taipei mayor. Talks between merchants and city government officials initially centered on a proposal for a 66-story tower to serve as an anchor for new development in Taipei's 101 business district. Planners were considering taking the new structure to a more ambitious height only after an expat suggested it, along with many of the other features used in the design of the building. It wasn't until the summer of 2001 that the city granted a license for the construction of a 101-story tower on the site. In the meantime, construction proceeded and the first tower column was erected in the summer of 2000.
A major earthquake took place in Taiwan during 31 March 2002 destroying a construction crane at the rooftop, which was at floor number 47. The crane fell down onto the Xinyi Road beneath the tower, crushing several vehicles and causing five deaths – two crane operators and three workers who were not properly harnessed. However, an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction work was able to restart within a week.
Taipei 101's roof was completed three years later on 1 July 2003. Ma Ying-jeou, in his first term as Taipei mayor, fastened a golden bolt to signify the achievement.The formal opening of the tower took place on New Year's Eve 2004. President Chen Shui-bian, Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou and Legislative Speaker Wang Jin-pyng cut the ribbon. Open-air concerts featured a number of popular performers, including singers A-Mei and Stefanie Sun. Visitors rode the elevators to the Observatory for the first time. A few hours later the first fireworks show at Taipei 101 heralded the arrival of a new year.
Important dates in the planning and construction of Taipei 101 include the following:
|20 October 1997||Development and operation rights agreement signed with Taipei City government.|
|13 January 1999||Ground-breaking ceremony.|
|7 June 2000||First tower column erected.|
|13 April 2001||Design change to 509.2 m height approved by Taipei City government.|
|13 June 2001||Taipei 101 Mall topped out.|
|10 August 2001||Construction license awarded for 101 stories.|
|31 March 2002||Partially constructed building survives 6.8 magnitude earthquake undamaged.|
|13 May 2003||Taipei 101 Mall obtains occupancy permit.|
|1 July 2003||Taipei 101 Tower roof completed.|
|17 October 2003||Pinnacle placed.|
|14 November 2003||Taipei 101 Mall opens.|
|15 April 2004||Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) certifies Taipei 101 as world's tallest building.|
|12 November 2004||Tower obtains occupancy permit.|
|31 December 2004||Tower opens to the public.|
|1 January 2005||First New Year fireworks show begins at midnight.|
Taipei 101 is the site of many special events. Art exhibits, as noted above, regularly take place in the Observatory. A few noteworthy dates since the tower's opening include these.
On 28 February 2005, Former President of the United States Bill Clinton visited and signed copies of his autobiography.On 19 April 2005, the tower displayed the formula "E=mc2" in lights to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Einstein's theory of relativity. The display, the largest of 65,000 such displays in 47 countries, was part of the international celebration Physics Enlightens the World. On 20 October 2006, the tower displayed a pink ribbon in lights to promote breast cancer awareness. The ten-day campaign was sponsored by Taipei 101's ownership and Estée Lauder.
On 25 December 2004, French rock and urban climber Alain Robert made an authorized climb to the top of the pinnacle in four hours.On 12 December 2007, Austrian base jumper Felix Baumgartner survived an unauthorized parachute jump from the 91st floor. On 20 November 2005, the First annual Taipei 101 Run Up featured a race up the 2,046 steps from floors 1 to 91. Proceeds were to benefit Taiwan's Olympic teams. The men's race was won by Paul Crake of Australia (10 minutes, 29 seconds), and the women's race by Andrea Mayr of Austria (12 minutes, 38 seconds). On 15 June 2008, Taipei 101 Run Up featured 2,500 participants. The men's race was won by Thomas Dold of Germany (10 minutes, 53 seconds); 2007 champion Marco De Gasperi of Italy finished second and Chen Fu-tsai of Taiwan finished third. The women's race was won by Lee Hsiao-yu of Taiwan (14 minutes, 53 seconds). On 6 December 2014, Japanese idol group HKT48 held a small concert on the 91st floor observatory as the premiere of their tour in Taiwan.
