|Ruby Jubilee of Elizabeth II|
|Genre||Jubilee of British monarch|
|Date(s)||6 February 1992|
|Previous event||Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II|
|Next event||Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II|
The Ruby Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 1992 marked the 40th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms.Contrary to her Silver Jubilee in 1977, there were no widespread public celebrations of the Ruby Jubilee; it was a low-profile event. Also, the Queen did not undertake any official engagements. However, there were some observances to mark the milestone.
On 24 November 1992, a luncheon was held at the Guildhall, London to honour the Queen's Ruby Jubilee on the throne. The event was organised by the City of London Corporation and attended by more than 500 people including the Queen, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, The Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of London, and Prime Minister John Major and his wife Norma Major. Donning a dark green dress and matching hat, the Queen delivered a 'historic' speech, in which she described the year 1992 as her annus horribilis (a Latin phrase meaning 'horrible year').In that year, three of her children's marriages crumbled; a fire destroyed more than a hundred rooms in Windsor Castle; a toe-sucking scandal involving Sarah, Duchess of York, and the publication of Andrew Morton's controversial book about Diana, Princess of Wales called Diana: Her True Story caused a stir in Britain and the monarchy. As a result, the public opinion turned against the Royal Family, and due to this, the jubilee celebrations were toned down.
In addition to that, Mauritius, one of The Queen's realms, became a republic on 12 March;on 22 October during a state visit to Germany, angry demonstrators in Dresden threw eggs at her, and on 17 December, the Australian government of republican Paul Keating announced that the Queen would be dropped from the Australian citizenship oath.
Different stamps and coins marking 40 years of Elizabeth II as Queen were released by the United Kingdom (including its Crown dependencies and Overseas territories), Commonwealth realms and some former realms of The Queen.
On the Accession Day of the Queen, Prime Minister John Major and the leader of the opposition Neil Kinnock in the House of Commons gave statements of congratulations to her for reaching the milestone.On the same day, Queen Elizabeth II, wearing a purple outfit and a diamond and amethyst brooch, set out on a walkabout in the village of Snettisham near Sandringham, Norfolk, to mark the 40th anniversary of her accession to the throne. She was greeted by members of the public and they presented bouquets to the Queen.
A gala was held at the Royal Opera House on 10 February 1992 to mark the 40th anniversary of the Queen's accession. It was attended by the Queen and included a performance of Mozart's Don Giovanni.On 8 July 1992, a tribute was held at the Fountain Court of Hampton Court Palace to celebrate the Queen's Ruby Jubilee. It was attended by the Queen and Prince Philip. The tribute started after a girl presented a bouquet of red roses to the Queen. It included performances by children from all over the world to represent the Commonwealth. The Youth Ballet performed the 'Royal Kitchen Mice Polka'.
A banquet was hosted at Spencer House by Prime Minister John Major and former Prime Ministers Harold Wilson, Edward Heath, James Callaghan and Margaret Thatcher on 27 July 1992 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of The Queen's accession. The royal party that attended the banquet were the Queen, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and Charles and Diana, Prince and Princess of Wales.
A grand gala celebration of forty years of The Queen's reign, entitled 'The Great Event' , was held at London's Earl's Court on 26 October 1992. It was organized by the Royal Anniversary Trustand televised throughout the world. The gala was attended by more than 1,700 people, including the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh; Charles and Diana, the Prince and Princess of Wales; Prince Andrew, Duke of York, Prince Edward, Princess Margaret, Katharine, Duchess of Kent, Princess Michael of Kent, Prime Minister John Major, the leader of the opposition Labour Party, John Smith, the Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Chief Emeka Anyaoku, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey. The programme included performances by Dame Vera Lynn, Pearly Kings and Queens, the Sixties Tiller Girls, pop singer Cliff Richard and Lonnie Donegan. Darcey Bussell and Zoltán Solymosi, members of the Royal Ballet performed the pas de deux from Act II of Swan Lake. More than 500 children, who represented the nations of the Commonwealth, took part during the grand finale. They wore their indigenous dresses and arranged on the stage to form a map of the world.
During 'The Great Event' at London's Earl's Court, The Queen was presented with a special Commonwealth Mace, which was proposed by the Royal Anniversary Trust and approved by the Commonwealth Heads of Government at Harare Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 1991, to mark the 40th anniversary of The Queen's accession to the throne. The Queen also received fifty-two silver gilt toasting goblets, one for each of the then members of the Commonwealth. The mace itself was designed by the London-based goldsmith Gerald Benney.The Commonwealth Mace contains five kilograms of 18 carat gold, rubies, and is illustrated with the Royal Coat of Arms, the Commonwealth Symbol, and the emamelled flags of the member states of the Commonwealth. Geoffrey Munn, an antiques expert, described it as a “most marvellous tribute to her majesty’s reign and a lovely thing to see.”
