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A sky lobby is an intermediate interchange floor in a skyscraper where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building. When designing very tall (supertall) buildings, supplying enough elevators is a problem – travellers wanting to reach a specific higher floor may conceivably have to stop at a very large number of other floors on the way up to let other passengers off and on. This increases travel time, and indirectly requires many more elevator shafts to still allow acceptable travel times – thus reducing effective floor space on each floor for all levels. The other main technique to increase usage without adding more elevator shafts is double-deck elevators.
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately 150 m (492 ft). Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s. The definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host commercial offices or residential space, or both. For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term supertall skyscrapers can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as megatall Skyscrapers.
An elevator or lift is a type of vertical transportation device that moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are typically powered by electric motors that drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, although some pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack.
A double-deck elevator or double-deck lift is an elevator with two cabs attached together, one on top of the other. This allows passengers on two consecutive floors to be able to use the elevator simultaneously, significantly increasing the passenger capacity of an elevator shaft. Such a scheme can improve efficiency in buildings where the volume of traffic would normally have a single elevator stopping at every floor. For example, a passenger may board the lower deck on the concourse level while another passenger may board the upper deck on the ground floor. The cab serving even floors is actually on top of the cab serving odd floors in the same elevator shaft. When a passenger disembarks from the even-floor serving cab at level 30, for instance, the passengers in the odd-floor serving cab beneath it are kept waiting until the elevator doors above close.
Early uses of the sky lobby include the original Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and 875 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.
One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in New York City. Like the original World Trade Center buildings it replaced, the new building has a sky lobby to balance the loads and convenience of individuals ascending via the elevators. The sky lobby is located on the 64th floor, and serves all passengers wishing to travel from the ground floor lobby to the 90th floor.[ clarification needed ] Each set of approximately 5-6 stories is served by one bank of elevators. The elevators from the ground floor to the 64th floor sky lobby are the fastest in the Western Hemisphere, traveling at the same speed as the elevators used for the nonstop One World Observatory service, which transports guests to the 100th floor in under one minute.
One World Trade Center is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest in the world. The supertall structure has the same name as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bounded by West Street to the west, Vesey Street to the north, Fulton Street to the south, and Washington Street to the east.
The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
The John Hancock Center's sky lobby on the 44th floor serves only the residential portion of the building that occupies floors 45–92. Three express elevators run from the residential lobby on the ground floor to the 44th floor, with two of the elevators stopping at the parking garage's main level on floor 6. At floor 44, residents transfer to two banks of three elevators. One bank serves floors 45–65 and the other serves 65–92. Although all six elevators stop at floor 65, this floor is roughly the same layout as the residential floors immediately above and below it. It is not a sky lobby because residents can also board elevators to higher floors at floor 44.
875 North Michigan Avenue, built as and still commonly referred to as the John Hancock Center, is a 100-story, 1,128-foot supertall skyscraper located in Chicago, Illinois. Located in the Magnificent Mile district, its name was changed to 875 North Michigan Avenue on February 12, 2018.
The tower's 44th floor sky lobby includes a pool, gym, dry cleaner, convenience store, about 700 mailboxes, two "party" rooms, a sitting area overlooking Lake Michigan, a small library, a refuse room (with trash chutes emptying here), offices for the managers of the residential condominium,and a polling station for residents during elections.
A condominium, often shortened to condo, in the United States of America and in most Canadian provinces, is a type of living space similar to an apartment but independently sellable and therefore regarded as real estate. The condominium building structure is divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Similar concepts in other English-speaking countries include strata title in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the Canadian province of British Columbia; commonhold in the United Kingdom; and sectional title in South Africa.
Floors above 92 are serviced by direct passenger elevators from the ground floor, by an emergency elevator from the ground floor, and by two freight elevators that run from floors 44 to 98.
