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New Zealand national politics have featured a pervasive party system since the early 20th century. Usually, all members of Parliament's unicameral House of Representatives belong to a political party. Independent MPs do not occur often.
While two major parties have dominated the New Zealand national political landscape for decades, the introduction of proportional representation in 1996 led to a more multi-party state, as smaller parties can now reasonably expect to gain seats in government. Currently (as of July 2020 [update] ), five parties have representatives in Parliament.
New Zealand's party system did not arise until the late 1800s. Prior to this, members of Parliament stood as independent candidates, and while some MPs joined factions, these typically were formed around prominent individuals such as Julius Vogel, and did so after election not before.
The Liberal Party, which was formed in 1891, was New Zealand's first 'modern' political party.It was the country's sole political party until the formation of the more conservative Reform Party in 1909.
The Labour Party formed in 1916 and by 1919 these three parties dominated New Zealand politics. [ citation needed ] After Labour won office in 1935, the Liberals (then known as the United Party) and Reform came together in 1936 to form the National Party. Labour and National currently exist as the two main parties of New Zealand politics.Gradually, Liberal and Reform found themselves working together more often, mostly in opposition to the growing Labour Party.
Over the years, a number of third parties or so-called minor parties developed, notably the Social Credit Party, the New Zealand Party, the Values Party, and the Alliance. However, the first past the post (FPP) electoral system meant that regardless of how many votes a party gained nationwide, it could not win a seat without a plurality in a particular electorate (voting district). For example, the Social Credit Party won over 11% of the votes cast in the 1954 New Zealand general election but did not have a plurality in any electorate so won no seats. Similarly, in the 1984 New Zealand general election the New Zealand Party received over 12% of the votes cast but also won no seats. Under such conditions, minor parties mostly performed poorly in terms of making an impact in Parliament.
In 1993, the Electoral Act 1993 was passed, introducing the mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system for the 1996 election. Now, any party that won at least 5% of the party vote entered Parliament, as well as the previous electorate pathway. [ citation needed ] Since the change to MMP, Parliament has had at least five parties represented at any time.This made it much easier for smaller parties to enter Parliament, but more difficult to gain elected as a non-party independent.
Political parties in New Zealand can be either registered or unregistered. Registered parties must have five-hundred paying members, each eligible to vote in general elections.
If a party registers, it may submit a party list, enabling it to receive party votes in New Zealand's MMP electoral system. Unregistered parties can only nominate candidates for individual electorates.
Registered political parties are also able to spend up to $1 million during the campaign for the party vote. All political parties are able to spend $20,000 per electorate seat.[ needs update ][ citation needed ]
There are five parliamentary parties in the 53rd New Zealand Parliament.The default order of this list corresponds to the number of MPs they currently have.
|Labour Party||Jacinda Ardern||1916||1916–present||Centre-left||Labour is usually described as a social democratic party. Founded in 1916, it is the oldest extant party in New Zealand. It supports a mixed economy, with higher taxation for the upper class, levied to fund its social programmes.|
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|National Party||Judith Collins||1936||1936–present||Centre-right||National is commonly described as an economically liberal and socially conservative party. Founded in 1936, it has traditionally been Labour's main opponent. National supports a market economy and lower taxation, particularly as a stimulus for private enterprise.|
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|Green Party||James Shaw and Marama Davidson||1990||1997–present||Left-wing||In accordance with the charter of the Global Greens, the Green Party advocates "ecological wisdom, social responsibility, appropriate decision making, and nonviolence". The party has an environmentalist platform, and also promotes progressive social policies.|
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|ACT||David Seymour||1994||1996–present||Right-wing||As a classical-liberal party ACT promotes free-market economics, low taxation, and reduced government expenditure. It sees itself as promoting "accountability and transparency in government".|
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|Māori Party||Rawiri Waititi and Debbie Ngarewa-Packer||2004||2004–2017|
