Calgary

Last updated

Calgary
City
City of Calgary
Calgarymontage18.jpg
Nicknames: 
Cowtown, Stampede City, Mohkínstsis more... [1] [2] [3] [4]
Motto(s): 
Onward
Canada Alberta location map 2.svg
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Calgary
Location of Calgary
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Calgary
Calgary (Canada)
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Red pog.svg
Calgary
Calgary (North America)
Coordinates: 51°03′N114°04′W / 51.050°N 114.067°W / 51.050; -114.067 Coordinates: 51°03′N114°04′W / 51.050°N 114.067°W / 51.050; -114.067
CountryCanada
Province Alberta
Region Calgary Metropolitan Region
Census division 6
Founded1875
Incorporated [5]  
   Town November 7, 1884
   City January 1, 1894
Named for Calgary, Mull
Government
   Mayor Naheed Nenshi
  Governing body
  ManagerJeff Fielding [6]
   MPs
   MLAs
Area
 (2016) [7] [8] [9]
  Land825.56 km2 (318.75 sq mi)
  Urban
586.08 km2 (226.29 sq mi)
  Metro
5,110.21 km2 (1,973.06 sq mi)
Elevation1,045 m (3,428 ft)
Population
 (2016) [7] [8] [9]
  City1,239,220
  Density1,501.1/km2 (3,888/sq mi)
   Urban
1,237,656
  Urban density2,111/km2 (5,470/sq mi)
   Metro
1,392,609 (4th)
  Metro density272.5/km2 (706/sq mi)
   Municipal census (2018)
1,267,344 [11]
Demonym(s) Calgarian
Time zone UTC−7 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−6 (MDT)
Forward sortation areas
Area code(s) 403, 587, 825
Highways 1, 1A, 2, 2A, 8, 22X, 201, 772
Waterways Bow River, Elbow River, Glenmore Reservoir
GDP US$ 97.9 billion [12]
GDP per capita US$ 69,826 [12]
Website Official website

Calgary ( /ˈkælɡri/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km (50 mi) east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. The city anchors the south end of the Statistics Canada-defined urban area, the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. [13]

Provinces and territories of Canada Top-level subdivisions of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area.

Alberta Province of Canada

Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Its area is about 660,000 square kilometres (250,000 sq mi). Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. The premier is Jason Kenney as of April 30, 2019.

Bow River river in Alberta, Canada

The Bow River is a river in the Canadian province of Alberta. It begins in the Rocky Mountains and winds through the Alberta foothills onto the prairies, where it meets the Oldman River, the two then forming the South Saskatchewan River. These waters ultimately flow through the Nelson River into Hudson Bay. The Bow River runs through the city of Calgary, taking in the Elbow River at the historic site of Fort Calgary near downtown. The Bow River pathway, developed along the river's banks, is considered a part of Calgary's self-image.

Contents

The city had a population of 1,267,344 in 2018, [14] making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality. [7] Also in 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada. [9]

The economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services, film and television, transportation and logistics, technology, manufacturing, aerospace, health and wellness, retail, and tourism sectors. [15] The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations. [16] In 2015, Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada. [17] In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games.

1988 Winter Olympics 15th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Calgary (Canada) in 1988

The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games, was a Winter Olympics multi-sport event celebrated in and around Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between February 13 and 28, 1988 and were the first Winter Olympics to be held over a whole two week period. The host city was selected in 1981 over Falun, Sweden, and Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. Most events took place in Calgary while several skiing events were held in the mountain resorts of Nakiska and Canmore, west of the city.

Calgary has consistently been recognized for its high quality of life. In 2018, The Economist magazine ranked Calgary the fourth-most liveable city in the world in their Global Liveability Ranking. [18] Calgary is classed as a Beta global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

<i>The Economist</i> English weekly news and international affairs publication

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder James Wilson in September 1843. In 2015, its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. Pearson PLC held a 50% shareholding via The Financial Times Limited until August 2015. At that time, Pearson sold their share in the Economist. The Agnelli family's Exor paid £287m to raise their stake from 4.7% to 43.4% while the Economist paid £182m for the balance of 5.04m shares which will be distributed to current shareholders. Aside from the Agnelli family, smaller shareholders in the company include Cadbury, Rothschild (21%), Schroder, Layton and other family interests as well as a number of staff and former staff shareholders.

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) publishes an annual Global Liveability Ranking, which ranks 140 cities for their urban quality of life based on assessments of stability, healthcare, culture and environment, education and infrastructure. For the first time in this survey's history, Austria's capital, Vienna, ranks as the most liveable of the 140 cities surveyed by The Economist Intelligence Unit in 2018. Melbourne, Australia, had been ranked by the EIU as the world's most liveable city for seven years in a row, from 2011 to 2017. Improvements in Vienna's score, relating to the stability category in the ranking, helped by the city's low crime rate, helped nudge Vienna into first place. Vienna scores a near-ideal 99.1, separating it from the Australian city by 0.7 points.

Global city City which is important to the world economy

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network. The concept comes from geography and urban studies, and the idea that globalization is created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.

Etymology

Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Mull, Scotland. [19] In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden", likely used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. [20] Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow (pasture)", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm". [19]

Calgary, Mull hamlet on the Isle of Mull, Argyll and Bute, Scotland

Calgary is a hamlet on the north west coast of Mull, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. The hamlet is within the parish of Kilninian and Kilmore. It was the origin of the name of Fort Calgary in Canada, which became the city of Calgary, Alberta.

Isle of Mull island of the Inner Hebrides, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland

The Isle of Mull or just Mull is the second-largest island of the Inner Hebrides and lies off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute.

Scotland Country in Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and the North Channel to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

The indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language (Siksiká), the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence. The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis, simply meaning "elbow", [3] [4] [21] has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area. [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] In the Nakoda (Stoney) language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow". [3] [21] In the Nehiyaw (Cree) Language, the area was known as Otoskwanik meaning "house at the elbow" or Otoskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina (Sarcee) language, the area is known as Kootsisáw meaning "elbow". [3] [21] In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede [3] and the city's settler heritage. [21]

Treaty 7

Treaty 7 is an agreement between Canadian Crown and several, mainly Blackfoot, First Nation band governments in what is today the southern portion of Alberta. The idea of developing treaties for Blackfoot lands was brought to a Blackfoot chief named Crowfoot by John McDougall in 1875. It was concluded on September 22, 1877. The agreement was signed at the Blackfoot Crossing of the Bow River, at the present-day Siksika Nation reserve, approximately 100 km (62 mi) east of Calgary, Alberta. Chief Crowfoot was one of the signatories to Treaty 7. Another signing on this treaty occurred on December 4, 1877 to accommodate some Blackfoot leaders who were not present at the primary September 1877 signing.

Elbow synovial hinge joint between the humerus in the upper arm and the radius and ulna in the forearm

The elbow is the visible joint between the upper and lower parts of the arm. It includes prominent landmarks such as the olecranon, the elbow pit, the lateral and medial epicondyles, and the elbow joint. The elbow joint is the synovial hinge joint between the humerus in the upper arm and the radius and ulna in the forearm which allows the forearm and hand to be moved towards and away from the body.

Elbow River river in Canada

The Elbow River is a river in southern Alberta, Canada. It flows from the Canadian Rockies to the city of Calgary, where it merges into the Bow River.

