Sky lobby

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The sky lobby in Central Plaza, Hong Kong Sky City Church Lounge.jpg
The sky lobby in Central Plaza, Hong Kong

A sky lobby is an intermediate interchange floor in a skyscraper where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building. When designing very tall (supertall) buildings, supplying enough elevators is a problem – travellers wanting to reach a specific higher floor may conceivably have to stop at a very large number of other floors on the way up to let other passengers off and on. This increases travel time, and indirectly requires many more elevator shafts to still allow acceptable travel times – thus reducing effective floor space on each floor for all levels. The other main technique to increase usage without adding more elevator shafts is double-deck elevators.

Skyscraper tall building

A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately 150 m (492 ft). Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s. The definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host commercial offices or residential space, or both. For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term supertall skyscrapers can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as megatall Skyscrapers.

Elevator Vertical transport device

An elevator or lift is a type of vertical transportation device that moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are typically powered by electric motors that drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, although some pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack.

Double-deck elevator

A double-deck elevator or double-deck lift is an elevator with two cabs attached together, one on top of the other. This allows passengers on two consecutive floors to be able to use the elevator simultaneously, significantly increasing the passenger capacity of an elevator shaft. Such a scheme can improve efficiency in buildings where the volume of traffic would normally have a single elevator stopping at every floor. For example, a passenger may board the lower deck on the concourse level while another passenger may board the upper deck on the ground floor. The cab serving even floors is actually on top of the cab serving odd floors in the same elevator shaft. When a passenger disembarks from the even-floor serving cab at level 30, for instance, the passengers in the odd-floor serving cab beneath it are kept waiting until the elevator doors above close.

Contents

Early uses of the sky lobby include the original Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and 875 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago. [1]

World Trade Center (1973–2001) complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

One World Trade Center (Manhattan)

One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in New York City. Like the original World Trade Center buildings it replaced, the new building has a sky lobby to balance the loads and convenience of individuals ascending via the elevators. The sky lobby is located on the 64th floor, and serves all passengers wishing to travel from the ground floor lobby to the 90th floor.[ clarification needed ] Each set of approximately 5-6 stories is served by one bank of elevators. The elevators from the ground floor to the 64th floor sky lobby are the fastest in the Western Hemisphere, traveling at the same speed as the elevators used for the nonstop One World Observatory service, which transports guests to the 100th floor in under one minute. [2]

One World Trade Center Main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City

One World Trade Center is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest in the world. The supertall structure has the same name as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bounded by West Street to the west, Vesey Street to the north, Fulton Street to the south, and Washington Street to the east.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

875 North Michigan Avenue (Chicago)

The John Hancock Center's sky lobby on the 44th floor serves only the residential portion of the building that occupies floors 45–92. Three express elevators run from the residential lobby on the ground floor to the 44th floor, with two of the elevators stopping at the parking garage's main level on floor 6. At floor 44, residents transfer to two banks of three elevators. One bank serves floors 45–65 and the other serves 65–92. Although all six elevators stop at floor 65, this floor is roughly the same layout as the residential floors immediately above and below it. It is not a sky lobby because residents can also board elevators to higher floors at floor 44.

John Hancock Center skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, United States

875 North Michigan Avenue, built as and still commonly referred to as the John Hancock Center, is a 100-story, 1,128-foot supertall skyscraper located in Chicago, Illinois. Located in the Magnificent Mile district, its name was changed to 875 North Michigan Avenue on February 12, 2018.

The tower's 44th floor sky lobby includes a pool, gym, dry cleaner, convenience store, about 700 mailboxes, two "party" rooms, a sitting area overlooking Lake Michigan, a small library, a refuse room (with trash chutes emptying here), offices for the managers of the residential condominium, [3] and a polling station for residents during elections.

A condominium, often shortened to condo, in the United States of America and in most Canadian provinces, is a type of living space similar to an apartment but independently sellable and therefore regarded as real estate. The condominium building structure is divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Similar concepts in other English-speaking countries include strata title in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the Canadian province of British Columbia; commonhold in the United Kingdom; and sectional title in South Africa.

Floors above 92 are serviced by direct passenger elevators from the ground floor, by an emergency elevator from the ground floor, and by two freight elevators that run from floors 44 to 98.