|Centre-left||A party that advocates for the concerns of New Zealand's indigenous Māori, Māori Party formed in 2004 around Tariana Turia, a former minister of the Labour Party. It promotes what it sees as "the rights and interests of Māori".|
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Parties listed in alphabetical order:
|Advance New Zealand||Jami-Lee Ross||2020||A party founded by former National Party MP Jami-Lee Ross.|
|Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party||Maki Herbert and Michael Appleby||1996||A single-issue party dedicated to the legalisation of cannabis.|
|Heartland New Zealand Party||Mark Ball||2020||The party is rural-based, and opposes the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme, the Paris Agreement, and any attempts to limit the environmental impacts of agriculture.|
|New Conservative||Vacant||2011||A fiscally and socially conservative party advocating stricter law and order policies, repeal of the Emissions Trading Scheme, and the use of binding referenda.|
|NZ First||Winston Peters||1993||1993–2008|
|A nationalist, populist party. It aims "To put New Zealand and New Zealanders First", and has advanced restrictive immigration policies. The party supports benefits for senior citizens, and advocates buying back former state-owned enterprises.|
|ONE Party||Edward Shanly and Stephanie Harawira||2020||The ONE Party describes itself as a strong Christian voice championing Godly values, promoting "Righteousness, Justice, Truth & Freedom".|
|New Zealand Outdoors Party||Alan Simmons and Sue Grey||2015||A party advocating protection of NZ's outdoor heritage.|
|Social Credit Party||Chris Leitch||1953||1966–69|
|A political party that advocates for social credit monetary reform.|
|The Opportunities Party (TOP)||Shai Navot||2016||A party supporting evidence-based policy, "a prosperous, fair and equitable society", and environmental sustainability.|
|Sustainable New Zealand Party||Vernon Tava||2019||Established by Vernon Tava, the party describes itself as centrist and environmentally focussed, and would be willing to work with both National and Labour.|
|Tea Party New Zealand||John Hong and Susanna Kruger||2020||Socially democratic, fiscally conservative, anti-racist.|
|Vision NZ||Hannah Tamaki||2019||A Christian, right-wing populist political party. Originally named Coalition New Zealand, it was created by Hannah and Brian Tamaki, leaders of the Destiny Church.|
Because New Zealand does not require political parties to be registered, any person can announce a political party, though may not receive media coverage or go on to contest an election. It can also be difficult to determine when such parties have ceased operating or moved away from politics. The list below lists active, notable parties, such as those that intend to contest the next general election.
|Attica Project||Mike Iles and Michael Kay||2020||An anti-neoliberal party.|
|Communist League||1969||A communist party aligned with the Pathfinder tendency. The party was originally called the Socialist Action League, but changed its name when it rejected Trotskyism and adopted a pro-Cuba stance. The party stands a small number of candidates in general elections.|
|Harmony Network NZ||2020|
|The Integrity Party of Aotearoa New Zealand (TIPANZ)||Helen Cartwright||2020||Progressive-centrist party.|
|Internet Party||vacant||2014||A party advocating for less surveillance, copyright reform and cheap internet. The Internet Party contested the 2014 general election in an alliance called Internet Party and Mana Movement, and contested the 2017 election on its own.|
|Mana Movement||Hone Harawira||2011||2011–14||A party addressing the concerns of New Zealand's indigenous Māori minority. Its manifesto indicates a wish to "guarantee a measure of people power and accountability from its MPs". It supports left-wing social policies. In 2014 it contested the general election as part of an alliance called the Internet Party and Mana Movement.|
|Money Free Party||Richard Osmaston||2014||A party advocating for a resource-based economy, a world of free access where all work is voluntary. It stood candidates in the 2014 and 2017 general elections as well as some local elections.|
|New Zealand People's Party||Anil Sharma||2015||A component party of Advance New Zealand. A party with a focus on representing Chinese and Indian voters and a law and order platform. The People's Party was a registered party from 2015 to 2019, then in 2020 it became a component party of Advance.|
|Not A Party||2015||A party advocating voluntaryism.|
|Progressive Party of Aotearoa New Zealand||Bruce Dyer||2020||A progressive party supporting the Progressive Utilization Theory of Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, economic democracy and the transformation of large businesses into cooperatives.|
|Socialist Aotearoa||Anu Kaloti||2008||A revolutionary socialist party. They hold strong pro-immigration, pro-refugee, anti-war and anti-racism stances.|
