List of political parties in New Zealand

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New Zealand politics have featured a strong party system since the early 20th century. Usually, all members of Parliament's unicameral House of Representatives belong to a political party. Independent members of Parliament do not occur often.

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The centre-left New Zealand Labour Party and the centre-right New Zealand National Party are New Zealand's two major parties, having jointly contested each election since 1938. They are the only two New Zealand political parties to have won the popular vote in four consecutive elections twice. Labour won the popular vote from the 1938 election through to 1946 and again from 1978 through to 1987 – although during the latter period National twice disproportionately gained a majority of seats. Likewise, National won the popular vote from 1960 through to 1969, and then again from 2008 through to 2017, but in the final year could not form a coalition government under proportional representation.

The introduction of the mixed-member proportional system in 1996 led to a multi-party system, such that smaller parties have substantial representation in Parliament and can now reasonably expect to gain seats in government. As of 2024, six parties have members in the 54th Parliament.

History

New Zealand's party system did not arise until the late 19th century. Before this, members of Parliament (MPs) stood as independent candidates, and while some MPs joined factions, these typically were formed around prominent individuals such as Julius Vogel, and did so after an election, not before. [1]

The Liberal Party, which was formed in 1891, was New Zealand's first 'modern' political party. [2] It was the country's sole political party until the formation of the more conservative Reform Party in 1909. [1] The Labour Party was founded in 1916, and by 1919 these three parties dominated New Zealand politics. [1]

The Liberal Party was succeeded by the United Party in 1928. [3] The United and Reform parties found themselves working together more often, and they formed a coalition in 1931. [3] After Labour won office in 1935, [1] United and Reform formally amalgamated in 1936 to form the National Party. [4] The first-past-the-post (FPP) plurality voting system (in use before the 1990s) entrenched a two-party system, since the two major parties usually won far more seats than their share of the overall vote. [5]

Over the years, a number of third parties or so-called minor parties developed, notably the Social Credit Party, the New Zealand Party, the Values Party, and the Alliance. [6] However, the FPP electoral system meant that regardless of how many votes a party gained nationwide, it could not win a seat without a plurality in a particular electorate. [5] For example, the Social Credit Party won over 11% of the votes cast in the 1954 election but did not have a plurality in any electorate so won no seats. Similarly, in the 1984 election, the New Zealand Party received over 12% of the votes cast but also won no seats. [7] Under such conditions, minor parties mostly performed poorly in terms of making an impact in Parliament.

In 1993, the Electoral Act 1993 was passed, introducing the mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system for the 1996 election. Now, voters cast both a party vote and an electorate vote. Any party that won at least 5% of the party vote entered Parliament, as could still enter through the previous electorate pathway. [8] This made it much easier for smaller parties to enter Parliament, but more difficult to gain elected as a non-party independent.[ citation needed ]

In the late 1990s a phenomenon originated in New Zealand's multi-party system in which MPs sitting in Parliament increasingly switched parties (or formed breakway parties), known as "waka-jumping". This is now disallowed to maintain the integrity of the party-based proportional representation. [9]

Registration of parties

Political parties in New Zealand can be either registered or unregistered. Registered parties must have five-hundred paying members, each eligible to vote in general elections, and party membership rules. [10]

If a party registers, it may submit a party list, enabling it to receive party votes in New Zealand's MMP electoral system. Unregistered parties can only nominate candidates for individual electorates. [11]

As of 2020, registered political parties are also able to spend up to $1,169,000 during the campaign for the party vote and $27,500 per electorate seat. Unregistered entities are able to spend up to $330,000 on general election advertising. [12]

Current parties

Parties represented in Parliament

There are six parliamentary parties in the 54th New Zealand Parliament. [13] The default order of this list corresponds to the number of MPs they currently have. [14]

PartyLeader(s)FoundedRepresentedPositionIdeologySeats
National Party Christopher Luxon 19361936–present Centre-right Conservatism, liberalism
49 / 123
Labour Party Chris Hipkins 19161916–present Centre-left Social democracy
34 / 123
Green Party Marama Davidson and Chlöe Swarbrick 19901997–present Left-wing Green politics,
social democracy
15 / 123
ACT David Seymour 19941996–present Right-wing Classical liberalism, conservatism
11 / 123
New Zealand First Winston Peters 19931993–2008
2011–2020
2023–present
Centre (economic), right-wing (social) Nationalism, populism,
social conservatism
8 / 123
Te Pāti Māori Rawiri Waititi and Debbie Ngarewa-Packer 20042004–2017
2020–present
Left-wing [15] Māori rights, tino rangatiratanga
6 / 123