There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis. [24] [25] [27] [28] [29] In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town", [30] however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot. [31]

History

Early history

The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. [32] The area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot Confederacy; Siksika, Kainai, Piikani), îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3. As Mayor Naheed Nenshi (A'paistootsiipsii; Iitiya) describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water. They come here to hunt and fish; to trade; to live; to love; to have great victories; to taste bitter disappointment; but above all to engage in that very human act of building community." [33]

In 1787, cartographer David Thompson spent the winter with a band of Peigan encamped along the Bow River. He was a Hudson's Bay Company trader and the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. [34]

In 1875, the North-West Mounted Police erected Fort Calgary in an effort to police the area. FortCalgary1878.jpg
In 1875, the North-West Mounted Police erected Fort Calgary in an effort to police the area.

In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police (now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or RCMP). The NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, and to protect the fur trade. Originally named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod.

When the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, and a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre. Over a century later, the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996. [35] Calgary was officially incorporated as a town in 1884, and elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was then the North-West Territories. [36] The Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP. [37]

The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured, [38] city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again. [39]

After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost (up to 100,000 acres (400 km2) for one cent per acre per year). As a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. Already a transportation and distribution hub, Calgary quickly became the centre of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.[ citation needed ]

By the late 19th century, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) expanded into the interior and established posts along rivers that later developed into the modern cities of Winnipeg, Calgary and Edmonton. In 1884, the HBC established a sales shop in Calgary. The HBC also built the first of the grand "original six" department stores in Calgary in 1913, the others that followed are Edmonton, Vancouver, Victoria, Saskatoon, and Winnipeg. [40] [41]

Modern history (1900–present)

Rounding up cattle for the first Calgary Stampede in 1912. The Stampede is one of the world's largest rodeos. Rounding up for the first Calgary Stampede (38085634056).jpg
Rounding up cattle for the first Calgary Stampede in 1912. The Stampede is one of the world's largest rodeos.

Between 1896 and 1914 settlers from all over the world poured into the area in response to the offer of free "homestead" land. [42] Agriculture and ranching became key components of the local economy, shaping the future of Calgary for years to come.[ citation needed ] The world-famous Calgary Stampede, still held annually in July, was started by four wealthy ranchers as a small agricultural show in 1912. [43] It is now known as the "greatest outdoor show on earth". [44]

Calgary experienced Alberta's first oil boom when Calgary Petroleum Products Co found oil just southwest of the city at Turner Valley in 1914. Western Canada's first commercial oilfield boomed again in 1924 and 1936 and by WWII the Turner Valley oilfield was producing more than 95 per cent of the oil in Canada. As a result, major oil companies searched elsewhere in Alberta and in 1947 Imperial Oil discovered new reserves near Leduc, south of Edmonton. But Calgary was already the centre of Alberta oil and the new discovery caused the city to boom again. Calgary's economy grew when oil prices increased with the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The population increased by 272,000 in the eighteen years between 1971 (403,000) and 1989 (675,000) and another 345,000 in the next eighteen years (to 1,020,000 in 2007). During these boom years, skyscrapers were constructed and the relatively low-rise downtown quickly became dense with tall buildings. [45]

Calgary's economy was so closely tied to the oil industry that the city's boom peaked with the average annual price of oil in 1981. [46] The subsequent drops in oil prices were cited by industry as reasons for a collapse in the oil industry and consequently the overall Calgary economy. Low oil prices prevented a full recovery until the 1990s. [47]

From 1971, the population of Calgary rose significantly, with many high-rises constructed to accommodate the growth. Trolleybus next to Hudson's Bay Company store in Calgary in 1971.jpg
From 1971, the population of Calgary rose significantly, with many high-rises constructed to accommodate the growth.

With the energy sector employing a huge number of Calgarians, the fallout from the economic slump of the early 1980s was significant, and the unemployment rate soared. [48] By the end of the decade, however, the economy was in recovery. Calgary quickly realized that it could not afford to put so much emphasis on oil and gas, and the city has since become much more diverse, both economically and culturally. The period during this recession marked Calgary's transition from a mid-sized and relatively nondescript prairie city into a thriving Canadian working centre. This transition culminated in the city hosting Canada's first Winter Olympics in 1988. [49] The success of these Games [50] essentially put the city on the world stage.

Thanks in part to escalating oil prices, the economy in Calgary and Alberta was booming until the end of 2009, and the region of nearly 1.1 million people was home to the fastest growing economy in the country. [51] While the oil and gas industry comprise an important part of the economy, the city has invested a great deal into other areas such as tourism and high-tech manufacturing. Over 3.1 million people now visit the city annually [52] for its many festivals and attractions, especially the Calgary Stampede. The nearby mountain resort towns of Banff, Lake Louise, and Canmore are also becoming increasingly popular with tourists, and are bringing people into Calgary as a result. Other modern industries include light manufacturing, high-tech, film, e-commerce, transportation, and services.

Widespread flooding throughout southern Alberta, including on the Bow and Elbow rivers, forced the evacuation of over 75,000 city residents on June 21, 2013, and left large areas of the city, including downtown, without power. [53] [54]

Geography

Calgary is located at the transition zone between the Canadian Rockies foothills and the Canadian Prairies. The city lies within the foothills of the Parkland Natural Region and the Grasslands Natural Region. [55] Downtown Calgary is about 1,042.4 m (3,420 ft) above sea level, [10] and the airport is 1,076 m (3,531 ft). [56] In 2011, the city covered a land area of 825.29 km2 (318.65 sq mi). [57]

Two rivers run through the city. The Bow River is the larger and it flows from the west to the south. The Elbow River flows northwards from the south until it converges with the Bow River at the historic site of Fort Calgary near downtown. Since the climate of the region is generally dry, dense vegetation occurs naturally only in the river valleys, on some north-facing slopes, and within Fish Creek Provincial Park.[ citation needed ]

The City of Calgary, 848 km2 (327 sq mi) in size, [58] consists of an inner city surrounded by suburban communities of various density. [59] The city is immediately surrounded by two municipal districts – the Municipal District of Foothills No. 31 to the south and Rocky View County to the north, west and east. Proximate urban communities beyond the city within the Calgary Metropolitan Region include: the City of Airdrie to the north; the City of Chestermere, the Town of Strathmore and the Hamlet of Langdon to the east; the towns of Okotoks and High River to the south; and the Town of Cochrane to the northwest. [60] Numerous rural subdivisions are located within the Elbow Valley, Springbank and Bearspaw areas to the west and northwest. [61] [62] [63] The Tsuu T'ina Nation Indian Reserve No. 145 borders Calgary to the southwest. [60]

Over the years, the city has made many land annexations to facilitate growth. In the most recent annexation of lands from Rocky View County, completed in July 2007, the city annexed Shepard, a former hamlet, and placed its boundaries adjacent to the Hamlet of Balzac and City of Chestermere, and very close to the City of Airdrie. [64]

Calgary panorama-2.jpg
View of downtown Calgary, in the summer of 2011, as seen from Crescent Heights bluff during sunset.

Flora and fauna

Numerous plant and animal species are found within and around Calgary. The Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) comes near the northern limit of its range at Calgary. [65] Another conifer of widespread distribution found in the Calgary area is the White Spruce ( Picea glauca ).[ citation needed ] Some notable animals that can be found in and around Calgary include: deer, coyote, moose, bat, rabbit, mink, weasel, black bear, raccoon, skunk, and cougar. [66]

Neighbourhoods

Located east of downtown Calgary, Inglewood is one of the city's oldest residential neighbourhoods. InglewoodCalgary.JPG
Located east of downtown Calgary, Inglewood is one of the city's oldest residential neighbourhoods.