|Liberal Party||1891||1927||1891–1927||New Zealand's first political party. It provided the country with a number of prominent Prime Ministers, including John Ballance and Richard Seddon. With much of its traditional support undercut by the growing Labour Party, the remnants of the Liberals (known as the United Party) eventually merged with the Reform Party to form the modern National Party.|
|New Liberal Party||1905||1908||1905–1908||A party formed by Liberal Party dissidents. Its members were opposed to Liberal leader, Richard Seddon, seeing him as an autocrat. The party proposed a more "progressive" policy seeing the current Liberal policy as too cautious and orthodox. The New Liberal's lost much support after the infamous "voucher incident", leaving them discredited.|
|Independent Political Labour League||1905||1910||1908–1910||A small and short-lived left-wing party. It was the second organised party to win a seat in Parliament, with David McLaren winning the seat of Wellington East. In Parliament, the IPLL co-operated with the governing Liberal Party.|
|Reform Party||1909||1936||1909–1936||New Zealand's second major political party, established as a more conservative opponent to the Liberal Party. Its founder, William Massey, became its most prominent leader. It eventually merged with its former rivals, United, to form the modern National Party.|
|Labour Party (original)||1910||1912||1910–1912||A short-lived successor to the Independent Political Labour League. It functioned as one of the more moderate workers' parties, opposing more radical groups like the Socialist Party. It should not be confused with the modern Labour Party, although a certain degree of continuity links the two.|
|United Labour Party||1912||1916||1912–1916||A reformed continuation of the original Labour Party. The party existed only a short time before merging with the Socialist Party to form the Social Democratic Party, although a faction rejected the new SDP as too extreme and continued on under the United Labour Party banner eventually likewise merging in 1916.|
|Social Democratic Party||1913||1922||1913–1916||An early left-wing party established at a "Unity Congress" in July 1913 as an attempt to bring together the various labour groups of the time. The party eventually amalgamated with the modern Labour Party.|
|Country Party||1922||1938||1928–1938||A party established by members of the Farmers' Union to promote the interests of the rural sector. It reflected to an extent social credit monetary theory, and believed that farmers were not treated fairly by banks and the corporate world.|
|United Party||1927||1936||1927–1936||A party formed from the remnants of the Liberal Party. United governed between 1928 and 1935, initially with Labour support and later in coalition with the Reform Party. It eventually merged with Reform to establish the modern National Party.|
|Democratic Labour Party||1940||1949||1940–1943||A splinter from the Labour Party led by dissident MP John A. Lee. Lee, a socialist and social creditist, believed that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The Labour Party hierarchy had expelled him after he repeatedly criticised its leadership.|
|NewLabour Party||1989||2000||1989–1991||A left-wing party established by former Labour MP Jim Anderton. It contested one election before joining with several other parties to establish the Alliance.|
|Christian Heritage NZ||1990||2006||1999||A party that advocates Christian conservative values. It supported policies to strengthen marriage and opposed abortion and same-sex unions.|
|Alliance||1991||2015||1991–2002||A left-wing party supporting the welfare state, free education, environmental protection, and Māori interests. The Progressive Party formed as a splinter group from the Alliance when Jim Anderton, former Alliance leader, left.|
|Liberal Party||1991||1998||1991-1992||A short-lived splinter from the National Party, formed by Hamish McIntyre and Gilbert Myles, two dissident National MPs who disagreed with the economic policies of Ruth Richardson. The Liberal Party quickly joined the Alliance, which the two saw as the principal opponent of Richardson and her ideological allies.|
|New Zealand Conservative Party||1994||1996||1994–1996||Initially called the Right of Centre Party, it was founded by breakaway National MP, Ross Meurant. After the general election of 1996, the remnants of the party amalgamated with the United Party.|
|Future New Zealand||1994||1995||1994–1995||A short-lived party established by Peter Dunne after he left the Labour Party. It integrated into the United New Zealand party. Not to be confused with a later party of the same name.|
|Christian Democrats||1995||1998||1995–1996||A Christian party established by sitting National MP Graeme Lee. After briefly establishing the Christian Coalition (see above) with the Christian Heritage Party, the Christian Democrats secularised themselves, adopting the name "Future New Zealand". Future New Zealand merged with United (see below) to form United Future New Zealand.|