Registered parties outside Parliament

Parties listed in alphabetical order: [16]

PartyLeader(s)FoundedPositionIdeology
Animal Justice Party 2022Animal rights
Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party Maki Herbert and Michael Appleby1996Cannabis legalisation
Democratic Alliance2023
Freedoms New Zealand Brian Tamaki and Sue Grey 2022Anti-establishment, big tent, conspiracism
New Conservatives Helen Houghton2011Right-wing Conservatism, social conservatism, right-wing populism
New Nation Party Michael Jacomb2022Anti-vaccine mandate
New Zealand Loyal Liz Gunn 2023Conspiracism
NewZeal Alfred Ngaro 2020 Christian fundamentalism, social conservatism
NZ Outdoors & Freedom Party Sue Grey and Donna Pokere-Phillips 2015 Anti-vaccination, anti-lockdown, environmentalism
The Opportunities Party (TOP)2016 Radical centre Radical centrism, environmentalism
Vision NZ Hannah Tamaki 2019 Far-right Christian nationalism, right-wing populism
Women's Rights Party Jill Ovens and Chimene Del La Veras2023 Gender-critical feminism

Unregistered parties

An accurate list of active unregistered parties can be difficult to determine. Any person may announce a political party, but these parties may or may not gain followers, receive any media coverage or go on to contest an election. It can also be difficult to determine when parties have ceased operating or moved away from politics.

The list below lists active and notable parties.

PartyLeader(s)FoundedPositionIdeology
DemocracyNZ Matt King 2022Anti-vaccine mandate [17]
Heartland New Zealand Party Mark Ball 2020Centre-right Agrarianism
Leighton Baker Party Leighton Baker 2023Far-rightAnti-establishment, conspiracism
New Zealand Momentum Party [18] Gaurav Sharma 2022Centre Centrism
Money Free Party Richard Osmaston2014
Progressive Party of Aotearoa New Zealand Bruce Dyer2020SyncreticProgressive utilization theory
Rock the Vote A component party of Freedoms New Zealand
Socialist Aotearoa Anu Kaloti2008Far-leftRevolutionary socialism, Neo-Trotskyism

When a candidate stands for parliament in an electorate, they may describe themselves as 'independent' or give a party name. A candidate listing a party name is not necessarily an indication that the party exists beyond that single candidate. In the 2023 general election, single candidates stood under the party names of Economic Euthenics, Future Youth, the Human Rights Party, the New World Order McCann Party, the New Zealand Sovereignty Party, the Northland Party, and the Republic of New Zealand Party. Two candidates stood under each of Not A Party (NAP), Protect & Prosper New Zealand Party, and Workers Now. [19]