A documentary film, named Elizabeth R: A Year in the Life of the Queen was made by the BBC to mark the 40th anniversary of the Queen's accession.The Royal family watched and approved of the documentary before it was broadcast on television. The film aired on 6 February 1992, the 40th Accession Day of the Queen, and it was also broadcast in more than 25 countries around the world. It gained the largest audience for a documentary in the history of British television and was watched by more than half of the British population in 1992.
An equestrian sculpture of the Queen was commissioned in 1990 in order to commemorate the Ruby Jubilee and the 125th anniversary of Confederation in 1992.The statue was unveiled on 30 June 1992 during the Queen's 1992 Royal tour of Canada, which took place until 3 July. The statue was unveiled on the grounds of Parliament Hill, situated across a statue of Queen Victoria, the first monarch of a confederated Canada.
The Queen undertook the royal tour in order to preside over several commemorations relating to the 125th anniversary of Canadian Confederation and her Ruby Jubilee.On the same day she unveiled her equestrian statue, the Queen also unveiled two stained-glass windows at Rideau Hall, one to commemorate her Ruby Jubilee, the other to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the appointment of the first Canadian-born governor general of Canada. She also presented new colours to her regiment, the Canadian Grenadier Guards. The following day, she presided over the swearing in of new members for the Queen's Privy Council of Canada, before presiding over official Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill.
During the year, the Parliament of Canada also passed a motion of congratulations to the Queen for reaching the milestone.
The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh undertook a royal tour of Australia in February 1992 in order to officiate at celebrations marking the 150th anniversary of Sydney City's Council, during her 40th year as monarch. The Queen officially opened refurbishments to the Sydney Town Hall and also the Paddock Stand at Sydney's Royal Randwick Racecourse, headquarters of the Australian Jockey Club, which also celebrated its 150th anniversary.It was also on this occasion that the Queen certified Randwick as 'Royal'.
The Prime Minister of Australia, Paul Keating, also congratulated The Queen for reaching the 40th anniversary of her accession to the throne.It was also on this occasion, that Prime Minister Keating broke royal protocol by placing his hand on the Queen's back, causing outraged British tabloid newspapers to dub him the 'Lizard of Oz'.
The Royal Australian Mint issued a special commemorative coin set, both in gold and in silver, to mark The Queen's Ruby Jubilee. Titled 'The Royal Ladies', the set consists of four proof twenty-five dollar coins commemorating the 40th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II. The reverses portray Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, Diana, Princess of Wales, The Princess Royal and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. The set also includes a medallion.
On 3 March 1992, during the second session of the 43rd New Zealand Parliament, a motion was introduced by the Prime Minister of New Zealand Jim Bolger to the Queen, in which the House offered their "warm and sincere" congratulations to the Queen of New Zealand on the 40th anniversary of her accession. Prime Minister Bolger said, "For 40 years the Queen has led the Commonwealth as a symbol of unity and a rallying point for the constitutional values that form the basis of our political system". He added, "A life of utmost decorum, a record of outstanding public service, and 40 years of political experience at the highest level are all attributes that deserve our affection, respect, and constitutional loyalty".
The Speaker Robin Gray said that the anniversary of the Queen's accession coincides with Waitangi Day, which "creates a unique bond" between the Crown and the people of New Zealand.
The motion was supported by the Opposition and was passed by the House. The House also extended its appreciation to The Duke of Edinburgh and other members of the Royal Family who supported Elizabeth II as Queen of New Zealand and as Head of the Commonwealth.
The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. In 1901, the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha succeeded the House of Hanover to the British monarchy with the accession of King Edward VII, son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. In 1917, the name of the royal house was changed from the anglicised German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the English Windsor because of anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I. There have been four British monarchs of the House of Windsor since then: George V, Edward VIII, George VI, and Elizabeth II.
A golden jubilee marks a 50th anniversary. It variously is applied to people, events, and nations.
The Royal Standards of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. Two versions of the flag exist, one for general use in England, Northern Ireland, Wales, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories; and the other for use in Scotland.
Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV was the King of Tonga, from the death of his mother, Queen Sālote Tupou III, in 1965 until his own death in 2006.
The royal standards of Canada are a set of uniquely Canadian personal flags approved by the Queen of Canada for use by members of the Canadian Royal Family. They are used to denote the presence of the bearer within any car, ship, airplane, building, or area, within Canada or when representing Canada abroad. There are six personal royal standards, one each for the Queen, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cambridge, the Princess Royal, the Duke of York, and the Earl of Wessex, as well as one standard for use more generally to denote the presence of any member of the Royal Family who has not previously been provided with a specific personal standard. The flags are part of a larger collection of Canadian royal symbols.
