|Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives|
|Style||The Right Honourable|
|Residence||Speaker's Apartments, Parliament House, Wellington|
|Nominator||New Zealand House of Representatives|
|Appointer||Governor-General of New Zealand at the behest of the House of Representatives|
|Term length|| At Her Majesty's pleasure |
elected by the House at the start of each Parliament, and upon a vacancy
|Inaugural holder||Sir Charles Clifford|
|Website||Office of the Speaker|
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politics and government of
In New Zealand, the Speaker of the House of Representatives (Māori : Te Mana Whakawā o te Whare) is the individual who chairs the country's elected legislative body, the New Zealand House of Representatives. The individual who holds the position is elected by members of the House from among their number in the first session after each general election. He or she holds one of the highest-ranking offices in New Zealand. The current Speaker is Trevor Mallard, who was initially elected on 7 November 2017.
Māori, also known as te reo, is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Closely related to Cook Islands Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian, it gained recognition as one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987. The number of speakers of the language has declined sharply since 1945, but a Māori language revitalisation effort slowed the decline, and the language has experienced a revival, particularly since about 2015.
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.
Trevor Colin Mallard is a New Zealand politician. He was formerly the Member of Parliament for the Hutt South electorate, and is currently a list MP and Speaker of the House. He was a Cabinet minister in the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand holding portfolios including Environment, Labour, Broadcasting, State Owned Enterprises, Rugby World Cup and Education. He was also Associate Minister of Finance. In the 51st Parliament, he was the Labour Party spokesperson for Internal Affairs, and Sport and Recreation.
The speaker's role in presiding over New Zealand's House of Representatives is similar to that of speakers elsewhere in other countries that use the Westminster system. The speaker presides over the House's debates, determining which members may speak; the speaker is also responsible for maintaining order during debate, and may discipline members who break the rules of the House. Aside from duties relating to presiding over the House, the speaker also performs administrative and procedural functions, and remains a Member of Parliament (MP).
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in England, now a constituent country within the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the British Parliament. The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature. It is used, or was once used, in the national and subnational legislatures of most former British Empire colonies upon gaining responsible government, beginning with the first of the Canadian provinces in 1848 and the six Australian colonies between 1855 and 1890. However, some former colonies have since adopted either the presidential system or a hybrid system as their form of government.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Member of Congress is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions.
The speaker's most visible role is that of presiding over the House of Representatives when it is in session.The speaker presides from the elevated 'Speaker's Chair' behind the Table in the debating chamber. This involves overseeing the order in which business is conducted, and determining who should speak at what time. The speaker is also responsible for granting or declining requests for certain events, such as a snap debate on a particular issue.
An important part of the speaker's role is enforcing discipline in the House.The speaker defers to 'Standing Orders', which are the written rules of conduct governing the business of the House. Included in these rules are certain powers available to the speaker to ensure reasonable behaviour by MPs, including the ability to order disruptive MPs to leave the debating chamber. If an MP feels one of these rules has been breached by another member, he or she can interrupt a debate by using a procedure known as a 'point of order'. The speaker must then determine whether the complaint is just. Earlier Speaker's rulings on similar points of order are referred to in considering the point raised. The clerk of the House, who sits directly in front of the speaker, assists the speaker in making such rulings.
In parliamentary procedure, a point of order occurs when someone draws attention to a rules violation in a meeting of a deliberative assembly.
The Clerk of the New Zealand House of Representatives is an officer of the New Zealand House of Representatives and is the principal officer of the Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
By convention, speakers have traditionally been addressed inside the debating chamber as "Mr Speaker" or "Madam Speaker".
The speaker is also responsible for directing and overseeing the administration and security of the buildings and grounds of Parliament (including the Beehive, Parliament House, Bowen House and the Parliamentary Library building), and the general provision of services to members.In doing so, the speaker consults and receives advice from the Parliamentary Service Commission, which comprises MPs from across the House.
As the most senior office of Parliament, the speaker has other statutory responsibilities, for example under the Electoral Act 1993. [ citation needed ]In this role a portion of the Parliament Buildings are given over to the speaker. Known as the Speaker's Apartments these include his personal office, sitting rooms for visiting dignitaries and a small residential flat which the speaker may or may not use as living quarters.
The speaker chairs three select committees:
The Business Committee chaired by the speaker controls the organisation of the business of the House. Also on the committee, established after the first MMP election in 1996, is the leader of the House, the Opposition shadow leader and the whips of each party.
The speaker is expected to conduct the functions of the office in a neutral manner, even though the speaker is generally a member of the governing party.Only three people have held the office despite not being from the governing party. In 1923, Charles Statham (an independent, but formerly a member of the Reform Party) was backed by Reform so as not to endanger the party's slim majority, and later retained his position under the Liberal Party. In 1993, Peter Tapsell (a member of the Labour Party) was backed by the National Party for the same reason. Bill Barnard, who had been elected Speaker in 1936, resigned from the Labour Party in 1940 but retained his position.