|United New Zealand||1995||2000||1995–2000||A centrist party established by moderate MPs from both National and Labour. The party did not achieve electoral success, with only one of the seven founding MPs managing to remain in Parliament. United later merged with the Future New Zealand party to form the modern United Future New Zealand.|
|Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata||1998||2001||1998–1999||A short-lived Māori feminist party established by Alliance (Mana Motuhake) defector Alamein Kopu. The party contested only one general election before vanishing.|
|Mauri Pacific||1999||2001||1999||A party established by several New Zealand First MPs shortly after a coalition between New Zealand First and the National Party broke down. Mauri Pacific remained allied to the National government, giving it crucial support, but none of the party's MPs gained re-election in the 1999 election.|
|United Future||2000||2017||2000–2017||A centrist party, originally with a strong Christian background: it described its platform as "common sense". It had a particular focus on policies concerning the family and social issues.|
|Progressive Party||2002||2012||2002–2011||A left-wing party with a focus on job creation and regional development, formed by Jim Anderton after his split from the Alliance.|
|Pacific Party||2008||2010||2008||A small party established by Taito Phillip Field aimed at advancing Pacific Peoples, as well as Christian and family values and social justice.|
|NZ Independent Coalition||2014||2016||2012–2014||A party emphasising local electorate representation, formed by MP Brendan Horan who became independent from New Zealand First in 2012.|
Because New Zealand does not require political parties to be registered, any person can announce a political party, though may not receive media coverage or go on to contest an election. It can also be difficult to determine when such parties have ceased operating or moved away from politics. The list below is limited to notable parties understood to no longer be operating.
Parties listed by date of founding:
|Socialist Party||1901–1913||One of the more prominent Marxist parties in early New Zealand, strongly associated with the Federation of Labour (the "Red Fed"). It eventually merged with the more moderate United Labour Party to form the Social Democratic Party.|
|Communist Party||1929–1994||Probably New Zealand's most prominent and long-lived communist organisation. The party generally pursued hard-line doctrines, successively following Stalin's Soviet Union, Mao Zedong's China, and Enver Hoxha's Albania. In 1993, the party moderated its stance, adopting Trotskyism. It later merged with another party to form the group now known as Socialist Worker.|
|New Zealand Legion||1930–1934?||A short-lived crypto-fascist political movement advocating conservative political reform and opposition to party politics and state bureaucracy. It was associated with John Ormond and later Robert Campbell Begg and did not see itself as a political party.|
|World Socialist Party||1930–1996||A party established by former members of the New Zealand Marxian Association, a Marxist group. Its founders created it as an alternative to the mainstream labour movement, claiming that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The World Socialist Party was rebranded from its founding name; the Socialist Party.|
|Democrat Party||1934–1936||A party established to promote the interests of the commercial sector and to oppose "socialist" legislation. The party contested the 1935 election, but failed to win any seats. Ironically, the votes which the Democrats took from the governing coalition may have assisted the victory of the left-wing Labour Party that year. The Democrat Party should not be confused with the modern Democratic Party.|
|People's Movement||1940–?||A right-wing organisation which supported reductions in the size of government and a reform of the party system. It was a strong supporter of individualism, saying that the government of the time was advocating the subordination of the individual to the state.|
|Real Democracy Movement||1942–?||A Social Credit theory based party which advocated economic security combined with individual liberty. It also advocated that all returned servicemen should be paid the average wage until they were re-integrated into civil employment.|
|Co-operative Party||1942–1943?||A short-lived party established by Albert Davy, a prominent anti-socialist political organiser. It was primarily a breakaway from the larger People's Movement, and Davy rejoined the Movement the year after the Co-operative Party was established.|
|Phoenix Party||1960s–1970s||A small Dunedin-based grouping, founded by Gerald Williams, who saw the then Labour Party as moribund and in need of a phoenix-like resurrection. Williams became an effective propagandist, penning campaign literature disguised as parodies of well-known songs. He later transferred his efforts to the Values Party.|
|Liberal Party||1962–?||A party which campaigned in the 1963 election on a platform of reducing the size of the government, introducing a written constitution, and restoring the upper house of Parliament.|