The New Year's Eve show in Taipei is hosted at the Taipei City Hall, which also provides a view of Taipei 101 which is lit up with fireworks. Another popular location for crowds to gather to see the fireworks display is the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall. For the first three years (2004–2006), the annual fireworks show at Taipei 101 was preceded by the sequential display of numerals in lights on each section to count down the last eight seconds to midnight. Since 2007 the building has been completely darkened, then fireworks begin to launch sequentially from the lower to upper sections.
The Taipei Financial Center Corporation (TFCC) announced plans on 2 November 2009 to make Taipei 101 "the world's tallest green building" by summer of 2011 as measured by LEED standards. The structure is already designed to be energy-efficient, with double-pane windows blocking external heat by 50 percent and recycled water meeting 20–30 percent of the building's needs. LEED certification would entail inspections and upgrades in wiring, water and lighting equipment at a cost of NT$60 million (US$1.8 million). Estimates show the savings resulting from the modifications would pay for the cost of making them within three years. The project was carried out under the guidance of an international team composed of Siemens Building Technologies, architect and interior designer Steven Leach Group and the LEED advisory firm EcoTech International. The company applied for a platinum-degree certification with LEED in early 2011. On 28 July 2011, Taipei 101 received LEED platinum certification under "Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance". It displaced the Bank of America Tower in Manhattan as the world's tallest and highest-use green building in addition to the Environmental Protection Agency building in Florida as the world's largest green building. Although the project cost NT$60 million (US$2.08 million), it is expected to save 14.4 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, or an 18 percent energy-saving, equivalent to NT$36 million (US$1.2 million) in energy costs each year. In 2012, the shopping center at the base is expected to be remodeled.
The Jin Mao Tower, also known as the Jinmao Building or Jinmao Tower, is an 88-story landmark skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai, China. It is 420.5 metres tall and is one of the tallest buildings in the world. It contains a shopping mall, offices and the Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel, which at the time of completion was the highest hotel in the world. Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Shanghai Tower it is part of the Lujiazui skyline seen from the Bund. It was the tallest building in China from its completion in 1999 until 2007, when it was surpassed by the Shanghai World Financial Center which is located close by. The Shanghai Tower, a 121-story building located next to these two buildings, surpassed the height of both these buildings in 2015, creating the world's first trio of adjacent supertall skyscrapers.
85 Sky Tower, formerly known as the T & C Tower or Tuntex Sky Tower, is an 85-story skyscraper located in Lingya District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The structure is 347.5 m (1,140 ft) high. An antenna increases the pinnacle height to 378 m (1,240 ft). Constructed from 1994 to 1997, it is the tallest skyscraper in Kaohsiung, and was the tallest in Taiwan until the completion of Taipei 101 in 2004.
The Yokohama Landmark Tower is the second tallest building and 4th tallest structure in Japan, standing 296.3 m (972 ft) high. It is located in the Minato Mirai 21 district of Yokohama city, right next to Yokohama Museum of Art. Work on the building was finished in 1993. When built, it was the tallest building in Japan until it was surpassed by Abeno Harukas in 2012. When opened, it had the highest observation deck in Japan.
A mechanical floor, mechanical penthouse, mechanical layer or mechanical level is a story of a high-rise building that is dedicated to mechanical and electronics equipment. "Mechanical" is the most commonly used term, but words such as utility, technical, service, and plant are also used. They are present in all tall buildings including the world's tallest skyscrapers with significant structural, mechanical and aesthetics concerns.
The Mile High Illinois, Illinois Sky-City, or simply The Illinois was a proposed skyscraper that is over 1 mile (1,600 m) high, conceived and described by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright in his 1957 book, A Testament. The design, intended to be built in Chicago, included 528 stories, with a gross area of 18,460,000 square feet (1,715,000 m2). Wright stated that there would have been parking for 15,000 cars and 100 helicopters.
Shin Kong Life Tower is one of Taiwan's earliest skyscrapers at 51 storeys 245 metres (803.8 ft). The rose-coloured tower topped by a pyramid stands in Zhongzheng District, Taipei, and dates from 1993. Its first twelve floors and two underground floors house a Shin Kong Mitsukoshi Department Store; the remaining floors provide office space and serve as headquarters for the Shin Kong Life insurance company. The building stands across Zhongxiao Road from Taipei Main Station near the Asiaworld Department Store.