Historical parties

Parties that held seats

PartyFoundedDisbandedIn ParliamentDescription
Liberal Party 189119271891–1927New Zealand's first political party. It provided the country with a number of prominent Prime Ministers, including John Ballance and Richard Seddon. With much of its traditional support undercut by the growing Labour Party, the remnants of the Liberals (known as the United Party) eventually merged with the Reform Party to form the modern National Party.
New Liberal Party 190519081905–1908A party formed by Liberal Party dissidents. Its members were opposed to Liberal leader, Richard Seddon, seeing him as an autocrat. The party proposed a more "progressive" policy seeing the current Liberal policy as too cautious and orthodox. The New Liberals lost much support after the infamous "voucher incident", leaving them discredited.
Independent Political Labour League 190519101908–1910A small and short-lived left-wing party. It was the third organised party to win a seat in Parliament, with David McLaren winning the seat of Wellington East. In Parliament, the IPLL co-operated with the governing Liberal Party.
Reform Party 190919361909–1936New Zealand's second major political party, established as a more conservative opponent to the Liberal Party. Its founder, William Massey, became its most prominent leader. It eventually merged with its former rivals, United, to form the modern National Party.
Labour Party (original)191019121910–1912A short-lived successor to the Independent Political Labour League. It functioned as one of the more moderate workers' parties, opposing more radical groups like the Socialist Party. It should not be confused with the modern Labour Party, although a certain degree of continuity links the two.
United Labour Party 191219161912–1916A reformed continuation of the original Labour Party. The party existed only a short time before merging with the Socialist Party to form the Social Democratic Party, although a faction rejected the new SDP as too extreme and continued on under the United Labour Party banner eventually likewise merging in 1916.
Social Democratic Party 191319221913–1916An early left-wing party established at a "Unity Congress" in July 1913 as an attempt to bring together the various labour groups of the time. The party eventually amalgamated with the modern Labour Party.
Country Party 192219381928–1938A party established by members of the Farmers' Union to promote the interests of the rural sector. It reflected to an extent social credit monetary theory, and believed that farmers were not treated fairly by banks and the corporate world.
United Party 192719361927–1936A party formed from the remnants of the Liberal Party. United governed between 1928 and 1935, initially with Labour support and later in coalition with the Reform Party. It eventually merged with Reform to establish the modern National Party.
Democratic Labour Party 194019491940–1943A splinter from the Labour Party led by dissident MP John A. Lee. Lee, a socialist and social creditist, believed that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The Labour Party hierarchy had expelled him after he repeatedly criticised its leadership.
Social Credit Party 195320231954–1987The New Zealand Social Credit Party (sometimes called "Socred") was a political party that was New Zealand's third party from the 1950s to the 1980s. It was elected to the New Zealand House of Representatives, holding one seat at times between 1966 and 1981, and two seats from 1981 to 1987.
NewLabour Party 198920001989–1991A left-wing party established by former Labour MP Jim Anderton. It contested one election before joining with several other parties to establish the Alliance.
Christian Heritage NZ 199020061999A party that advocates Christian conservative values. It supported policies to strengthen marriage and opposed abortion and same-sex unions.
Alliance 199120151991–2002A left-wing party supporting the welfare state, free education, environmental protection, and Māori interests. The Progressive Party formed as a splinter group from the Alliance when Jim Anderton, former Alliance leader, left.
Liberal Party 199119981991-1992A short-lived splinter from the National Party, formed by Hamish McIntyre and Gilbert Myles, two dissident National MPs who disagreed with the economic policies of Ruth Richardson. The Liberal Party quickly joined the Alliance, which the two saw as the principal opponent of Richardson and her ideological allies.
New Zealand Conservative Party 199419961994–1996Initially called the Right of Centre Party, it was founded by breakaway National MP, Ross Meurant. After the general election of 1996, the remnants of the party amalgamated with the United Party.
Future New Zealand 199419951994–1995A short-lived party established by Peter Dunne after he left the Labour Party. It integrated into the United New Zealand party. Not to be confused with a later party of the same name.
Christian Democrats 199519981995–1996A Christian party established by sitting National MP Graeme Lee. After briefly establishing the Christian Coalition (see above) with the Christian Heritage Party, the Christian Democrats secularised themselves, adopting the name "Future New Zealand". Future New Zealand merged with United (see below) to form United Future New Zealand.
United New Zealand 199520001995–2000A centrist party established by moderate MPs from both National and Labour. The party did not achieve electoral success, with only one of the seven founding MPs managing to remain in Parliament. United later merged with the Future New Zealand party to form the modern United Future New Zealand.
Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata 199820011998–1999A short-lived Māori feminist party established by Alliance (Mana Motuhake) defector Alamein Kopu. The party contested only one general election before vanishing.
Mauri Pacific 199920011999A party established by several New Zealand First MPs shortly after a coalition between New Zealand First and the National Party broke down. Mauri Pacific remained allied to the National government, giving it crucial support, but none of the party's MPs gained re-election in the 1999 election.
United Future 200020172000–2017A centrist party, originally with a strong Christian background: it described its platform as "common sense". It had a particular focus on policies concerning the family and social issues.
Progressive Party 200220122002–2011A left-wing party with a focus on job creation and regional development, formed by Jim Anderton after his split from the Alliance.
Pacific Party 200820102008A small party established by Taito Phillip Field aimed at advancing Pacific Peoples, as well as Christian and family values and social justice.
Mana Movement 201120212011-2014A Māori rights party formed in 2011 by Hone Harawira after he resigned from the Māori Party.
NZ Independent Coalition 201420162012–2014A party emphasising local electorate representation, formed by MP Brendan Horan who became independent from New Zealand First in 2012.

Parties that never held seats

Because New Zealand does not require political parties to be registered, any person can announce a political party, though may not receive media coverage or go on to contest an election. It can also be difficult to determine when such parties have ceased operating or moved away from politics. The list below is limited to notable parties understood to no longer be operating.