|Socialist Unity Party||1966–?||A splinter group of the Communist Party (see above). It was formed by Communist Party members who rejected their party's decision to take China's side in the Sino-Soviet split. The Socialist Unity Party became one of the more prominent communist parties in New Zealand.|
|Republican Party||1967–1974||A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. It was founded by left-wing activist Bruce Jesson, and was the product of the Republican Association, an anti-royal protest group founded by Jesson in 1966.|
|National Front||1968–?||A far-right, ultranationalist and white nationalist organisation. It acted as a political party around the 2000s.|
|Country Party||1969–1972?||A revival of the earlier Country Party from the 1920s and 1930s established by Clifford Stanley Emeny to contest the 1969 election advocating for rural interests. The party was rebranded the Liberal Reform Party in 1970 and contested the 1972 election under this name.|
|National Socialist Party||1969–?||A party founded by prominent far-right activist Colin King-Ansell. It is sometimes considered the first noteworthy far-right party in New Zealand.|
|Values Party||1972–1990||Sometimes called the world's first national-level green party. Elements of the Values Party eventually contributed to the formation of the modern Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand.|
|New Democratic Party||1972–1973||A short-lived splinter group of the Social Credit Party, founded by ousted Social Credit leader John O'Brien. It placed fifth in the 1972 election, but failed to win any seats.|
|Imperial British Conservative Party||1974–?||A joke party founded by Ian Brackenbury Channell, better known as "The Wizard of New Zealand". True to its name, it claimed to support imperialism, British people, and conservatism.|
|Mana Motuhake||1979–2005||The most prominent Māori-based party until the creation of the modern Māori Party. Mana Motuhake held a number of seats as part of the Alliance (see above), but most of its support has now been incorporated into the Māori Party.|
|McGillicuddy Serious Party||1983–1999||A joke party intended to satirise politics in general. Among other deliberately absurd policies it advocated the "Great Leap Backwards", a project to reverse the industrial revolution and to re-establish a medieval way of life.|
|New Zealand Party||1983–1987||A party established by property tycoon Bob Jones to promote free market economic policies and liberal social policies. It gained twelve percent of the vote in its first election, but then vanished almost completely. Some regard the modern ACT party as the New Zealand Party's ideological successor, but not everyone accepts this view.|
|Socialist Party of Aotearoa||1990–?||Formed in 1990 through a split in the Socialist Unity Party, the party was best known through the influence of its late founder Bill Andersen, a well-known trade unionist who served as president of the Auckland Trades Council, national secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, and president of the National Distribution Union.|
|Mana Māori Movement||1993–2005?||A party that addresses the concerns of New Zealand's indigenous Māori inhabitants, founded by Eva Rickard, a prominent Māori activist and a former Mana Motuhake candidate.|
|Natural Law Party||1993–2001?||A party which based its principles on the concept of natural law as promoted by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in his theory of Transcendental Meditation. It drew most of its support from the New Age movement.|
|Advance New Zealand||1995–1997||A party that advocated for multiculturalism and the interests of ethnic minorities, with a substantial segment of its membership came from New Zealand's Pacific Islander communities. Advance New Zealand merged into United New Zealand in 1997. Not to be confused with the unrelated party of the same name founded in 2020.|
|Libertarianz||1995–2014||A libertarian party dedicated to laissez-faire capitalism and keeping government as small as possible.|
|Republican Party||1995–2002||A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. The party contested the 1999 election, but only won 250 votes. Should not be confused with The Republic of New Zealand Party or the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand.|
|Progressive Green Party||1995–?||An environmentalist party established in opposition to the generally left-wing policies of the larger Green Party. It contested only one election before vanishing, although many of its members became active in the National Party.|
|Christian Coalition||1996–1997||A brief alliance of the Christian Democrats and the Christian Heritage Party. It narrowly missed entering Parliament in the 1996 election, and disbanded shortly afterwards.|
|Animals First||1996–2000||A party dedicated to animal rights and animal welfare. It received 0.17% of the vote in 1996 and 0.16% of the vote in 1999, deregistered in 2000.|
|Nga Iwi Morehu Movement||1996–2011||A small Maori-based party which has been active in a number of elections|