The downtown region of the city consists of five neighbourhoods: Eau Claire (including the Festival District), the Downtown West End, the Downtown Commercial Core, Chinatown, and the Downtown East Village (also part of the Rivers District). The commercial core is itself divided into a number of districts including the Stephen Avenue Retail Core, the Entertainment District, the Arts District and the Government District. Distinct from downtown and south of 9th Avenue is Calgary's densest neighbourhood, the Beltline. The area includes a number of communities such as Connaught, Victoria Crossing and a portion of the Rivers District. The Beltline is the focus of major planning and rejuvenation initiatives on the part of the municipal government [67] to increase the density and liveliness of Calgary's centre.[ citation needed ]

Adjacent to, or directly radiating from the downtown are the first of the inner-city communities. These include Crescent Heights, Hounsfield Heights/Briar Hill, Hillhurst/Sunnyside (including Kensington BRZ), Bridgeland, Renfrew, Mount Royal, Scarboro, Sunalta, Mission, Ramsay and Inglewood and Albert Park/Radisson Heights directly to the east. The inner city is, in turn, surrounded by relatively dense and established neighbourhoods such as Rosedale and Mount Pleasant to the north; Bowness, Parkdale and Glendale to the west; Park Hill, South Calgary (including Marda Loop), Bankview, Altadore, and Killarney to the south; and Forest Lawn/International Avenue to the east. Lying beyond these, and usually separated from one another by highways, are suburban communities including Evergreen, Somerset, Auburn Bay Country Hills, Sundance, Riverbend, and McKenzie Towne. In all, there are over 180 distinct neighbourhoods within the city limits. [68]

Several of Calgary's neighbourhoods were initially separate municipalities that were annexed by the city as it grew. These include Bowness, Montgomery, and Forest Lawn.

Climate

Calgary experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb ), with cold, snowy winters and warm summers. It falls into the NRC Plant Hardiness Zone 4a. [69] According to Environment Canada, average daily temperatures in Calgary range from 16.5 °C (61.7 °F) in July to −6.8 °C (19.8 °F) in December. [70]

Ice skating on the frozen stream in Bowness Park. Winters in Calgary are cold, with temperatures dropping below -20 degC (-4 degF). Dilmaghanian00711.JPG
Ice skating on the frozen stream in Bowness Park. Winters in Calgary are cold, with temperatures dropping below −20 °C (−4 °F).

Winters are cold and the air temperature can drop to or below −20 °C (−4 °F) on average of 22 days of the year and −30 °C (−22 °F) on average of 3.7 days of the year, and are often broken up by warm, dry Chinook winds that blow into Alberta over the mountains. These winds can raise the winter temperature by 20 °C (36 °F), and as much as 30 °C (54 °F) in just a few hours, and may last several days. [71] As well, Calgary's proximity to the Rocky Mountains affects winter temperature average mean temperature with a mixture of lows and highs, and tends to result in a mild winter for a city in the Prairie Provinces. Temperatures are also affected by the wind chill factor, Calgary's average wind speed is 14.2 kilometres per hour (8.8 mph), one of the highest in Canadian cities. [72]

In summer, daytime temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) an average of 5.1 days anytime in June, July and August, and occasionally as late as September or as early as May, and in winter drop below or at −30 °C (−22 °F) 3.7 days of the year. As a consequence of Calgary's high elevation and aridity, summer evenings tend to cool off, with monthly averages below 10 °C (50 °F) throughout the summer months. [70]

Calgary has the most sunny days year round of Canada's 100 largest cities, with just over 332 days of sun; [70] it has on average 2,396 hours of sunshine annually, [70] with an average relative humidity of 55% in the winter and 45% in the summer (15:00 MST). [70]

Calgary International Airport in the northeastern section of the city receives an average of 418.8 mm (16.49 in) of precipitation annually, with 326.4 mm (12.85 in) of that occurring in the form of rain, and 92.4 mm (3.64 in) as snow. [70] The most rainfall occurs in June and the most snowfall in March. [70] Calgary has also recorded snow every month of the year. [73] It last snowed in July on July 15, 1999. [74]

Thunderstorms can be frequent and sometimes severe [75] with most of them occurring in the summer months. Calgary lies within Alberta's Hailstorm Alley and is prone to damaging hailstorms every few years. A hailstorm that struck Calgary on September 7, 1991, was one of the most destructive natural disasters in Canadian history, with over $400 million in damage. [76] Being west of the dry line on most occasions, tornadoes are rare in the region.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Calgary was 36.7 °C (98 °F) on August 10, 2018. [77] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −45.0 °C (−49 °F) on February 4, 1893. [70]

Demographics

The population of the City of Calgary according to its 2018 municipal census is 1,267,344, [99] a change of 1.7% from its 2017 municipal census population of 1,246,337. [100]

In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the City of Calgary recorded a population of 1,239,220 living in 466,725 of its 489,650 total private dwellings, a change of 13% from its 2011 population of 1,096,833. With a land area of 825.56 km2 (318.75 sq mi), it had a population density of

Religion in Calgary (2011 census)
ReligionPercent(%)
Christian
54.9%
No religion
32.3%
Muslim
5.2%
Sikh
2.6%
Buddhist
2.1%
Hindu
1.6%
Jewish
0.6%
Other
0.7%

In the 2011 Census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 living in 423,417 of its 445,848 total dwellings, a change of 10.9% from its 2006 adjusted population of 988,812. With a land area of 825.29 km2 (318.65 sq mi), it had a population density of

The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) is the fourth-largest CMA in Canada and largest in Alberta. It had a population of 1,392,609 in the 2016 Census compared to its 2011 population of 1,214,839. Its five-year population change of 14.6 percent was the highest among all CMAs in Canada between 2011 and 2016. With a land area of 5,107.55 km2 (1,972.04 sq mi), the Calgary CMA had a population density of

In 2015, the population within an hour commuting distance of the city is 1,511,755. [105]

As a consequence of the large number of corporations, as well as the presence of the energy sector in Alberta, Calgary has a median family income of $104,530. [106]

Christians make up 54.9% of the population, while 32.3% have no religious affiliation. Other religions in the city are Muslims (5.2%), Sikhs (2.6%) and Buddhists (2.1%). [107]

Ethnicity

According to the 2016 Census, 59.5% of Calgary's population was of European origin, 4% was of Aboriginal heritage, and 36.2% of the population belonged to a visible minority (that is, non-white, non-aboriginal) group. Among those of European origin, the most frequently reported ethnic backgrounds were British, German, Irish, French, and Ukrainian. Among visible minorities, South Asians (mainly from India or Pakistan) make up the largest group (9.5%), followed by Chinese (6.8%) and Filipinos (5.5%). 5.4% were of African or Caribbean origin, 3.5% was of West Asian or Middle Eastern origin, while 2.6% of the population was of Latin American origin. Of the largest Canadian cities, Calgary ranked fourth in proportion of visible minorities, behind Toronto, Vancouver, and Winnipeg. 20.7% of the population identified as "Canadian" in ethnic origin. [108]

Canada 2016 Census [109] Population% of total population (2016)
Visible minority group
South Asian 115,7959.5%
Chinese 87,8357.2%
Black 51,5154.2%
Filipino 67,6505.5%
Latin American 26,2652.1%
Arab 25,1902.1%
Southeast Asian 21,6101.8%
West Asian 12,6101%
Korean 10,6350.9%
Japanese 5,1700.4%
Other visible minority4,4100.4%
Mixed visible minority13,8951.1%
Total visible minority population442,58536.2%
Aboriginal group First Nations 27,9152.3%
Métis 19,7051.6%
Inuit 5500%
Total Aboriginal population46,3853.8%
European 704,04057.6%
Total population1,239,220100%