Historically, a speaker lost the right to cast a vote, except when both sides were equally balanced. The speaker's lack of a vote created problems for a governing party – when the party's majority was small, the loss of the speaker's vote could be problematic. Since the shift to MMP in 1996, however, the speaker has been counted for the purposes of casting party votes, to reflect the proportionality of the party's vote in the general election. The practice has also been for the speaker to participate in personal votes, usually by proxy.In the event of a tied vote the motion in question lapses.
The speaker is always a member of Parliament, and is elected to the position by other members of Parliament at the beginning of a parliamentary term. If the office becomes vacant during a parliamentary term then the House must elect a new speaker when it next sits.
The election of a speaker is presided over by the clerk of the House. It is not unusual for an election to be contested. If there are two candidates, members vote in the lobbies for their preferred candidate. In the case of three or more candidates, a roll-call vote is conducted and the candidate with the fewest votes eliminated, with the process continuing (or reverting to a two-way run-off) until one candidate has a majority. Members may vote only if they are present in person: no proxy votes are permitted.
It is traditional for the speaker to 'pretend' he or she did not want to accept the position. Upon election the Speaker is 'dragged' to the Speaker's Chairin a practice dating from the days when British speakers risked execution if the news they reported to the king was displeasing.
After being elected by the House, the speaker-elect is confirmed in office by the governor-general.At the start of a term of Parliament, the newly confirmed speaker follows the tradition of claiming the privileges of the House.
Each day, prior to the sitting of the House of Representatives, the speaker and other officials travel in procession from the speaker's personal apartments to the debating chamber. The procession includes the doorkeeper, the serjeant-at-arms, the speaker and the speaker's assistant. When the speaker reaches the chamber, the serjeant-at-arms announces the Speaker's arrival and places the Mace on the Table of the House.
As of 2013 [update] , the annual salary is NZ$268,500. [ needs update ]
The office is third most important constitutionally, after the governor-general and the prime minister.(See New Zealand order of precedence.)
Originally, speakers wore a gown and formal wig in the chamber. This practice has fallen into disuse since the 1990s.Speakers now generally wear what they feel appropriate, usually an academic gown of their highest held degree or a Māori cloak.
The current Speaker is Trevor Mallard, a member of the Labour Party.
Since the creation of Parliament, 29 people have held the office of speaker. Two people have held the office on more than one occasion. A full list of speakers is below.
† indicates Speaker died in office.
Independent Liberal Reform United Labour Democratic Labour National
|No.||Name||Portrait||Term of Office||Prime Minister|
|1||Sir Charles Clifford||31 May 1854||12 December 1860||Sewell|
|2||David Monro||28 March 1861||13 September 1870||Fox|
|3||Dillon Bell||23 February 1871||21 October 1875|
|4||William Fitzherbert||29 January 1876||11 August 1879||Vogel|
|5||Maurice O'Rorke||24 September 1879||17 September 1890||Hall|
|6||William Steward||23 January 1891||8 November 1893||Ballance|
|(5)||Maurice O'Rorke||21 June 1894||3 October 1902|
|7||Arthur Guinness||29 June 1903||10 June 1913†|
|8||Frederic Lang||10 June 1913||31 October 1922|
|9||Charles Statham||7 February 1923||1 November 1935|
|10||Bill Barnard||27 November 1935||25 September 1943||Savage|
|11||Frederick Schramm||25 September 1943||12 October 1946|
|12||Robert McKeen||24 June 1947||21 October 1949|
|13||Matthew Oram||27 June 1950||25 October 1957||Holland|
|14||Robert Macfarlane||21 January 1958||28 October 1960||Nash|
|15||Ronald Algie||20 June 1961||26 November 1966||Holyoake|
|16||Roy Jack||26 April 1967||7 June 1972|
|17||Alfred E. Allen||7 June 1972||26 October 1972|
|18||Stanley Whitehead||14 February 1973||10 October 1975||Kirk|
|(16)||Roy Jack||22 June 1976||24 December 1977†||Muldoon|
|19||Richard Harrison||24 December 1977||14 July 1984|
|20||Basil Arthur||14 July 1984||1 May 1985†||Lange|
|21||Gerard Wall||1 May 1985||15 August 1987|
|22||Kerry Burke||15 August 1987||6 November 1990|
|23||Robin Gray||27 October 1990||6 November 1993||Bolger|
|24||Peter Tapsell||7 November 1993||12 October 1996|
|25||Doug Kidd||12 October 1996||5 December 1999|
|26||Jonathan Hunt||5 December 1999||3 March 2005||Clark|
|27||Margaret Wilson||3 March 2005||8 November 2008|
|28||Lockwood Smith||8 November 2008||1 February 2013||Key|
|29||David Carter||1 February 2013||7 November 2017|
|30||Trevor Mallard||7 November 2017||Incumbent||Ardern|
Three other chair occupants deputise for the Speaker:
Between 1854 and 1992, the Chairman of Committees chaired the House when in Committee of the whole House (i.e., taking a bill's committee stage) and presided in the absence of the Speaker or when the Speaker so requested. These arrangements were based on those of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.Until 1992, the Chairman of Committees was known as the Deputy Speaker only when presiding over the House. That year, the position of Deputy Speaker was made official, and the role of Chairman of Committees was discontinued. The first Deputy Speaker was appointed on 10 November 1992.
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