|Ethnic Minority Party||1996–1997||A party that addresses the concerns of New Zealand's immigrant community, particularly Chinese and Indians. The popularity of New Zealand First, a party which opposed immigration, was a significant factor in its creation. It merged into United New Zealand, but little trace of it remains today.|
|Asia Pacific United Party||1996–1999||A party which attempted to gain support from Asian and Pacific Islander immigrants. It contested the 1996 election, but has since dissolved.|
|Green Society||1996–2001||A small environmentalist party. The Green Society believed that a true green party needed to be focused solely on the environment, and believed that the Green Party (then part of the Alliance) and the Progressive Green Party were both mistaken to take sides in economic and social debates.|
|Future New Zealand||1998–2002||A reconfiguration of the former Christian Democrat Party. Future New Zealand retained the same family values principles as the Christian Democrats, but abandoned the explicit religious basis. Future New Zealand merged with United New Zealand to form the modern United Future New Zealand.|
|South Island Party||?–2002||A regionalist party which called for more autonomy for the South Island, the less populous of New Zealand's two main islands. It drew support predominantly from Otago and Southland.|
|Aotearoa NZ Youth Party||1998–2011||A platform for campaigner Robert Terry, who stood for electorate seats four times under this banner.|
|Freedom Movement||1999–1999?||A registered party which contested the 1999 general elections, receiving 454 party votes.|
|NMP||1999–2003||NMP sought to abolish all political parties, among other policies. [ non-primary source needed ] It contested two elections before disbanding.|
|Te Tawharau||1999–2007||A Māori party which split off from the Mana Māori Movement. It lapsed with the formation of the Māori Party.|
|One New Zealand Party||1999–2006||A small party modelled on Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party in Australia. It opposes all special policies towards Māori.|
|People's Choice Party||1999–2002||A small party which was registered for the 1999 election, but which is currently unregistered. It campaigned against MMP and in favour of reducing the size of Parliament.|
|Outdoor Recreation NZ||2001–2007||A party dedicated to promoting the interests of the hunting, fishing, and shooting communities. Outdoor Recreation New Zealand contested the 2005 election under the banner of the United Future party, although the parties did not actually merge. This working arrangement met with disappointing results.|
|Workers Party||2002–2011||Formerly known as the Anti-Capitalist Alliance. A coalition of socialists and anti-globalisation activists.|
|Destiny New Zealand||2003–2007||A party based in the Destiny Church, a Christian religious organisation. The party mostly campaigned on a family values platform, and strongly opposed legislative changes such as the creation of same-sex civil unions and the legalisation of prostitution.|
|Residents Action Movement||2003–2010||A left-wing party aiming to bring together social liberals, community activists, social democrats and left-wing radicals.|
|WIN Party||2004–2006||A single-issue party devoted to overturning the recently introduced smoking ban in bars and restaurants.|
|Patriot Party||?–2005||A small Auckland-based party established by Sid Wilson, a senior member of the National Front. The party later merged back into the Front.|
|99 MP Party||2005–2006||A party primarily focused on reducing the total number of MPs from 120 to 99. It also believed that all constitutional changes should be put to a referendum.|
|Direct Democracy Party||2005–2009||A party which seeks to increase the participation of ordinary citizens in the political process. It advocates a system of referendums similar to that used by Switzerland.|
|Family Rights Protection Party||2005–2007||A party established by a group of Pacific Islanders who claim that larger parties are taking the support of Pacific Islanders for granted, and do not do enough to help them.|
|The Republic of New Zealand Party||2005–2009||A party focused on establishing a Republic in New Zealand. It also supports the adoption of a written constitution, the holding of referendums on major issues, and the abolition of race-specific government institutions.|
|Freedom Party||2005–2005||A party established by two former members of ACT New Zealand. Its policies were intended to be similar to those of ACT, but the party's founders said that the Freedom Party will be more democratic and accountable to its members.|
|Equal Values Party||2005–2008||A left-wing party active during the 2005 election. It supported free education and healthcare, an increase to social welfare benefits, and the establishment of compulsory superannuation schemes.|
|Family Party||2007–2010||A small Christian party established by the former Destiny New Zealand.|
|Kiwi Party||2007–2012||A revival of the Christian Democrats / Future New Zealand brand. The party advocates|
more representative direct democracy through referendums and a return to the "Judeo-Christian ethic in democracy".
