Outline of Canada

Last updated

The National Flag of Canada Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
The National Flag of Canada
Canada (orthographic projection).svg
An enlargeable map of Canada, showing its ten provinces and three territories. Geopolitical map of Canada.png
An enlargeable map of Canada, showing its ten provinces and three territories.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada:


Canada ( /ˈkænədə/ ) is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. [1] It is the world's second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest, and marine borders with France and Greenland on the east and northeast, respectively.

The lands have been inhabited for millennia by various groups of aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. [2] [3] [4] This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with King Charles III as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has a long and complex relationship.

General reference

An enlargeable map of Canada Map of Canada.jpg
An enlargeable map of Canada


Geography of Canada

Flag of the United States.svg  United States 8,893 km (5,526 miles) [5]
Flag of Greenland.svg  Greenland 1,280 m (4,200 feet) (on Hans Island)


An enlargeable satellite image of Canada Canada BMNG.png
An enlargeable satellite image of Canada

Environment of Canada

Geographic features

A satellite image of the Great Lakes. Great Lakes from space.jpg
A satellite image of the Great Lakes.


Other regions


Provinces and territories

Provinces and territories of Canada


Province, with flagPostal abbreviation/
ISO code
Other abbreviationsCapitalEntered ConfederationPopulation
(2016) [8]
Area (km2)
Flag of Ontario.svg  Ontario 1ONOnt. Toronto July 1, 186713,448,494917,741158,6541,076,395
Flag of Quebec.svg  Quebec 1QCQue., PQ, P.Q. Quebec City 8,164,3611,356,128185,9281,542,056
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg  Nova Scotia 2NSN.S. Halifax 923,59853,3381,94655,284
Flag of New Brunswick.svg  New Brunswick 2NBN.B. Fredericton 747,10171,4501,45872,908
Flag of Manitoba.svg  Manitoba 3MBMan. Winnipeg July 15, 18701,278,365553,55694,241647,797
Flag of British Columbia.svg  British Columbia 2BCB.C. Victoria July 20, 18714,648,055925,18619,549944,735
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg  Prince Edward Island 2PEPEI, P.E.I., P.E. Island Charlottetown July 1, 1873142,9075,6605,660
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg  Saskatchewan 4SKSask., SK, SKWN Regina September 1, 19051,098,352591,67059,366651,036
Flag of Alberta.svg  Alberta 4ABAlta. Edmonton 4,067,175642,31719,531661,848
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg  Newfoundland and Labrador 5NLNfld., NF, LB St. John's March 31, 1949519,716373,87231,340405,212


  1. Immediately prior to Confederation, Ontario and Quebec were part of the Province of Canada.
  2. Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island were separate colonies at the time of joining Canada.
  3. Manitoba was established simultaneously with Northwest Territories.
  4. Saskatchewan and Alberta were created out of land that had been part of Northwest Territories.
  5. Prior to its entry in Confederation, Newfoundland had been a Dominion within the British Commonwealth, but due to a financial crisis during the Depression had surrendered its right to self-government and was under direct British governance.


There are currently three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent jurisdiction and only have those powers delegated to them by the federal government.

Territory, with flagPostal abbreviation/
ISO code
Other abbreviationsCapitalEntered ConfederationPopulation
(2007) [8]
Area (km2)
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg  Northwest Territories NTN.W.T., NWT Yellowknife July 15, 187041,7861,183,085163,0211,346,106
Flag of Yukon.svg  Yukon YTY.T., YK Whitehorse June 13, 189835,874474,3918,052482,443
Flag of Nunavut.svg  Nunavut NUNV Iqaluit April 1, 199935,9441,936,113157,0772,093,190

Note: Canada did not acquire any new land to create Yukon, Alberta, Saskatchewan, or Nunavut. All of these originally formed part of Northwest Territories.


Municipalities of Canada


Demography of Canada

Demographics by political division



Government and politics

Politics of Canada

Branches of the government

Politics of Canada

Executive branch of the government

Government of Canada

Legislative branch of the government

Judicial branch of the government

Court system of Canada

Foreign relations

Foreign relations of Canada

International organization membership

Canada is a member of: [1]

Law of Canada


Military of Canada

Provincial governments

Territory governments

Politics by political division




History of Canada by period

History of Canada by political division




Culture of Canada

Culture by political division



Art in Canada


Music of Canada

Music by political division

Religion in Canada

Sport in Canada

Sport in Canada Official Sports

Other sports

Hall of Fame Museums

Economy and infrastructure

Economy of Canada

Economics by political division



Education in Canada

Education by political division



Higher Education by political division




See also


Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Provinces and territories of Canada</span> Top-level subdivisions of Canada

Canada has ten provinces and three territories that are sub-national administrative divisions under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada —united to form a federation, becoming a fully independent country over the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times as it has added territories and provinces, making it the world's second-largest country by area.