Economy

Employment by industry [110]
IndustryCalgaryAlberta
Agriculture6.1%10.9%
Manufacturing15.8%15.8%
Trade15.9%15.8%
Finance6.4%5.0%
Health and education25.1%18.8%
Business services25.1%18.8%
Other services16.5%18.7%
Labour force (2016) [111]
RateCalgaryAlbertaCanada
Employment66.9%66.3%61.2%
Unemployment10.3%9.0%6.8%
Participation74.6%72.9%65.6%

Calgary is recognized as a leader in the Canadian oil and gas industry, and its economy expanded at a significantly higher rate than the overall Canadian economy (43% and 25%, respectively) over the ten-year period from 1999 to 2009. [112] Its high personal and family incomes, [16] [113] low unemployment and high GDP per capita [114] have all benefited from increased sales and prices due to a resource boom, [112] and increasing economic diversification. In 2006 alone, Calgary accounted for approximately 66%of the employment gains in Alberta and 25% of all new jobs in Canada, year-over-year. [115]

Calgary benefits from a relatively strong job market in Alberta, is part of the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor, one of the fastest growing regions in the country. It is the head office for many major oil and gas related companies, and many financial service business have grown up around them. Small business and self-employment levels also rank amongst the highest in Canada. [113] Calgary is a distribution and transportation hub [116] with high retail sales. [113]

Calgary's economy is decreasingly dominated by the oil and gas industry, although it is still the single largest contributor to the city's GDP. In 2006, Calgary's real GDP (in constant 1997 dollars) was C$52.386 billion, of which oil, gas and mining contributed 12%. [117] The larger oil and gas companies are BP Canada, Canadian Natural Resources Limited, Cenovus Energy, Encana, Imperial Oil, Suncor Energy, Shell Canada, Husky Energy, TransCanada, and Nexen, making the city home to 87% of Canada's oil and natural gas producers and 66% of coal producers. [118]

As of November 2016, the city had a labour force of 901,700 (a 74.6% participation rate) and 10.3% unemployment rate. [119] [120] [121]

In 2013, Calgary's four largest industries by employee count were "Trade" (with 112,800 employees), "Professional, Scientific and Technical Services" (100,800 employees), "Health Care and Social Assistance" (89,200 employees), and "Construction" (81,500 employees). [122]

In 2006, the top three private sector employers in Calgary were Shaw Communications (7,500 employees), Nova Chemicals (4,945) and Telus (4,517). [123] Companies rounding out the top ten were Mark's Work Wearhouse, the Calgary Co-op, Nexen, Canadian Pacific Railway, CNRL, Shell Canada and Dow Chemical Canada. [123] The top public sector employers in 2006 were the Calgary Zone of the Alberta Health Services (22,000), the City of Calgary (12,296) and the Calgary Board of Education (8,000). [123] Public sector employers rounding out the top five were the University of Calgary and the Calgary Roman Catholic Separate School Division. [123]

In Canada, Calgary has the second-highest concentration of head offices in Canada (behind Toronto), the most head offices per capita, and the highest head office revenue per capita. [16] [113] Some large employers with Calgary head offices include Canada Safeway Limited, Westfair Foods Ltd., Suncor Energy, Agrium, Flint Energy Services Ltd., Shaw Communications, and Canadian Pacific Railway. [124] CPR moved its head office from Montreal in 1996 and Imperial Oil moved from Toronto in 2005. Encana's new 58-floor corporate headquarters, the Bow, became the tallest building in Canada outside of Toronto. [125] In 2001, the city became the corporate headquarters of the TSX Venture Exchange.

WestJet is headquartered close to the Calgary International Airport, [126] and Enerjet has its headquarters on the airport grounds. [127] Prior to their dissolution, Canadian Airlines [128] and Air Canada's subsidiary Zip were also headquartered near the city's airport. [129] Although its main office is now based in Yellowknife, Canadian North, purchased from Canadian Airlines in September 1998, still maintains operations and charter offices in Calgary. [130] [131]

According to a report by Alexi Olcheski of Avison Young published in August 2015, vacancy rates rose to 11.5 per cent in the second quarter of 2015 from 8.3 per cent in 2014. Oil and gas company office spaces in downtown Calgary are subleasing 40 per cent of their overall vacancies. [132] H&R Real Estate Investment Trust, which owns the 58-storey, 158,000-square-metre Bow Tower, claims the building was fully leased. Tenants such as Suncor "have been letting staff and contractors go in response to the downturn". [132]

Arts and culture

Calgary was designated as one of the cultural capitals of Canada in 2012. [133]

While many Calgarians continue to live in the city's suburbs, more central districts such as 17 Avenue, Kensington, Inglewood, Forest Lawn, Marda Loop and the Mission District have become more popular and density in those areas has increased.[ citation needed ] The nightlife and the availability of cultural venues in these areas has gradually begun to evolve as a result.[ citation needed ]

The Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium is home to the Alberta Ballet Company, the Calgary Opera, and the Kiwanis Music Festival. Alberta Jubilee Auditorium 2.jpg
The Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium is home to the Alberta Ballet Company, the Calgary Opera, and the Kiwanis Music Festival.

The Calgary Public Library is the city's public library network, with 20 branches loaning books, e-books, CDs, DVDs, Blu-rays, audio books, and more. Based on borrowing, the library is the second largest in Canada, and sixth-largest municipal library system in North America. The new flagship branch, the 22,000-square-metre (240,000 sq ft) Calgary Central Library in Downtown East Village, opened on November 1, 2018. [134]

Calgary is the site of the Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium performing arts, culture and community facility. The auditorium is one of two "twin" facilities in the province, the other located in Edmonton, each being locally known as the "Jube". The 2,538-seat auditorium was opened in 1957 [135] and has been host to hundreds of Broadway musical, theatrical, stage and local productions. The Calgary Jube is the resident home of the Alberta Ballet Company, the Calgary Opera, the Kiwanis Music Festival, and the annual civic Remembrance Day ceremonies. Both auditoriums operate 365 days a year, and are run by the provincial government. Both received major renovations as part of the province's centennial in 2005. [135]

The Alberta Ballet is the third largest dance company in Canada. Under the artistic direction of Jean Grand-Maître, the Alberta Ballet is at the forefront both at home and internationally. The dance company has developed a distinctive repertoire and a high level of performance. Jean Grand-Maître has become well known for his successful collaborations with pop-artists like Joni Mitchell, Elton John, and Sarah McLachlan. The Alberta Ballet resides in the Nat Christie Centre. [136] [137] [138]

The Arts Commons is a multi-venue arts centre in downtown Calgary. Epcor Centre 5.jpg
The Arts Commons is a multi-venue arts centre in downtown Calgary.

The city is also home to a number of theatre companies; among them are One Yellow Rabbit, which shares the Arts Commons building with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra, as well as Theatre Calgary, Alberta Theatre Projects and Theatre Junction GRAND, culture house dedicated to the contemporary live arts. Calgary was also the birthplace of the improvisational theatre games known as Theatresports. The Calgary International Film Festival is also held annually, as well as the International Festival of Animated Objects. [139]

Every three years, Calgary hosts the Honens International Piano Competition (formerly known as the Esther Honens International Piano Competition). The finalists of the competition perform piano concerti with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra; the laureate is awarded a cash prize (currently $100,000.00 CDN, the largest cash award of any international piano competition), and a three-year career development program. The Honens is an integral component of the classical music scene in Calgary.