Parties listed by date of founding:

PartyFoundedDisbandedDescription
Socialist Party 19011913One of the more prominent Marxist parties in early New Zealand, strongly associated with the Federation of Labour (the "Red Fed"). It eventually merged with the more moderate United Labour Party to form the Social Democratic Party.
Communist Party 19291994Probably New Zealand's most prominent and long-lived communist organisation. The party generally pursued hard-line doctrines, successively following Stalin's Soviet Union, Mao Zedong's China, and Enver Hoxha's Albania. In 1993, the party moderated its stance, adopting Trotskyism. It later merged with another party to form the group now known as Socialist Worker.
New Zealand Legion 19301934?A short-lived crypto-fascist political movement advocating conservative political reform and opposition to party politics and state bureaucracy. It was associated with John Ormond and later Robert Campbell Begg and did not see itself as a political party.
World Socialist Party 19301996A party established by former members of the New Zealand Marxian Association, a Marxist group. Its founders created it as an alternative to the mainstream labour movement, claiming that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The World Socialist Party was rebranded from its founding name; the Socialist Party.
Democrat Party 19341936A party established to promote the interests of the commercial sector and to oppose "socialist" legislation. The party contested the 1935 election, but failed to win any seats. Ironically, the votes which the Democrats took from the governing coalition may have assisted the victory of the left-wing Labour Party that year. The Democrat Party should not be confused with the modern Democratic Party.
Liberal Party c. 1938c. 1949A centrist anti-socialist liberal party formed ahead of the 1938 election but withdrew its candidates. Mostly inactive during World War II, it was briefly revived in the late 1940s.
People's Movement 1940?A right-wing organisation which supported reductions in the size of government and a reform of the party system. It was a strong supporter of individualism, saying that the government of the time was advocating the subordination of the individual to the state.
Real Democracy Movement 1942?A Social Credit theory based party which advocated economic security combined with individual liberty. It also advocated that all returned servicemen should be paid the average wage until they were re-integrated into civil employment.
Co-operative Party 19421943?A short-lived party established by Albert Davy, a prominent anti-socialist political organiser. It was primarily a breakaway from the larger People's Movement, and Davy rejoined the Movement the year after the Co-operative Party was established.
New Zealand Liberal Federation 19561958?A party formed by ex-National and Social Credit candidates who wished to revive "Seddon liberalism" via a third party.
Liberal Party 1962?A party which campaigned in the 1963 election on a platform of reducing the size of the government, introducing a written constitution, and restoring the upper house of Parliament.
Democratic Progress Party 1966c. 1968Founded as the Democratic Party ahead of the 1966 election, the party was centrist with policies emphasizing individual freedoms. In 1967 the Progress Party was formed but merged with the Democratic Party one week later becoming known as the Democratic Progress Party.
Phoenix Party 1960s1970sA small Dunedin-based grouping, founded by Gerald Williams, who saw the then Labour Party as moribund and in need of a phoenix-like resurrection. Williams became an effective propagandist, penning campaign literature disguised as parodies of well-known songs. He later transferred his efforts to the Values Party.
Socialist Unity Party 1966?A splinter group of the Communist Party (see above). It was formed by Communist Party members who rejected their party's decision to take China's side in the Sino-Soviet split. The Socialist Unity Party became one of the more prominent communist parties in New Zealand.
Republican Party 19671974A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. It was founded by left-wing activist Bruce Jesson, and was the product of the Republican Association, an anti-royal protest group founded by Jesson in 1966.
National Front 1968?A far-right, ultranationalist and white nationalist organisation. [20] It acted as a political party around the 2000s.
Liberal Reform Party 19681972?A party initially launched as a revival of the decades earlier Country Party by the New Zealand Free Enterprise Movement in 1968 it was renamed the Liberal Reform Party in 1970 after failure at the 1969 election and contested the 1972 election under this name.
National Socialist Party 1969?A party founded by prominent far-right activist Colin King-Ansell. It is sometimes considered the first noteworthy far-right party in New Zealand.
Communist League 1969?Communism, Marxism-Leninism
Values Party 19721990Sometimes called the world's first national-level green party. Elements of the Values Party eventually contributed to the formation of the modern Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand.
New Democratic Party 19721973A short-lived splinter group of the Social Credit Party, founded by ousted Social Credit leader John O'Brien. It placed fifth in the 1972 election, but failed to win any seats.