The Canadian order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the governing institutions of Canada. It has no legal standing, but is used to dictate ceremonial protocol.

Canadian Senate divisions refers to two aspects of the Senate of Canada. First, it refers to the division of Canada into four regional Senate divisions of 24 senators each, as set out in section 22 of the Constitution Act, 1867. The four regions are the Western Provinces, Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes. These regions are intended to serve the Senate's purpose of providing regional representation in the Parliament of Canada, in contrast to the popular representation that the House of Commons is intended to provide. While not within any of the original four Senate divisions, Senate seats are also allocated to Newfoundland and Labrador and the three territories. The four divisions can be expanded when the need arises to have an extra two senators appointed to each regional division.

The orders, decorations, and medals of the Canadian provinces, in which each province of Canada has devised a system of orders and other awards to honour residents for actions or deeds that benefit their local community or province, are in turn subsumed within the Canadian honours system. Each province sets its own rules and criteria for eligibility and also for how each award is presented. Most of the awards allow for the recipients to wear their awards in public, and most grant the recipients the use of post-nominal letters after their names. Not all of the awards listed below are part of the Canadian honours system, thus some of them may not be worn or court mounted with awards that are part of the Canadian honours system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Annexation Bill of 1866</span> Proposed complete annexation of British North America

The Annexation Bill of 1866 was a bill introduced on July 2, 1866, but never passed in the United States House of Representatives. It called for the annexation of British North America and the admission of its provinces as states and territories in the Union. The bill was sent to committee but never came back, was never voted upon, and did not become law. The bill never came to the United States Senate.

The provincialandterritorial courts in Canada are local trial "inferior" or "lower" courts of limited jurisdiction established in each of the provinces and territories of Canada. These courts typically hear criminal, civil, family, traffic, and bylaw cases. Unlike the superior courts of Canada, the jurisdiction of the provincial courts is limited to those matters which are permitted by statute. They have no inherent jurisdiction. Appeals of provincial court decisions are usually heard by the superior court of the province.

This is a list of leaders and office-holders of Canada. See also Canadian incumbents by year.

Crown corporations in Canada are government organizations with a mixture of commercial and public-policy objectives. They are directly and wholly owned by the Crown.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2010 Canadian Mixed Curling Championship</span>

The 2010 Canadian Mixed Curling Championship was held Nov. 14–21, 2009 at the Burlington Golf and Country Club in Burlington, Ontario. Nova Scotia won its seventh Mixed title, and skip Mark Dacey won his second title with then-wife, Heather Smith-Dacey as his mate who won her third. The team's front end of Andrew Gibson and Jill Mouzar won their first mixed title.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bibliography of Canadian provinces and territories</span> Works on the provinces and territories of Canada

This is a bibliography of works on the Provinces and territories of Canada.

The 2012 The Dominion Curling Club Championship was held from November 19 to 24 at the Scarboro Golf and Country Club in Scarborough, Ontario. In the men's final, Dan Sherrard of Alberta defeated Steve Irwin of Manitoba with a score of 7–6, stealing the winning point in the eight end. In the women's final, Caroline Deans of Ontario defeated Sonia Simard of Quebec with a score of 8–3.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Soccer at the 2013 Canada Summer Games – Men's tournament</span>

The men's soccer tournament at the 2013 Canada Summer Games was held at the Université de Sherbrooke Stadium and Bishop's University in Sherbrooke, Quebec.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prime Minister's Youth Council</span>

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The quadrennial Canada Winter Games competition has an ice hockey tournament. The participants are the provincial and territorial ice hockey associations.


  1. 1 2 "Canada". The World Factbook . United States Central Intelligence Agency. July 8, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
  2. "Territorial evolution". Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. Retrieved 2007-10-09. In 1867, the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are united in a federal state, the Dominion of Canada....
  3. "Canada: History". Country Profiles. Commonwealth Secretariat. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-10-09. The British North America Act of 1867 brought together four British colonies ... in one federal Dominion under the name of Canada.
  4. Hillmer, Norman; W. David MacIntyre. "Commonwealth". Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Project. Retrieved 2007-10-09. With CONFEDERATION in 1867, Canada became the first federation in the British Empire ...
  5. The total length of the land border between Canada and the United States is the longest between any two countries.
  6. The coastline of Canada is the longest in the world. The total length of the coast of Canada is more than five times as long as the circumference of the Earth.
  7. Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (December 15, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census - Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 24, 2023.
  8. 1 2 "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
Crown corporations