Visual and conceptual artists like the art collective United Congress are active in the city. There are a number of art galleries in the downtown along Stephen Avenue; the SoDo (South of Downtown) Design District; the 17 Avenue corridor; and the neighbourhood of Inglewood, including the Esker Foundation. [140] [141] Calgary is also home to the Alberta College of Art and Design.

A number of marching bands are based in Calgary. They include the Calgary Round-Up Band, the Calgary Stetson Show Band, the Bishop Grandin Marching Ghosts, and the five-time World Association for Marching Show Bands champions, the Calgary Stampede Showband, as well as military bands including the Band of HMCS Tecumseh, the King's Own Calgary Regiment Band, and the Regimental Pipes and Drums of The Calgary Highlanders. There are many other civilian pipe bands in the city, notably the Calgary Police Service Pipe Band. [142]

A competition for bareback bronc riding during the 2011 Calgary Stampede. Calgary Stampede Rodeo final day 18 - 2011.jpg
A competition for bareback bronc riding during the 2011 Calgary Stampede.

Calgary is also home to a choral music community, including a variety of amateur, community, and semi-professional groups. Some of the mainstays include the Mount Royal Choirs from the Mount Royal University Conservatory, the Calgary Boys' Choir, the Calgary Girls Choir, the Youth Singers of Calgary, the Cantaré Children's Choir, and Spiritus Chamber Choir.

Calgary hosts a number of annual festivals and events. These include the Calgary International Film Festival, the Calgary Folk Music Festival, FunnyFest Calgary Comedy Festival, Sled Island music festival, Beakerhead arts, science and engineering festival, the Folk Music Festival, the Greek festival, Carifest, Wordfest, the Lilac Festival, GlobalFest, Otafest, the Calgary Comic and Entertainment Expo, FallCon, the Calgary Fringe Festival, Summerstock, Expo Latino, Calgary Pride, Calgary International Spoken Word Festival, [143] and many other cultural and ethnic festivals. Calgary's best-known event is the Calgary Stampede, which has occurred each July since 1912. It is one of the largest festivals in Canada, with a 2005 attendance of 1,242,928 at the 10-day rodeo and exhibition. [144]

Several museums are located in the city. The Glenbow Museum is the largest in western Canada and includes an art gallery and First Nations gallery. [145] Other major museums include the Chinese Cultural Centre (at 70,000 sq ft (6,500 m2), the largest stand-alone cultural centre in Canada), [146] Canada's Sports Hall of Fame (at Canada Olympic Park), The Military Museums, the National Music Centre and The Hanger Flight Museum.

Numerous films have been shot in Calgary and the surrounding area. Notable films shot in and around the city include: The Assassination of Jesse James, Brokeback Mountain, Dances with Wolves, Doctor Zhivago, Inception, Legends of the Fall, Unforgiven and The Revenant. [147]

The Calgary Herald and the Calgary Sun are the main newspapers in Calgary. Global, City, CTV and CBC television networks have local studios in the city.

Attractions

Featuring a mix of boutiques and high-end retailers, Stephen Avenue is a major pedestrian mall and tourist attraction in Calgary. Stephen-Ave-Trees-Szmurlo.jpg
Featuring a mix of boutiques and high-end retailers, Stephen Avenue is a major pedestrian mall and tourist attraction in Calgary.

Downtown features an eclectic mix of restaurants and bars, cultural venues, public squares (including Olympic Plaza) and shopping. Notable shopping areas include such as The Core Shopping Centre (formerly Calgary Eaton Centre/TD Square), Stephen Avenue and Eau Claire Market. Downtown tourist attractions include the Calgary Zoo, the Telus Spark, the Telus Convention Centre, the Chinatown district, the Glenbow Museum, the Calgary Tower, the Art Gallery of Calgary (AGC), The Military Museums and Arts Commons. At 1.0 hectare (2.5 acres), the Devonian Gardens is one of the largest urban indoor gardens in the world, [148] and it is located on the 4th floor of The Core Shopping Centre (above the shopping). The downtown region is also home to Prince's Island Park, an urban park located just north of the Eau Claire district. Directly to the south of downtown is Midtown and the Beltline. This area is quickly becoming one of the city's densest and most active mixed use areas.[ citation needed ] At the district's core is the popular 17 Avenue, known for its many bars and nightclubs, restaurants, and shopping venues. During the Calgary Flames' Stanley Cup run in 2004, 17 Avenue was frequented by over 50,000 fans and supporters per game night. The concentration of red jersey-wearing fans led to the street's playoff moniker, the "Red Mile". Downtown is easily accessed using the city's C-Train light rail (LRT) transit system.

Attractions on the west side of the city include the Heritage Park Historical Village, depicting life in pre-1914 Alberta and featuring working historic vehicles such as a steam train, paddle steamer and electric streetcar. The village itself comprises a mixture of replica buildings and historic structures relocated from southern Alberta. Just west of the city limits is Calaway Park Western Canada's largest outdoor family amusement park, and just north of the park across the Trans Canada Highway is the Springbank/Calgary Airport where the Wings over Springbank Airshow is held every July 18 & 19th. Other major city attractions include Canada Olympic Park, which features Canada's Sports Hall of Fame, and Spruce Meadows. In addition to the many shopping areas in the city centre, there are a number of large suburban shopping complexes in the city. Among the largest are Chinook Centre and Southcentre Mall in the south, Westhills and Signal Hill in the southwest, South Trail Crossing and Deerfoot Meadows in the southeast, Market Mall in the northwest, Sunridge Mall in the northeast, and the newly built CrossIron Mills just north of the Calgary city limits, and south of the City of Airdrie.

Skyline

Many of Calgary's tallest buildings are located downtown. Downtown Calgary 2016 - Kevin Cappis.jpg
Many of Calgary's tallest buildings are located downtown.

Downtown Calgary can be recognized by its numerous skyscrapers. Some of these structures, such as the Calgary Tower and the Saddledome are unique to Calgary. Office buildings tend to concentrate within the commercial core, while residential towers occur most frequently within the Downtown West End and the Beltline, south of downtown. These buildings are iconographic of the city's booms and busts, and it is easy to recognize the various phases of development that have shaped the image of downtown. The first skyscraper building boom occurred during the late 1950s and continued through to the 1970s.[ citation needed ] After 1980, during the recession, many high-rise construction projects were immediately halted.[ citation needed ] It was not until the late 1980s and through to the early 1990s that major construction began again, initiated by the 1988 Winter Olympics and stimulated by the growing economy.[ citation needed ]

In total, there are 14 office towers that are at least 150 m (490 ft) (usually around 40 floors) or higher. The tallest of these is Brookfield Place, which is the tallest office tower in Canada outside Toronto. The Bow, completed in 2012, is the second tallest building in Calgary. [149] Calgary's Bankers Hall Towers are also the tallest twin towers in Canada.

Sports and recreation

The grassy fields of Nose Hill Park Nose-Hill-Park-Calgary-Real-Estate.jpg
The grassy fields of Nose Hill Park

Within Calgary there are approximately 8,000 ha (20,000 acres) of parkland available for public usage and recreation. [150] These parks include Fish Creek Provincial Park, Inglewood Bird Sanctuary, Bowness Park, Edworthy Park, Confederation Park, Prince's Island Park, Nose Hill Park, and Central Memorial Park. Nose Hill Park is one of the largest municipal parks in Canada at 1,129 ha (2,790 acres). The park has been subject to a revitalization plan that began in 2006. Its trail system is currently undergoing rehabilitation in accordance with this plan. [151] [152] The oldest park in Calgary, Central Memorial Park, dates back to 1911. Similar to Nose Hill Park, revitalization also took place in Central Memorial Park in 2008–2009 and reopened to the public in 2010 while still maintaining its Victorian style. [153] A 800 km (500 mi) pathway system connects these parks and various neighbourhoods. [150] [154] Calgary also has multiple private sporting clubs including the Glencoe Club and the Calgary Winter Club.