The Shanghai Tower is a 632-metre (2,073 ft), 128-story megatall skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai. It shares the record of having the world's highest observation deck within a building or structure at 562 m, and the world's second-fastest elevators at a top speed of 20.5 metres per second. It is the world's second-tallest building by height to architectural top. However, the title of the world's fastest elevator now belongs to the Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre, with a top speed of 21 metres per second achieved in 2017. Designed by international design firm Gensler and owned by the Shanghai city government, it is the tallest of the world's first triple-adjacent supertall buildings in Pudong, the other two being the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Centre. Its tiered construction, designed for high energy efficiency, provides nine separate zones divided between office, retail and leisure use.
The tallest building in the world, as of 2019, is Burj Khalifa. The title of "world's tallest building" has been borne by various buildings, such as the Rouen Cathedral and the Empire State Building.
Lotte World Tower (Hangul: 롯데월드타워) is a 123-floor, 555-metre (1,821 ft) supertall skyscraper located in Seoul, South Korea. It opened to the public on April 11, 2017 and is currently the tallest building in South Korea, and is the 5th tallest building in the world.
The Taipei Twin Towers is a supertall skyscraper development in Taipei, Taiwan. It includes two skyscrapers, the taller is 337 metres (1,106 ft) with 76 floors and the shorter is 280 metres (919 ft) with 56 floors. It's near Taipei Station, Shin Kong Life Tower and Taipei Bus Station. When the complex is complete, it will be the 2nd tallest building in Taipei and 3rd tallest in Taiwan after Taipei 101 and Kaohsiung's 85 Sky Tower. It is estimated to cost NT$12 billion. The two buildings were initially expected to open in 2016 and 2017, respectively;however, the project was delayed in 2015 due to a series of complication in the bidding process, which has restarted in 2018.
Gevora Hotel is a 1,168 ft (356 m) tall hotel along Sheikh Zayed Road in the city Dubai. That height has given the skyscraper the title of tallest hotel building according to Guinness World Records. The four-star Gevora Hotel opened its doors in February 2018 after a construction period of twelve years. It offers a total of 528 rooms spread over its 75 floors and a number of facilities including restaurants and a pool on top of its parking garage building.
Landmark 81 is a super-tall skyscraper in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that was designed by the British design, engineering and consulting firm Atkins. The investor and primary developer for the project is Vinhomes, a Vietnamese corporation that is also the country's largest real-estate company. Landmark 81 is the tallest building in Vietnam, the tallest completed building in Southeast Asia as of July, 2018 and the 14th tallest building in the world.
Taipei Nan Shan Plaza is a skyscraper in Xinyi Special District, Xinyi, Taipei, Taiwan. It is the second tallest building in Taipei and the third tallest building in Taiwan.
The Farglory Financial Center is a skyscraper located in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan. It is the eighth tallest building in Taiwan and the fourth tallest in Xinyi Special District(after Taipei 101,Taipei Nan Shan Plaza and Cathay Landmark). The height of building is 208 m, the floor area is 61,147.58m2, and it comprises 32 floors above ground, as well as 4 basement levels.
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451.9 m (1,483 ft)
| World's tallest building |
509.2 m (1,671 ft)
828 m (2,717 ft)
442 m (1,450 ft) & 412.4 m (1,353 ft)
| World's highest roof & highest occupied floor|
449.2 m (1,474 ft) & 439.2 m (1,441 ft)
Shanghai World Financial Center
492 m (1,614 ft) & 474 m (1,555 ft)
Yokohama Landmark Tower
12.5 m/s (41 ft/s) (45 km/h, 28 mi/h)
| World's fastest elevator|
16.83 m/s (55.22 ft/s) (60.6 km/h, 37.7 mi/h)
20.5 m/s (67.26 ft/s) (73.8 km/h, 45.9 mi/h)
Tuntex Sky Tower
347.5 m (1,140 ft)
| Tallest building in Taiwan |
509.2 m (1,671 ft)
Bank of America Tower
| World's tallest & highest-use green building|
(LEED platinum rating)
Environmental Protection Agency building
| World's largest green building|
(LEED platinum rating)
| World's largest & heaviest wind damper|
diameter 5.5 m (18 ft) & 660-tonne (728-short-ton)