Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand

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Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Te Ara New Zealand Encyclopedia, logo.png
Type of site
Online encyclopedia
Available inEnglish, Māori
Headquarters Wellington, New Zealand
Owner Ministry for Culture and Heritage
URL www.teara.govt.nz
CommercialNo
Launched2005
Current statusFirst build completed 2014

Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand is an online encyclopedia established in 2001 by the New Zealand Government's Ministry for Culture and Heritage. [1] The web-based content was developed in stages over the next several years; the first sections were published in 2005, and the last in 2014 marking its completion. [2] Te Ara means "the pathway" in the Māori language, and contains over three million words in articles from over 450 authors. Over 30,000 images and video clips are included from thousands of contributors. [3]

Contents

History

New Zealand's first recognisable encyclopedia was The Cyclopedia of New Zealand , a commercial venture compiled and published between 1897 and 1908 in which businesses or people usually paid to be covered. In 1966 the New Zealand Government published An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand , its first official encyclopedia, in three volumes. Although now superseded by Te Ara, its historical importance led to its inclusion as a separate digital resource within the Te Ara website. [4]

Te Ara was developed between 2001 and 2014 and edited by historian Jock Phillips, who oversaw a full-time staff of about 20 writers, editors, image and resource researchers and designers during its creation. [5] In 2010 during the development of the encyclopedia, the decision was made to integrate the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography into Te Ara. [6] On completion of the work in 2014, Jock Phillips' contribution to the project was recognised with a Prime Minister's Award for Literary Achievement. [7] The encyclopedia entered a maintenance phase and is now kept updated by a dedicated research team within the Ministry for Culture and Heritage.

Structure

The encyclopedia is organised into several sections by broad themes, and entries on topics relating substantially to Māori culture are published in both Māori and English languages. The encyclopedia launched in 2005 with the first theme, focused on telling the stories of New Zealanders. It covers the migration of peoples to New Zealand, and the history of their settlement – both New Zealand's indigenous Māori and other groups. An overview section, "New Zealand in Brief", presents concise information and facts about the country. "Earth, Sea and Sky" published in 2006 covers ocean fish, sea and shorebirds and other marine life, the interactions of people and the sea, the country's natural resources, and shaping forces such as geology, volcanology, weather and climate. Distinctively New Zealand features are the main focus of the content, and scientific and technical data is presented within its social and human context. In 2007, "The Bush" was published, covering New Zealand's indigenous landscapes, forests, plants and animals, and the ways that people have used them or attempted to understand them. Topics also include early mapping, tramping, conifer–broadleaf forests, native fauna, taniwha, Māori exploration, threatened species, and logging native forests. [8] Later themes were "The Settled Landscape" (2008), "Economy and the City" (2010), "Social Connections" (2010), "Government and Nation" (2012), "Daily Life, Sport and Recreation" (2013), and "Creative and Intellectual Life" (2014). [9]

Colorful stripes (Website element) used in the online edition of Te Ara. Each colour signifies a different section of content. Colorful stripes of "Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand".png
Colorful stripes (Website element) used in the online edition of Te Ara. Each colour signifies a different section of content.

See also

Related Research Articles

Māori culture Customs, cultural practices, and beliefs of the indigenous Māori people of New Zealand

Māori culture is the customs, cultural practices, and beliefs of the indigenous Māori people of New Zealand. It originated from, and is still part of, Eastern Polynesian culture. Māori culture forms a distinctive part of New Zealand culture and, due to a large diaspora and the incorporation of Māori motifs into popular culture, is found throughout the world. Within Māoridom, and to a lesser extent throughout New Zealand as a whole, the word Māoritanga is often used as an approximate synonym for Māori culture, the Māori-language suffix -tanga being roughly equivalent to the qualitative noun-ending -ness in English. Māoritanga has also been translated as "[a] Māori way of life."

<i>Tino rangatiratanga</i>

Tino rangatiratanga is a Māori language term that is often translated as "absolute sovereignty". It appears in the Māori version of the Treaty of Waitangi, signed by the British Crown and Māori chiefs (rangatira) in 1840.

Kiwi (people) Nickname for New Zealanders

"Kiwi" is a common self-reference used by New Zealanders, though it is also used internationally. Unlike many demographic labels, its usage is not considered offensive; rather, it is generally viewed as a symbol of pride and endearment for the people of New Zealand. The name derives from the kiwi, a native flightless bird, which is a national symbol of New Zealand. Until the First World War, the kiwi represented the country and not the people; however, by 1917, New Zealanders were also being called "Kiwis", supplanting other nicknames such as "Enzedder".

Koru Spiral shape of an unfurling fern frond

The koru is a spiral shape based on the appearance of a new unfurling silver fern frond. It is an integral symbol in Māori art, carving and tattooing, where it symbolises new life, growth, strength and peace. Its shape "conveys the idea of perpetual movement," while the inner coil "suggests returning to the point of origin".

Mount Hikurangi (Gisborne District)

Mount Hikurangi is a 1,752 m (5,748 ft) peak in the eastern corner of New Zealand's North Island, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Gisborne, and 50 kilometres (31 mi) southwest of the East Cape Lighthouse. On a spur of the Raukumara Range in the Waiapu Valley, it is the North Island's highest non-volcanic peak.