|Hapu Party||2008–2008||A Māori-based party established to challenge the Māori Party.|
|Bill and Ben Party||2008–2010||A joke party run by Bill and Ben, hosts of the TV show Pulp Sport.|
|New World Order Party||2008–2011||A party promoting global peace through a unified World Government|
|Representative Party||2008–2010||The New Zealand Representative Party was led by Reg Turner, a former candidate for the ACT Party. The party claimed to have no policies, favouring seeking the opinions of voters on issues, and opposed traditional left-right politics. However, it also promoted populist referenda, deregulation, compulsory military service, "stopping the culture for young unmarried women to have babies", and restricting the welfare state. The party ran only a single candidate, Turner, in the 2008 election. By 2010, its website was defunct and it did not run any candidates in the 2011 election.|
|No Commercial Airport at Whenuapai Airbase Party||2008–2008||A local party which grew out of the movement opposing a commercial airport at Auckland's Whenuapai airbase.|
|New Zealand Liberals||2008–?||A small party modelled on the old New Zealand Liberal Party and the UK Liberal Democrats. It advocates constitutional reform, republicanism, and civil rights.|
|Pirate Party of New Zealand||2009–2017?||A copyright reform party based on the Swedish Pirate Party, with a focus on technological issues, like net neutrality.|
|New Citizen Party||2010–2012||A short-lived party formed to represent Chinese New Zealanders. It came third in the 2011 Botany by-election, but dissolved before contesting a general election.|
|Join Australia Movement Party||2011||A party advocating union with Australia.|
|Sovereignty Party||2011–?||A nationalist party which contest the 2011 election|
|Reform New Zealand||2011–2011||A right-wing party advocating free market economics, low taxation, and reduced government. |
was established by dissatisfied members of ACT New Zealand, and advocates similar policies of low taxation, privatisation, and reduced government. It never attempted to register with the New Zealand Electoral Commission and did not stand any candidates.
|OurNZ Party||2011–2011?||A party advocating a new currency, binding referenda, and a written constitution.|
|New Economics Party||2011–?||A party advocating substantial economic reform such as a universal basic income and multiple currencies. It stood a single candidate in one election.|
|Thrive New Zealand||2012–2013||Party logo registered in August 2013. Advocated Direct Democracy via an online tool called RealVoice.|
|Focus NZ||2012–2016||A party aimed at representing rural New Zealand.|
|1Law4All Party||2013–2015||A party aimed at overturning the Treaty of Waitangi|
|Civilian Party||2013–2015||A joke party which arose from a popular New Zealand satirical website.|
|Expatriate Party||2014–2014?||A party related to issues facing New Zealanders outside New Zealand|
|NZ Climate Party||2014–2017?||A party which advocated greater action on climate change.|
|Ban 1080 Party||2014–2018||A party that opposed the use of sodium fluoroacetate (1080) poison.|
|Internet Party||2014–2018?||A party advocating for less surveillance, copyright reform and cheap internet. The Internet Party contested the 2014 general election in an alliance called Internet Party and Mana Movement, and contested the 2017 election on its own.|
|GOdsownNZ||2017–2018?||A "non-PC" Christian conservative party.|
|New Zealand Public Party||2020–2021||A component party of Advance New Zealand. Founded in June 2020 by Billy Te Kahika Jr. At its launch, Te Kahika said that the COVID-19 pandemic would enable globalist leaders to implement UN agendas that would totally control people's lives, and that billionaires had developed weaponised viruses and patented treatments for the viruses they had made, in order to enslave humanity. It merged with Advance New Zealand in July 2020.|
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that largely dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the Labour Party.
The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand, commonly known as the Greens, is a green and left-wing political party in New Zealand. Like many green parties around the world, it has four organisational pillars. The party's ideology combines environmentalism with left-wing and social-democratic economic policies, including well-funded and locally controlled public services within the confines of a steady-state economy. Internationally, it is affiliated with the Global Greens.
New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. The party formed in July 1993 following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. It has formed coalition governments with both major political parties in New Zealand: first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to 2020. Peters has served on two occasions as deputy prime minister.
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.
The Māori Party is a political party in New Zealand advocating indigenous rights and centre-left policies. It contests the Māori electorates, in which its main rival is the centre-left Labour Party.