Imperial British Conservative Party 1974?A joke party founded by Ian Brackenbury Channell, better known as "The Wizard of New Zealand". True to its name, it claimed to support imperialism, British people, and conservatism.
Mana Motuhake 19792005The most prominent Māori-based party until the creation of the modern Māori Party. Mana Motuhake held a number of seats as part of the Alliance (see above), but most of its support has now been incorporated into the Māori Party.
McGillicuddy Serious Party 19831999A joke party intended to satirise politics in general. Among other deliberately absurd policies it advocated the "Great Leap Backwards", a project to reverse the industrial revolution and to re-establish a medieval way of life.
New Zealand Party 19831993A party established by property tycoon Bob Jones to promote free market economic policies and liberal social policies. It gained twelve percent of the vote in its first election, but then vanished almost completely. Some regard the modern ACT party as the New Zealand Party's ideological successor, but not everyone accepts this view.
Social Credit-NZ 19881993A splinter party of Democrat Party, founded by former leader Bruce Beetham, believing the Democrats had abandoned Social Credit policies. It contested the 1990 election, but failed to win any seats.
Socialist Party of Aotearoa 1990?Formed in 1990 through a split in the Socialist Unity Party, the party was best known through the influence of its late founder Bill Andersen, a well-known trade unionist who served as president of the Auckland Trades Council, national secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, and president of the National Distribution Union.
Mana Māori Movement 19932005?A party that addresses the concerns of New Zealand's indigenous Māori inhabitants, founded by Eva Rickard, a prominent Māori activist and a former Mana Motuhake candidate.
Natural Law Party 19932001?A party which based its principles on the concept of natural law as promoted by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in his theory of Transcendental Meditation. It drew most of its support from the New Age movement.
Kiwis Against Further Immigration 19941998?An anti-immigration party founded as the New Zealand Defence Movement to contest the 1993 election it changed its name to Kiwis Against Further Immigration in 1994.
Advance New Zealand 19951997A party that advocated for multiculturalism and the interests of ethnic minorities, with a substantial segment of its membership came from New Zealand's Pasifika communities. [21] [22] Advance New Zealand merged into United New Zealand in 1997. [21] [22] [23] Not to be confused with the unrelated party of the same name founded in 2020.
Libertarianz 19952014A libertarian party dedicated to laissez-faire capitalism and keeping government as small as possible.
Republican Party 19952002A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. The party contested the 1999 election, but only won 250 votes. Should not be confused with The Republic of New Zealand Party or the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand.
Progressive Green Party 1995?An environmentalist party established in opposition to the generally left-wing policies of the larger Green Party. It contested only one election before vanishing, although many of its members became active in the National Party.
Christian Coalition 19961997A brief alliance of the Christian Democrats and the Christian Heritage Party. It narrowly missed entering Parliament in the 1996 election, and disbanded shortly afterwards.
Animals First 19962000A party dedicated to animal rights and animal welfare. It received 0.17% of the vote in 1996 [24] and 0.16% of the vote in 1999, [25] deregistered in 2000.
Nga Iwi Morehu Movement 19962011A small Maori-based party which has been active in a number of elections
Ethnic Minority Party 19961997A party that addresses the concerns of New Zealand's immigrant community, particularly Chinese and Indians. The popularity of New Zealand First, a party which opposed immigration, was a significant factor in its creation. It merged into United New Zealand, but little trace of it remains today.
Asia Pacific United Party 19961999A party which attempted to gain support from Asian and Pasifika immigrants. It contested the 1996 election, but has since dissolved.
Green Society 19962001A small environmentalist party. The Green Society believed that a true green party needed to be focused solely on the environment, and believed that the Green Party (then part of the Alliance) and the Progressive Green Party were both mistaken to take sides in economic and social debates.
Future New Zealand 19982002A reconfiguration of the former Christian Democrat Party. Future New Zealand retained the same family values principles as the Christian Democrats, but abandoned the explicit religious basis. Future New Zealand merged with United New Zealand to form the modern United Future New Zealand.
South Island Party ?2002A regionalist party which called for more autonomy for the South Island, the less populous of New Zealand's two main islands. It drew support predominantly from Otago and Southland.
Aotearoa NZ Youth Party 19982011A platform for campaigner Robert Terry, who stood for electorate seats four times under this banner.
Freedom Movement 1999?A registered party which contested the 1999 general elections, receiving 454 party votes. [26]