The Waiapu River is a river in the Gisborne District of the North Island of New Zealand, with a total length of approximately 130 kilometres (81 mi). Found in the north-east of the Waiapu Valley, it flows north-east from the joining of the Mata River and the Tapuaeroa River, then passes by Ruatoria before reaching the Pacific Ocean at Rangitukia. Other tributaries of the Waiapu River include the Mangaoporo, Poroporo, Wairoa, Maraehara rivers, and the Paoaruku stream. It is the most well known river in the region, and lies within the rohe (territory) of Ngāti Porou, the largest iwi on the East Coast, and second largest in New Zealand. The area was the site of hostilities during the New Zealand Wars from June to October in 1865, both between Pākehā and Māori, and between factions of Ngāti Porou.

Christchurch Girls High School State single sex girls secondary (year 9–13) with boarding facilities. school in Christchurch, New Zealand

Christchurch Girls' High School in Christchurch, New Zealand, was established in 1877 and is the second oldest girls-only secondary school in the country, after Otago Girls' High School.

<i>An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand</i>

An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand was an official encyclopaedia about New Zealand, published in three volumes by the Government of New Zealand in 1966. Edited by Dr. Alexander Hare McLintock, the parliamentary historian, and assisted by two others, the encyclopaedia included over 1,800 articles and 900 biographies, written by 359 contributing authors.

In Māori tradition, Kahutara was one of the great ocean-going, voyaging canoes that was used in the migrations that settled New Zealand.

Ministry for Culture and Heritage

The Ministry for Culture and Heritage is the department of the New Zealand Government responsible for supporting the arts, culture, built heritage, sport and recreation, and broadcasting sectors in New Zealand and advising government on such.

Jock Phillips

John Oliver Crompton Phillips is a New Zealand historian, author and encyclopedist. He was the general editor of Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, the official encyclopedia of New Zealand.

Whangārei Harbour Place

Whangārei Harbour is a large harbour on the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand.

Waipiro Bay Place in Gisborne Region, New Zealand

Waipiro Bay is a small coastal settlement in the Gisborne District on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The name also refers to the bay that the settlement is built on. It was named Waipiro by Chief Paoa, which translates literally to "putrid water", referring to the area's sulphuric properties. It is in the Waiapu ward, along with nearby towns Te Puia Springs, Tokomaru Bay, and Ruatoria. It is located 15 km (9 mi) south of Ruatoria, 77 km (48 mi) north-east of Gisborne, and 41 km (25 mi) south-west of the East Cape Lighthouse, the easternmost point of mainland New Zealand. By road, it is 103 km (64 mi) from Gisborne, and 231 km (144 mi) from Ōpōtiki. Waipiro Bay is governed by the Gisborne District Council, and is in the East Coast electorate.

Waiapu Valley Place in Gisborne Region, New Zealand

Waiapu Valley, also known as the Waiapu catchment, Waiapu River valley or simply Waiapu, is a valley in the north of the Gisborne Region on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand. It is the catchment area for the Waiapu River and its tributaries, and covers 1,734 square kilometres (670 sq mi). The Raukumara Range forms the western side of the valley, with Mount Hikurangi in the central west. The towns of Ruatoria and Tikitiki are in the north-east of the valley.

Opepe, New Zealand Place in Taupo District, New Zealand

Opepe was a settlement in New Zealand, a few miles southwest of Taupo. It was the scene of an attack between European militia and Maori on 7 June 1869 in which nine members of the militia were killed.

Housing in New Zealand Overview of housing in New Zealand

Housing in New Zealand was traditionally based on the quarter-acre block, detached suburban home, but many historical exceptions and alternative modern trends exist. New Zealand has largely followed international designs. From the time of organised European colonization in the mid-19th century there has been a general chronological development in the types of homes built in New Zealand, and examples of each generation are still commonly occupied.

Mental health in New Zealand

Mental health in New Zealand generally follows the trends of mental health in other OECD countries. New Zealand's 'outdoor life style' and high standard of living are balanced by isolation and a self-reliant culture, which discourages asking for help. Historically, people with mental health problems were institutionalised, whereas now the focus is on care in the wider community. The stigma around poor mental health has been lessened in recent years as a result of this change and public education campaigns. However, New Zealand's minorities and youth continue to be over-represented in the negative mental health statistics.

Cartography of New Zealand

The Cartography of New Zealand is the history of surveying and creation of maps of New Zealand. Surveying in New Zealand began with the arrival of Abel Tasman in the mid 17th century. Cartography and surveying have developed in incremental steps since that time till the integration of New Zealand into a global system based on GPS and the New Zealand Geodetic Datum 2000.

Kahupeka was a Maori healer in the 1400s who helped pioneer herbal medicine in New Zealand. She is remembered in oral history as a Tainui explorer who travelled the North Island experimenting with herbal medicines. She is well known for her travels throughout New Zealand, and for naming multiple place locations.

References

  1. Phillips, Jock (2003). "The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand: Te Ara". New Zealand Journal of History. 37 (1): 80–89. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  2. "Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  3. Butcher, Nick (23 October 2014). "Te Ara – Encyclopedia of NZ completed". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  4. "1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand". Te Ara. Manatū Taonga / Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
  5. McCarthy, Angela (5 March 2008). "My job: Researcher, the Encyclopedia of New Zealand". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  6. "Te Ara – a history – Biographies". Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  7. Manatū Taonga / Ministry For Culture And Heritage (20 October 2014). "Jock Phillips receives PM's Award for Literary Achievement" (Press release). Scoop Media. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  8. Brown-May, Andrew (2007). "Review – Te Ara: The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of History. 41 (2): 227–229. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  9. "Who is Te Ara?". Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 12 November 2016.