The Head of the Commonwealth is the "symbol of the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation that currently comprises 54 sovereign states. There is no set term of office or term limit and the role itself involves no part in the day-to-day governance of any of the member states within the Commonwealth.
The Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. It was celebrated with large-scale parties and parades throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth throughout 1977, culminating in June with the official "Jubilee Days", held to coincide with the Queen's Official Birthday. The anniversary date itself was commemorated in church services across the land on 6 February 1977, and continued to be for the rest of that month. In March, preparations started for large parties in every major city of the United Kingdom, as well as for smaller ones for countless individual streets throughout the country.
The Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II was the international celebration held in 2002 marking the 50th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II to the thrones of seven countries, upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was intended by the Queen to be both a commemoration of her 50 years as monarch and an opportunity for her to officially and personally thank her people for their loyalty.
The monarchy of Australia refers to the institution in which a person serves as Australia's sovereign and head of state, on a hereditary basis. The Australian monarchy is a constitutional monarchy, modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary government, while incorporating features unique to the Constitution of Australia.
Canadian royal symbols are the visual and auditory identifiers of the Canadian monarchy, including the viceroys, in the country's federal and provincial jurisdictions. These may specifically distinguish organizations that derive their authority from the Crown, establishments with royal associations, or merely be ways of expressing loyal or patriotic sentiment.
The history of monarchy in Canada stretches from pre-colonial times through to the present day. Canada's monarchical status began with the establishment of the French colony of New France in the name of King Francis I in 1534; although a previous claim was made by England in the name of King Henry VII in 1497 when John Cabot made landfall in what is thought to be modern day Newfoundland or Nova Scotia. Through both these lineages, the present Canadian monarchy can trace itself back to the Anglo-Saxon period and ultimately to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings. Kings and queens reigning over Canada have included the monarchs of France, those of the United Kingdom, and those of Canada. Canadian historian Father Jacques Monet said of Canada's Crown: "[it is] one of an approximate half-dozen that have survived through uninterrupted inheritance from beginnings that are older than our Canadian institution itself."
Since 1867, there have been over fifty visits by a member of the Royal Family to Australia, though only six of those came before 1954. Elizabeth II is the only reigning monarch of Australia to have set foot on Australian soil; she first did so on 3 February 1954. She was only 27 when she first visited Australia. During her sixteen journeys the Queen has visited every Australian state and the two major territories.
The monarchy of Jamaica is a constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Jamaica. The terms Crown in Right of Jamaica, Her Majesty in Right of Jamaica, or The Queen in Right of Jamaica may also be used to refer to the entire executive of the government of Jamaica. Though the Jamaican Crown has its roots in the British Crown, it has evolved to become a distinctly Jamaican institution, represented by its own unique symbols.
The image of Queen Elizabeth II has been generally favourable throughout the years. Conservative in dress, she is well known for her solid-colour overcoats and matching hats which allow her to be seen easily in a crowd. She attends many cultural events as part of her public role. Her main leisure interests include horse racing, photography, and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh corgis. Her views on political issues and other matters are largely subject to conjecture. She has never given a press interview and is otherwise not known to discuss her personal opinions publicly.
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms.
The monarch of Barbados is the sovereign and head of state of Barbados. The current Barbadian monarch and head of state, since the independence of Barbados on 30 November 1966, is Queen Elizabeth II. As the sovereign, she is the personal embodiment of the Barbadian Crown. Although the person of the sovereign is equally shared with 15 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country's monarchy is separate and legally distinct. As a result, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of Barbados and, in this capacity, she and other members of the Royal Family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of the Barbadian state. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role. The Queen lives in the United Kingdom and, while several powers are the sovereign's alone, most of the royal governmental and ceremonial duties in Barbados are carried out by the Queen's representative, the governor-general.
The year 2012 marked the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II being the 60th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II on 6 February 1952. The only Diamond Jubilee celebration for any of Elizabeth's predecessors was in 1897, for the 60th anniversary of the 1837 accession of Queen Victoria.
Operation London Bridge is the plan for what will happen in the United Kingdom after the death of Queen Elizabeth II. The plan was originally devised in the 1960s and is updated several times each year. It involves planning from government departments, the Church of England, Metropolitan Police Service, the British Armed Forces, the media, the Royal Parks, London boroughs, the Greater London Authority and Transport for London. Some critical decisions relating to the plan were made by the Queen herself, although some can only be made by her successor, after her death.
The Sapphire Jubilee of Elizabeth II on 6 February 2017, marked sixty-five years of Queen Elizabeth II's reign. The longest-reigning monarch in British history, Queen Elizabeth II is the first British monarch to have a sapphire jubilee.