Fish Creek Provincial Park is one of several parks located in Calgary. Fish-Creek-Park-Szmurlo.jpg
Fish Creek Provincial Park is one of several parks located in Calgary.

In large part due to its proximity to the Rocky Mountains, Calgary has traditionally been a popular destination for winter sports. Since hosting the 1988 Winter Olympics, the city has also been home to a number of major winter sporting facilities such as Canada Olympic Park (bobsleigh, luge, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, downhill skiing, snowboarding, and some summer sports) and the Olympic Oval (speed skating and hockey). These facilities serve as the primary training venues for a number of competitive athletes. Also, Canada Olympic Park serves as a mountain biking trail in the summer months.

In the summer, the Bow River is very popular among river rafters [155] and fly-fishermen. Golfing is also an extremely popular activity for Calgarians and the region has a large number of courses.[ citation needed ] The Century Downs Racetrack and Casino is a 5 1/5 furlong horse track located just north of the city. [156]

Calgary hosted the 2009 World Water Ski Championship Festival in August, at the Predator Bay Water Ski Club, approximately 40 km (25 mi) south of the city.[ citation needed ]

As part of the wider Battle of Alberta, the city's sports teams enjoy a popular rivalry with their Edmonton counterparts, most notably the rivalries between the National Hockey League's Calgary Flames and Edmonton Oilers, and the Canadian Football League's Calgary Stampeders and Edmonton Eskimos.[ citation needed ]

McMahon Stadium is the home stadium for the CFL's Calgary Stampeders and was the Olympic Stadium for the 1988 Winter Olympics. McMahon Stadium 6.jpg
McMahon Stadium is the home stadium for the CFL's Calgary Stampeders and was the Olympic Stadium for the 1988 Winter Olympics.
The Scotiabank Saddledome is a multi-use indoor arena and is home to the NHL's Calgary Flames, and the NLL's Calgary Roughnecks. Calgary skyline.jpg
The Scotiabank Saddledome is a multi-use indoor arena and is home to the NHL's Calgary Flames, and the NLL's Calgary Roughnecks.

Calgary is the hometown of the Hart wrestling family and the location of the Hart family "Dungeon", where the patriarch of the Hart Family, Stu Hart, [157] trained numerous professional wrestlers including Superstar Billy Graham, Brian Pillman, the British Bulldogs, Edge, Christian, Greg Valentine, Chris Jericho, Jushin Thunder Liger and many more. Also among the trainees were the Hart family members themselves, including WWE Hall of Fame member and former WWE champion Bret Hart and his brother, the 1994 WWF King of the Ring, Owen Hart. [157]

In 1997 Calgary hosted The World Police & Fire Games hosting over 16,000 athletes from all over the world.

Professional sports teams
ClubLeagueVenueEstablishedChampionships
Calgary Stampeders Canadian Football League McMahon Stadium 19458
Calgary Flames National Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 19801
Calgary Roughnecks National Lacrosse League Scotiabank Saddledome 20012
Cavalry FC Canadian Premier League Spruce Meadows 20180
Amateur and junior clubs
ClubLeagueVenueEstablishedChampionships
Calgary Canucks Alberta Junior Hockey League Max Bell Centre 19719
Calgary Mustangs Alberta Junior Hockey League Father David Bauer Olympic Arena 19901
Calgary Hitmen Western Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 19952
Calgary Mavericks Rugby Canada National Junior Championship Calgary Rugby Park19981
Prairie Wolf Pack Canadian Rugby Championship Calgary Rugby Park20091
Calgary Inferno Canadian Women's Hockey League Olympic Oval 20111

Government

The city is a corporate power-centre, a high percentage of the workforce is employed in white-collar jobs. The high concentration of oil and gas corporations led to the rise of Peter Lougheed's Progressive Conservative Party in 1971. [158] However, as Calgary's population has increased, so has the diversity of its politics.

Municipal politics

Calgary Municipal Building is the seat of local government for the City of Calgary. Attached to the building is Calgary's old city hall. Calgary city hall1.jpg
Calgary Municipal Building is the seat of local government for the City of Calgary. Attached to the building is Calgary's old city hall.

Calgary is governed in accordance with Alberta's Municipal Government Act (1995). [159] Calgarians elect 14 ward councillors and a mayor to Calgary City Council every four years. Naheed Nenshi was first elected mayor in the 2010 municipal election. He was re-elected in 2013 and 2017.

Three school boards operate independently of each other in Calgary, the public, the separate (catholic) and francophone systems. Both the public and separate boards have 7 elected trustees each representing 2 of 14 wards. The School Boards are considered to be part of municipal politics in Calgary as they are elected at the same time as City Council. [160]

Provincial politics

As a result of the 2015 provincial election, Calgary is represented by twenty-five MLAs, including fifteen New Democrats, seven Progressive Conservatives, and one member each of the Wildrose Party, Alberta Party and Alberta Liberal Party. [161] During this election, the Alberta Party won its first-ever seat, with MLA Greg Clark in the Calgary-Elbow riding. The Progressive Conservative Party lost the most seats, losing 13 it previously held.

Federal politics

On October 19, 2015, Calgary elected its first two Liberal federal MPs since 1968, Darshan Kang for Calgary Skyview and Kent Hehr for Calgary Centre. [162] The remaining MPs are members of the Conservative Party of Canada (CPC). [163] Before 2015, the Liberals had only elected three MPs from Calgary ridings in their entire history-- Manley Edwards (1940–1945), [164] Harry Hays (1963–1965) [165] and Pat Mahoney (1968–1972). [166]

The federal riding of Calgary Heritage was held by former Prime Minister and CPC leader Stephen Harper. That seat was also held by Preston Manning, the leader of the Reform Party of Canada; it was known as Calgary Southwest at the time. Harper is the second Prime Minister to represent a Calgary riding; the first was R. B. Bennett from Calgary West, who held that position from 1930 to 1935. Joe Clark, former Prime Minister and former leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (also a predecessor of the CPC), held the riding of Calgary Centre during his second stint in Parliament from 2000 to 2004.

The Green Party of Canada has also made inroads in Calgary, exemplified by results of the 2011 federal election where they achieved 7.7% of the vote across the city, ranging from 4.7% in Calgary Northeast to 13.1% in Calgary Centre-North. [167]

Crime

Members of the Mounted Unit of the Calgary Police Service on duty at Olympic Plaza Calgary police on horseback.JPG
Members of the Mounted Unit of the Calgary Police Service on duty at Olympic Plaza

The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) had a crime severity index of 60.4 in 2013, which is lower than the national average of 68.7. [168] A slight majority of the other CMAs in Canada had crime severity indexes greater than Calgary's 60.4. [168] Calgary had the sixth-most homicides in 2013 at 24. [168]

Military

The presence of the Canadian military has been part of the local economy and culture since the early years of the 20th century, beginning with the assignment of a squadron of Strathcona's Horse. After many failed attempts to create the city's own unit, the 103rd Regiment (Calgary Rifles) was finally authorized on April 1, 1910. Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Calgary was established as Currie Barracks and Harvie Barracks following the Second World War. The base remained the most significant Department of National Defence (DND) institution in the city until it was decommissioned in 1998, when most of the units moved to CFB Edmonton. Despite this closure there is still a number of Canadian Forces Reserve units, and cadet units garrisoned throughout the city. They include HMCS Tecumseh Naval Reserve unit, The King's Own Calgary Regiment, The Calgary Highlanders, both headquartered at the Mewata Armouries, 746 Communication Squadron, 41 Canadian Brigade Group, headquartered at the former location of CFB Calgary, 14 (Calgary) Service Battalion, 15 (Edmonton) Field Ambulance Detachment Calgary, 14 (Edmonton) Military Police Platoon Calgary, 41 Combat Engineer Regiment detachment Calgary (33 Engineer Squadron), along with a small cadre of Regular Force support. Several units have been granted Freedom of the City.