|Building Name||Year||Location||Floors of sky lobby(s)|
|875 North Michigan Avenue||1969||Chicago, Illinois, United States||44|
|30 Hudson Yards||2019||New York City, New York, United States||35|
|One World Trade Center||1972||New York City, New York, United States||44, 78|
|Two World Trade Center||1973||New York City, New York, United States||44, 78|
|Willis Tower||1973||Chicago, Illinois, United States||33/34, 66/67|
|NatWest Tower||1980||London, United Kingdom||23/24|
|JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston)||1982||Houston, Texas, United States||60|
|Wells Fargo Plaza (Houston)||1983||Houston, Texas, United States||34/35, 58/59|
|Williams Tower||1983||Houston, Texas, United States||51|
|Columbia Center||1985||Seattle, Washington, United States||40|
|Miami Tower||1987||Miami, Florida, United States||11|
|Seattle Municipal Tower||1990||Seattle, Washington, United States||40|
|Petronas Twin Towers||1999||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||41/42|
|Izumi Garden Tower||2002||Tokyo, Japan||–|
|First World Hotel||2008||Genting Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia||3, 8|
|Taipei 101||2004||Taipei, Taiwan||35/36, 59/60|
|Shin Kong Life Tower||1993||Taipei, Taiwan||16|
|Revenue Tower||1990||Wan Chai North, Hong Kong||–|
|Immigration Tower||1990||Wan Chai North, Hong Kong||–|
|Central Plaza||1992||Wan Chai North, Hong Kong||–|
|The Center||1998||Central, Hong Kong||42|
|Two International Finance Centre||2003||Central, Hong Kong||33, 35, 55, 56|
|Bloomberg Tower||2004||New York City, New York, United States||6, 20|
|Nina Tower||2006||Tsuen Wan, New Territories, Hong Kong||41|
|One Island East||2005||Quarry Bay, Hong Kong||36,37|
|The Bow||2007||Calgary, Alberta, Canada||18, 36, 58|
|Shanghai World Financial Center||2008||Shanghai, China||28/29, 52/53|
|Burj Khalifa||2010||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||43, 76, 123|
|200 West Street||2009||New York City, New York, United States||11|
|International Commerce Centre||2010||West Kowloon, Hong Kong||48/49, 88, 98/99|
|Jeddah Tower||2020||Jeddah, Saudi Arabia||42/43,75/76,125/126|
|One World Trade Center||2014||New York City, New York, United States||64|
|Rosslyn Central Place Office Tower||2016||Arlington, Virginia, United States||6|
|Australia 108||2019||Melbourne, Australia||83,84|
|Wilshire Grand Tower||2017||Los Angeles, California, United States||70|
|Shanghai Tower||2015||Shanghai, China||22/23, 37/38, 52/53, 68/69, 101|
|Wuhan Greenland Center||2018||Wuhan, China||25/26, 49/50, 70, 116/117|
|Tokyo Sky Tree||2012||Sumida, Tokyo, Japan||4F, 350m|
|Wisma 46||1996||Jakarta, Indonesia||46|
|UOB Plaza Tower One||1995||Singapore, Singapore||37–38|
|S2 Building EEPIS||2015||Surabaya, Indonesia||1|
|Darmo Trade Center Wonokromo||2004/2005||Wonokromo, Surabaya, Indonesia||1|
|Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower||2012||Makkah, Saudi Arabia||M2, M4|
|Plaza Tunjungan 5||2015||Surabaya, Indonesia||20|
The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and completed in 1931. The building has a roof height of 1,250 feet (380 m) and stands a total of 1,454 feet (443.2 m) tall, including its antenna. Its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of New York, which is of unknown origin. As of 2019 the building is the 5th-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States and the 28th-tallest in the world. It is also the 6th-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas. The Empire State Building stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years until the completion of the World Trade Center's North Tower in Lower Manhattan in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, it was again the tallest building in New York until the new One World Trade Center was completed in April 2012.
The Jin Mao Tower, also known as the Jinmao Building or Jinmao Tower, is an 88-story landmark skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai, China. It is 420.5 metres tall and is one of the tallest buildings in the world. It contains a shopping mall, offices and the Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel, which at the time of completion was the highest hotel in the world. Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Shanghai Tower it is part of the Lujiazui skyline seen from the Bund. It was the tallest building in China from its completion in 1999 until 2007, when it was surpassed by the Shanghai World Financial Center which is located close by. The Shanghai Tower, a 121-story building located next to these two buildings, surpassed the height of both these buildings in 2015, creating the world's first trio of adjacent supertall skyscrapers.
70 Pine Street – formerly known as the American International Building, 60 Wall Tower and originally as the Cities Service Building – is a 67-story, 952-foot (290 m) residential building located at the corner of Pearl Street and running to Cedar Street in the Financial District of Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States. It was built in 1931–32 by the Cities Service Company for the oil and gas baron Henry Latham Doherty, and was designed by the firm of Clinton & Russell, Holton & George in the Art Deco style.
The International Commerce Centre is a 118-storey, 484 m (1,588 ft) commercial skyscraper completed in 2010 in West Kowloon, Hong Kong. It is a part of the Union Square project on top of Kowloon Station. It was the 4th tallest building in the world when its construction was completed in 2010. Now, it is the world's 12th tallest building by height, world's ninth tallest building by number of floors, as well as the tallest building in Hong Kong and also the 6th tallest building within China.
Milad Tower, also known as the Tehran Tower, is a multi-purpose tower in Tehran, Iran. It is the sixth-tallest tower and the 24th-tallest freestanding structure in the world.