Buildings with sky lobbies

The former World Trade Center, designed by Minoru Yamasaki, used sky lobbies, located on the 44th and 78th floors of each tower. World Trade Center Building Design with Floor and Elevator Arrangement.svg
The former World Trade Center, designed by Minoru Yamasaki, used sky lobbies, located on the 44th and 78th floors of each tower.
View from the sky lobby in the JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston Sky Lobby in JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston, Texas (15654308084).jpg
View from the sky lobby in the JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston
The Nina Tower sky lobby Nina Tower Sky Lobby.jpg
The Nina Tower sky lobby
Building NameYearLocationFloors of sky lobby(s)
875 North Michigan Avenue 1969 Chicago, Illinois, United States44
30 Hudson Yards 2019 New York City, New York, United States35
One World Trade Center 1972 New York City, New York, United States44, 78
Two World Trade Center 1973 New York City, New York, United States44, 78
Willis Tower 1973 Chicago, Illinois, United States33/34, 66/67
NatWest Tower 1980 London, United Kingdom23/24
JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston) 1982 Houston, Texas, United States60
Wells Fargo Plaza (Houston) 1983 Houston, Texas, United States34/35, 58/59
Williams Tower 1983 Houston, Texas, United States51
Columbia Center 1985 Seattle, Washington, United States40
Miami Tower 1987 Miami, Florida, United States11
Seattle Municipal Tower 1990 Seattle, Washington, United States40
Petronas Twin Towers 1999 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia41/42
Izumi Garden Tower 2002 Tokyo, Japan
First World Hotel 2008 Genting Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia3, 8
Taipei 101 2004 Taipei, Taiwan35/36, 59/60
Shin Kong Life Tower 1993 Taipei, Taiwan16
Revenue Tower 1990 Wan Chai North, Hong Kong
Immigration Tower 1990 Wan Chai North, Hong Kong
Central Plaza 1992 Wan Chai North, Hong Kong
The Center 1998Central, Hong Kong42
Two International Finance Centre 2003Central, Hong Kong33, 35, 55, 56
Bloomberg Tower 2004 New York City, New York, United States6, 20
Nina Tower 2006Tsuen Wan, New Territories, Hong Kong41
One Island East 2005Quarry Bay, Hong Kong36,37
The Bow 2007 Calgary, Alberta, Canada18, 36, 58
Shanghai World Financial Center 2008 Shanghai, China28/29, 52/53
Burj Khalifa 2010 Dubai, United Arab Emirates43, 76, 123
200 West Street 2009 New York City, New York, United States11
International Commerce Centre 2010West Kowloon, Hong Kong48/49, 88, 98/99
Jeddah Tower 2020 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia42/43,75/76,125/126 [4]
One World Trade Center 2014 New York City, New York, United States64
Rosslyn Central Place Office Tower 2016 Arlington, Virginia, United States6
Australia 108 2019 Melbourne, Australia83,84 [5] [6]
Wilshire Grand Tower 2017 Los Angeles, California, United States70
Shanghai Tower 2015 Shanghai, China22/23, 37/38, 52/53, 68/69, 101
Wuhan Greenland Center 2018 Wuhan, China25/26, 49/50, 70, 116/117
Tokyo Sky Tree 2012 Sumida, Tokyo, Japan4F, 350m
Wisma 46 1996 Jakarta, Indonesia 46
UOB Plaza Tower One1995 Singapore, Singapore 37–38
S2 Building EEPIS 2015 Surabaya, Indonesia 1 [7]
Darmo Trade Center Wonokromo 2004/2005 Wonokromo, Surabaya, Indonesia1 [8]
Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower 2012 Makkah, Saudi Arabia M2, [9] M4 [10]
Plaza Tunjungan 5 2015Surabaya, Indonesia20

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References

  1. "Otis History: The World Trade Center". Otis Elevator Company. Archived from the original on 2006-11-15. Retrieved 2006-12-07.
  2. https://ny.curbed.com/2016/10/21/13362430/one-world-trade-center-gensler-sky-lobby
  3. "The John Hancock Center". Earl Reid. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
  4. "Adrian Smith interview". WTTW. August 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-07.
  5. "Six Star Hotel – Australia 108". Archived from the original on 2013-04-26. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
  6. "Rising high: 108-storey super tower planned for Melbourne". The West Australian . 2012-11-12. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
  7. This is not a ground floor, and in other building on EEPIS complex, this floor is known as 2nd floor.
  8. This is not a ground floor, and the clearance between this floor and ground level is higher than roof of some building surrounding the mall
  9. Used as the hotel lobby
  10. Used as the serviced apartments lobby