In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that until 1967 gave reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; as of 2020, there are seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 any candidate of any ethnicity has been able to stand in a Maori electorate. Candidates now do not have to be Māori, or even on the Māori roll. Voters however who wish to vote in a Māori electorate have to register as a voter on the Māori roll and need to declare they are of Māori descent.
The New Zealand electoral system has been mixed-member proportional (MMP) since 1996. MMP was introduced after a referendum in 1993. MMP replaced the first-past-the-post (FPP) system New Zealand had previously used for most of its history.
Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was held first by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.
The 2011 New Zealand voting system referendum was a referendum on whether to keep the existing mixed member proportional (MMP) voting system, or to change to another voting system, for electing Members of Parliament to New Zealand's House of Representatives. It was held on 26 November 2011 in conjunction with the 2011 general election.
The 2014 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 20 September 2014 to determine the membership of the 51st New Zealand Parliament.
The 2017 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 23 September 2017 to determine the membership of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament. The previous parliament was elected on 20 September 2014 and was officially dissolved on 22 August 2017. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives under New Zealand's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 71 members were elected from single-member electorates and 49 members were elected from closed party lists. Around 3.57 million people were registered to vote in the election, with 2.63 million (79.8%) turning out. Advance voting proved popular, with 1.24 million votes cast before election day, more than the previous two elections combined.
The 2020 New Zealand general election was held on Saturday 17 October 2020 to determine the composition of the 53rd parliament. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives, 72 from single-member electorates and 48 from closed party lists. Two referendums, one on the personal use of cannabis and one on euthanasia, were also held on the same day. Official results of the election and referendums were released on 6 November.
Several polling firms conducted opinion polls during the term of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament in the lead up to the 2020 general election, which elects the 53rd Parliament. The 52nd Parliament was elected on 23 September 2017 and dissolved on 6 September 2020. The 2020 election was originally due to take place on Saturday 19 September 2020, but due to a second COVID-19 outbreak it was delayed until Saturday 17 October 2020.
Chlöe Charlotte Swarbrick is a New Zealand politician and entrepreneur. Following a high-profile but unsuccessful run for the 2016 Auckland mayoral election, she became a parliamentary candidate for the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand, standing in the 2017 New Zealand general election and was elected as a member of the New Zealand Parliament at the age of 23. In the 2020 election, Swarbrick was elected as the Member of Parliament for Auckland Central, becoming the second Green Party MP to win an electorate seat in the history of the party, and the first minor party MP since the inception of MMP to win a general electorate seat without a tacit endorsement from a major party leader.
Vision NZ is a nationalist political party in New Zealand led by Hannah Tamaki, the co-leader of the fundamentalist Christian movement Destiny Church. The party was announced in May 2019. It contested the 2020 New Zealand general election both for electorate seats and the party list vote, receiving 0.1% of the party vote and winning no seats.
The next New Zealand general election to determine the composition of the 54th Parliament will be held after the currently elected 53rd Parliament is dissolved or expires.
This page lists candidates contesting electorates in the 2020 New Zealand general election.
The 53rd New Zealand Parliament is the current session of Parliament in New Zealand. It opened on 25 November 2020 following the 17 October 2020 general election, and will expire on or before 20 November 2023 to trigger the next election. It consists of 120 members of Parliament (MPs) with five parties represented: the Labour and Green parties, in government, and the National, Māori and ACT parties, in opposition. The Sixth Labour Government has a majority in this Parliament, with Jacinda Ardern as prime minister.
The Advance New Zealand Party is a political party in New Zealand led by Jami-Lee Ross. The idea was first unveiled in a newsletter from Ross released in April 2020. He claims the party is a centrist and anti-corruption movement designed to appeal to voters "in the middle"; however, their main policies represent the political fringe rather than centre.
The New Zealand Public Party was a political party in New Zealand led by Billy Te Kahika. It was founded in June 2020, and two months later became a component party of registered party Advance New Zealand in order to contest the 2020 election. Advance received only 1.0% of the party vote and neither Advance nor Public won any electorate seats, so the Public Party did not win any representation in Parliament. The Public Party split from Advance shortly after the election acrimoniously, and Public's party secretary and director both resigned in January 2021.