85 Sky Tower, formerly known as the T & C Tower or Tuntex Sky Tower, is an 85-story skyscraper located in Lingya District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The structure is 347.5 m (1,140 ft) high. An antenna increases the pinnacle height to 378 m (1,240 ft). Constructed from 1994 to 1997, it is the tallest skyscraper in Kaohsiung, and was the tallest in Taiwan until the completion of Taipei 101 in 2004.
A mechanical floor, mechanical penthouse, mechanical layer or mechanical level is a story of a high-rise building that is dedicated to mechanical and electronics equipment. "Mechanical" is the most commonly used term, but words such as utility, technical, service, and plant are also used. They are present in all tall buildings including the world's tallest skyscrapers with significant structural, mechanical and aesthetics concerns.
The 63 Building, officially called 63 SQUARE, is a skyscraper on Yeouido island, overlooking the Han River in Seoul, South Korea. It was designed by Harry D Som and Helen W Som, principals of Som and Associates of San Francisco. At 250 meters (819 ft) high, it was the tallest building outside North America when it opened in July 1985, and remains the tallest gold-clad structure in the world. It stood as South Korea's tallest building until the Hyperion Tower surpassed it in 2003, but remained the country's tallest commercial building until the Northeast Asia Trade Tower was topped-out in 2009.
The Federation Tower is a complex of two skyscrapers built on the 13th lot of the Moscow International Business Center (MIBC) in Moscow, Russia. The two skyscrapers are named Tower East or Vostok and Tower West or Zapad.
The design and construction of skyscrapers involves creating safe, habitable spaces in very high buildings. The buildings must support their weight, resist wind and earthquakes, and protect occupants from fire. Yet they must also be conveniently accessible, even on the upper floors, and provide utilities and a comfortable climate for the occupants. The problems posed in skyscraper design are considered among the most complex encountered given the balances required between economics, engineering, and construction management.
Nina Tower is a twin tower of 80-storey and 42-storey high-rise buildings in Tsuen Wan, New Territories, Hong Kong. The tower was designed to be the tallest tower in the world at 518 m (1,699 ft). However, due to its location near Chek Lap Kok Airport, the height was restricted to the current 319.8 m (1,049 ft).
One Rincon Hill is an upscale residential complex on the apex of Rincon Hill in San Francisco, California, United States. The complex, designed by Solomon, Cordwell, Buenz and Associates and developed by Urban West Associates, consists of two skyscrapers that share a common townhouse podium. It is part of the San Francisco Skyline and is visible from Mt. Diablo, Port of Oakland and San Francisco.
Bitexco Financial Tower is a skyscraper in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. At its completion in 2010, it became the tallest building in Vietnam and kept this status until January 2011, when it was surpassed by Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower. With 68 floors above ground and three basements, the building has a height of 262.5 metres (861 ft), making it the second tallest building in the city, fifth tallest in Vietnam, and the 263rd tallest in the world, as of the beginning of 2018.
China World Trade Center Tower III is a supertall skyscraper with 81 floors, 4 underground floors, and 30 elevators in Beijing, China. It is the third phase of development of the China World Trade Center complex in Beijing's central business district of Chaoyang at the junction of the East Third Ring Road and Jianguomen Outer Street. The building topped out at 330 m (1,083 ft) on 29 October 2007 and completed in 2010. The building bears a resemblance to the original Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, which were destroyed during the September 11th, 2001 attacks. It is the second tallest building in Beijing.
Stelco Tower is the third tallest building in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The 26-storey office skyscraper was completed in 1972, and is part of the Lloyd D. Jackson Square complex. The building has since been renamed, and is now officially known as 100 King Street West, but many Hamiltonians still refer to it as Stelco Tower.
The Shanghai Tower is a 632-metre (2,073 ft), 128-story megatall skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai. It shares the record of having the world's highest observation deck within a building or structure at 562 m, and the world's second-fastest elevators at a top speed of 20.5 metres per second. It is the world's second-tallest building by height to architectural top. However, the title of the world's fastest elevator now belongs to the Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre, with a top speed of 21 metres per second achieved in 2017. Designed by international design firm Gensler and owned by the Shanghai city government, it is the tallest of the world's first triple-adjacent supertall buildings in Pudong, the other two being the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Centre. Its tiered construction, designed for high energy efficiency, provides nine separate zones divided between office, retail and leisure use.
The Guangzhou Chow Tai Fook Finance Centre is a 1,739-foot (530 m) tall mixed-use skyscraper in Guangzhou, Guangdong, which was completed in October 2016. It is the tallest completed building in Guangzhou, the third-tallest in China, and the seventh-tallest in the world. The Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre has a total of 111 above ground and five below ground floors and houses a shopping mall, offices, apartments, and a hotel. The skyscraper has a gross floor area of 5,464,633 square feet (507,681.0 m2), of which a little over 20% is not part of the skyscraper itself, but of the podium connected to it.