The Calgary Soldiers' Memorial commemorates those who died during wartime or while serving overseas. Along with those from units currently stationed in Calgary it represents the 10th Battalion, CEF and the 50th Battalion, CEF of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.

Infrastructure

Transportation

CTrain is Calgary's light-rail public transit system. Calgary transit CTrain (11739586804).jpg
CTrain is Calgary's light-rail public transit system.

Calgary International Airport (YYC), in the city's northeast, is a major transportation and cargo hub for much of central and western Canada. It is Canada's fourth busiest airport, serving 16.3 million passengers in 2017. [169] The airport serves as the primary gateway into Banff National Park, located 90 minutes west, and the entire Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks system. [170] Non-stop destinations include cities throughout Canada, the United States, Europe, Central America, and Asia. Calgary/Springbank Airport, Canada's eleventh busiest, [171] serves as a reliever for the Calgary International taking the general aviation traffic and is also a base for aerial firefighting aircraft.

Calgary's presence on the Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) mainline (which includes the CPR Alyth Yard) also make it an important hub for freight. The Rocky Mountaineer and Royal Canadian Pacific operates railtour service to Calgary; Via Rail no longer provides intercity rail service to Calgary since the company discontinued the Super Continental via Edmonton in 1990 and then rerouted The Canadian from Calgary to serve Edmonton.[ citation needed ]

Calgary's +15 skyway network is one of the world's most extensive pedestrian skywalk systems. Plus 15 sign and walkway Calgary.jpg
Calgary's +15 skyway network is one of the world's most extensive pedestrian skywalk systems.

Much of Calgary's street network is on a grid where roads are numbered with avenues running east–west and streets running north–south. Until 1904 the streets were named; after that date, all streets were given numbers radiating outwards from the city centre. [172] Roads in predominantly residential areas as well as freeways and expressways do not generally conform to the grid and are usually not numbered as a result. However, it is a developer and city convention in Calgary that non-numbered streets within a new community have the same name prefix as the community itself so that streets can more easily be located within the city.

Calgary Transit provides public transportation services throughout the city with buses and light rail. Calgary's light rail system, known as the C-Train, was one of the first such systems in North America (behind Edmonton LRT). It consists of four lines (two routes) and 44 stations on 58.2 km (36.2 mi) of track. The Calgary LRT is one of the continent's busiest carrying 270,000 passengers per weekday and approximately half of Calgary downtown workers take the transit to work. The C-Train is also North America's first and only LRT to run on 100% renewable energy. [173]

As an alternative to the over 260 km (160 mi) of shared bikeways on streets, the city has a network of multi-use (bicycle, walking, rollerblading, etc.) paths spanning over 635 km (395 mi). [154] The Peace Bridge provides pedestrians and cyclists, access to the downtown core from the north side of the Bow river. The bridge ranked among the top 10 architectural projects in 2012 and among the top 10 public spaces of 2012. [174]

In the 1960s, Calgary started to develop a series of pedestrian bridges, connecting many downtown buildings. [175] To connect many of the downtown office buildings, the city also boasts the world's most extensive skyway network (elevated indoor pedestrian bridges), officially called the +15. The name derives from the fact that the bridges are usually 15 ft (4.6 m) above ground. [176]

Health care

Medical centres and hospitals
Located in Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital is the largest pediatric hospital in the province. Alberta Children's Hospital 3+4.jpg
Located in Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital is the largest pediatric hospital in the province.

Calgary has four major adult acute care hospitals and one major pediatric acute care site: the Alberta Children's Hospital, the Foothills Medical Centre, the Peter Lougheed Centre, the Rockyview General Hospital and the South Health Campus. They are all overseen by the Calgary Zone of the Alberta Health Services, formerly the Calgary Health Region. Calgary is also home to the Tom Baker Cancer Centre (located at the Foothills Medical Centre), the Grace Women's Health Centre, which provides a variety of care, and the Libin Cardiovascular Institute. In addition, the Sheldon M. Chumir Centre (a large 24-hour assessment clinic), and the Richmond Road Diagnostic and Treatment Centre (RRDTC), as well as hundreds of smaller medical and dental clinics operate in Calgary. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Calgary also operates in partnership with Alberta Health Services, by researching cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes, joint injury, arthritis and genetics. [177] The Alberta children's hospital, built in 2006, replaced the old Children's Hospital.

The four largest Calgary hospitals have a combined total of more than 2,100 beds, and employ over 11,500 people. [178]

Education

Primary and secondary

The head offices for the Calgary Catholic School District is located in downtown Calgary. It is one of four publicly funded school boards operating in Calgary. Calgary Catholic School District 2.jpg
The head offices for the Calgary Catholic School District is located in downtown Calgary. It is one of four publicly funded school boards operating in Calgary.

In the 2011–2012 school year, 100,632 K-12 students enrolled in 221 schools in the English language public school system run by the Calgary Board of Education. [179] With other students enrolled in the associated CBe-learn and Chinook Learning Service programs, the school system's total enrolment is 104,182 students. [179] Another 43,000 attend about 95 schools in the separate English language Calgary Catholic School District board. [180] The much smaller Francophone community has their own French language school boards (public and Catholic), which are both based in Calgary, but serve a larger regional district. There are also several public charter schools in the city. Calgary has a number of unique schools, including the country's first high school exclusively designed for Olympic-calibre athletes, the National Sport School. [181] Calgary is also home to many private schools including Mountain View Academy, Rundle College, Rundle Academy, Clear Water Academy, Calgary French and International School, Chinook Winds Adventist Academy, Webber Academy, Delta West Academy, Masters Academy, Calgary Islamic School, Menno Simons Christian School, West Island College, Edge School, Calgary Christian School, Heritage Christian Academy, Bearspaw Christian School.

Calgary is also home to what was Western Canada's largest public high school, Lord Beaverbrook High School, with 2,241 students enrolled in the 2005–2006 school year. [182] Currently the student population of Lord Beaverbrook is 1,812 students (September 2012) and several other schools are equally as large; Western Canada High School with 2,035 students (2009) and Sir Winston Churchill High School with 1,983 students (2009).

Post-secondary

Taylor Family Digital Library at the University of Calgary. The University is the largest post-secondary institution in the city. UCalgaryTFDL.jpg
Taylor Family Digital Library at the University of Calgary. The University is the largest post-secondary institution in the city.

The publicly funded University of Calgary (U of C) is Calgary's largest degree-granting facility with an enrolment of 28,464 students in 2011. [183] Mount Royal University, with 13,000 students, grants degrees in a number of fields. SAIT Polytechnic, with over 14,000 students, provides polytechnic and apprentice education, granting certificates, diplomas and applied degrees. Athabasca University provides distance education programs.

Other publicly funded post-secondary institutions based in Calgary include the Alberta College of Art and Design, Ambrose University College (associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance and the Church of the Nazarene), Bow Valley College, St. Mary's University and the U of C. [184] The publicly funded Athabasca University, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT), and the University of Lethbridge [184] also have campuses in Calgary. [185] [186] [187]

Several independent private institutions are located in the city. This includes Reeves College, MaKami College, Robertson College, Columbia College, Alberta Bible College, and CDI College.

Media

Calgary's daily newspapers include the Calgary Herald , Calgary Sun and StarMetro.

Calgary is the sixth largest television market in Canada. [188] Broadcasts stations serving Calgary include CICT 2 (Global), CFCN 4 (CTV), CKAL 5 (City), CBRT 9 (CBC), CKCS 32 (YesTV), and CJCO 38 (Omni). Network affiliate programming from the United States originates from Spokane, Washington.

There are a wide range of radio stations, including a station for First Nations and the Asian Canadian community.


Notable people

Sister cities

The City of Calgary maintains trade development programs, cultural and educational partnerships in twinning agreements with six cities: [189] [190]

CityProvince/StateCountryDate
Quebec City QuebecCanada1956
Jaipur RajasthanIndia1973
Naucalpan Mexico StateMexico1994
Daqing HeilongjiangChina1985
Daejeon ChungnamSouth Korea1996
Phoenix [191] ArizonaUS1997

Calgary is one of nine Canadian cities, out of the total of 98 cities internationally, that is in the New York City Global Partners, Inc. organization, [192] which was formed in 2006 from the former Sister City program of the City of New York, Inc. [193]

See also

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Camrose, Alberta City in Alberta, Canada

Camrose is a city in central Alberta, Canada, amid some of the richest farmland in the prairies. It is a relatively small city which originally grew up along a railroad and now grows along Highway 13.

Medicine Hat City in Alberta, Canada

Medicine Hat is a city in southeast Alberta, Canada.is located along the South Saskatchewan River. It is approximately 169 km (105 mi) east of Lethbridge and 295 km (183 mi) southeast of Calgary. This city and the adjacent Town of Redcliff to the northwest are within Cypress County. Medicine Hat was the sixth-largest city in Alberta in 2016 with a population of 63,230.

Lethbridge City in Alberta, Canada

Lethbridge is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada, and the largest city in southern Alberta. It is Alberta's fourth-largest city by population after Calgary, Edmonton and Red Deer, and the third-largest by land area after Calgary and Edmonton. The nearby Canadian Rockies contribute to the city's warm summers, mild winters, and windy climate. Lethbridge lies southeast of Calgary on the Oldman River.

Spruce Grove City in Alberta, Canada

Spruce Grove is a city that is 11 km (6.8 mi) west of Edmonton, Alberta in Canada. The city is adjacent to the Town of Stony Plain and is surrounded by Parkland County.

Leduc, Alberta City in Alberta, Canada

Leduc is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. It is 33 kilometres (21 mi) south of the provincial capital of Edmonton and is part of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region.

Wetaskiwin City in Alberta, Canada

Wetaskiwin is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. The city is located 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of the provincial capital of Edmonton. The city name comes from the Cree word wītaskiwinihk, meaning "the hills where peace was made".

Cochrane, Alberta Town in Alberta, Canada

Cochrane is a town in the Canadian province of Alberta. The town is located 18 km (11 mi) west of the Calgary city limits along Highway 1A. With a population of 26,320 in 2017, Cochrane is the second largest town in Alberta and one of the fastest growing communities in Canada. It is part of Calgary's census metropolitan area and a member community of the Calgary Regional Partnership (CRP). The town is surrounded by Rocky View County.

Airdrie, Alberta City in Alberta, Canada

Airdrie is a city in Alberta, Canada within the Calgary Region. It is located north of Calgary within the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor at the intersection of Queen Elizabeth II Highway and Highway 567.

Brooks, Alberta City in Alberta, Canada

Brooks is a city in southeast Alberta, Canada, surrounded by the County of Newell. It is located on Highway 1 and the Canadian Pacific Railway, approximately 186 km (116 mi) southeast of Calgary, and 110 km (68 mi) northwest of Medicine Hat. The city has an elevation of 760 m (2,490 ft).

Whitecourt Town in Alberta, Canada

Whitecourt is a town in central Alberta, Canada within Woodlands County. It is located approximately 177 km (110 mi) northwest of Edmonton and 279 km (173 mi) southeast of Grande Prairie at the junction of Highway 43 and Highway 32, and has an elevation of 690 m (2,260 ft). The Whitecourt meteor impact crater is found on nearby Whitecourt Mountain.

Bowness, Calgary Neighbourhood in Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Bowness is a neighbourhood and former town in west Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The former town was amalgamated into the City of Calgary in 1964.

Lacombe, Alberta City in Alberta, Canada

Lacombe is a city in Alberta, Canada. It is located approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of Red Deer, the nearest major city, and 125 kilometres (78 mi) south of Edmonton, the nearest metropolitan area. The city is set in the rolling parkland of central Alberta, between the Rocky Mountains foothills to the west and the flatter Alberta prairie to the east.

Beaumont, Alberta City in Alberta, Canada

Beaumont is a city in Leduc County within the Edmonton Metropolitan Region of Alberta, Canada. It is located at the intersection of Highway 625 and Highway 814, adjacent to the City of Edmonton and 6.0 kilometres (3.7 mi) northeast of the City of Leduc. The Nisku Industrial Park and the Edmonton International Airport are located 4.0 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the west and 8.0 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest respectively.

Calgary–Edmonton Corridor Geographic Region in Alberta, Canada

The Calgary–Edmonton Corridor is a geographical region of the Canadian province of Alberta. It is the most urbanized area in Alberta and is one of Canada's four most urban regions. It consists of Statistics Canada Alberta census divisions No. 11, No. 8, and No. 6. Measured from north to south, the region covers a distance of approximately 400 km (250 mi). It includes the entire census metropolitan areas of Calgary and Edmonton and the census agglomerations of Red Deer and Wetaskiwin.

Downtown Calgary Neighbourhood in Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Downtown Calgary is a region of central Calgary, Alberta, it contains the second largest concentration of head offices in Canada. The region is divided into several neighbourhoods, the Central Business District, Eau Claire, Chinatown, East Village, and the West End. There are a number of districts within Downtown Calgary as well, most of them being within the Central Business District.

High River Town in Alberta, Canada

High River is a town within the Calgary Metropolitan Region of Alberta, Canada with a population of 13,584 (2016). It is 67.7 kilometres (42.1 mi) south of the City of Calgary, at the junction of Alberta Highways 2 and 23. High River is located approximately 54 km (34 mi) south of downtown Calgary.

According to the 2011 census, the City of Edmonton had a population of 812,201 residents, compared to 3,645,257 for all of Alberta, Canada. The total population of the Edmonton census metropolitan area (CMA) was 1,159,869, making it the sixth-largest CMA in Canada, while Statistics Canada estimated the CMA's 2011 population to be 1,196,342. In 2014, a municipal census indicated the city had a population of 877,926.

Demographics of Calgary

In the 2011 Census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 residents, representing 30% of the 3,645,257 residents in all of Alberta, and 3% compared to a population of 33,476,688 in all of Canada. The total population of the Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) was 1,214,839. Calgary is the largest city in Alberta, and the third-largest municipality and fourth-largest metropolitan area in Canada, as of 2016.

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Further reading