NMP 19992003NMP sought to abolish all political parties, among other policies. [27] [ non-primary source needed ] It contested two elections before disbanding. [28]
Te Tawharau 19992007A Māori party which split off from the Mana Māori Movement. It lapsed with the formation of the Māori Party.
One New Zealand Party 19992006A small party modelled on Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party in Australia. It opposes all special policies towards Māori.
People's Choice Party 19992002A small party which was registered for the 1999 election, but which is currently unregistered. It campaigned against MMP and in favour of reducing the size of Parliament.
Outdoor Recreation NZ 20012007A party dedicated to promoting the interests of the hunting, fishing, and shooting communities. Outdoor Recreation New Zealand contested the 2005 election under the banner of the United Future party, although the parties did not actually merge. This working arrangement met with disappointing results.
Workers Party 20022011Formerly known as the Anti-Capitalist Alliance. A coalition of socialists and anti-globalisation activists.
Destiny New Zealand 20032007A party based in the Destiny Church, a Christian religious organisation. The party mostly campaigned on a family values platform, and strongly opposed legislative changes such as the creation of same-sex civil unions and the legalisation of prostitution.
Residents Action Movement 20032010A left-wing party aiming to bring together social liberals, community activists, social democrats and left-wing radicals.
WIN Party 20042006A single-issue party devoted to overturning the recently introduced smoking ban in bars and restaurants.
Patriot Party ?2005A small Auckland-based party established by Sid Wilson, a senior member of the National Front. The party later merged back into the Front.
99 MP Party 20052006A party primarily focused on reducing the total number of MPs from 120 to 99. It also believed that all constitutional changes should be put to a referendum.
Direct Democracy Party 20052009A party which sought to increase the participation of ordinary citizens in the political process. It advocated a system of referendums similar to that used by Switzerland. Not to be confused with another group formed in 2020 that joined Advance New Zealand,
Family Rights Protection Party 20052007A party established by a group of Pasifika who claim that larger parties are taking the support of Pasifika for granted, and do not do enough to help them.
The Republic of New Zealand Party 20052009A party focused on establishing a Republic in New Zealand. It also supports the adoption of a written constitution, the holding of referendums on major issues, and the abolition of race-specific government institutions.
Freedom Party 20052005A party established by two former members of ACT New Zealand. Its policies were intended to be similar to those of ACT, but the party's founders said that the Freedom Party will be more democratic and accountable to its members.
Equal Values Party 20052008A left-wing party active during the 2005 election. It supported free education and healthcare, an increase to social welfare benefits, and the establishment of compulsory superannuation schemes.
Family Party 20072010A small Christian party established by the former Destiny New Zealand.
Kiwi Party 20072012A revival of the Christian Democrats / Future New Zealand brand. The party advocates
more representative direct democracy through referendums and a return to the "Judeo-Christian ethic in democracy".
Hapu Party 20082008A Māori-based party established to challenge the Māori Party.
Bill and Ben Party 20082010A joke party run by Bill and Ben, hosts of the TV show Pulp Sport.
New World Order Party 20082011A party promoting global peace through a unified World Government
Representative Party 20082010The New Zealand Representative Party was led by Reg Turner, a former candidate for the ACT Party. The party claimed to have no policies, favouring seeking the opinions of voters on issues, and opposed traditional left-right politics. [29] However, it also promoted populist referenda, deregulation, compulsory military service, "stopping the culture for young unmarried women to have babies", and restricting the welfare state. [30] The party ran only a single candidate, Turner, in the 2008 election. By 2010, its website was defunct and it did not run any candidates in the 2011 election.
No Commercial Airport at Whenuapai Airbase Party 20082008A local party which grew out of the movement opposing a commercial airport at Auckland's Whenuapai airbase.
New Zealand Liberals 2008?A small party modelled on the old New Zealand Liberal Party and the UK Liberal Democrats. It advocates constitutional reform, republicanism, and civil rights.
Pirate Party of New Zealand 20092017A copyright reform party based on the Swedish Pirate Party, with a focus on technological issues, like net neutrality.
New Citizen Party 20102012A short-lived party formed to represent Chinese New Zealanders. It came third in the 2011 Botany by-election, but dissolved before contesting a general election.
Join Australia Movement Party 20112011A party advocating union with Australia.
Sovereignty Party 2011?A nationalist party which contest the 2011 election
Reform New Zealand 2011?A right-wing party advocating free market economics, low taxation, and reduced government. It was established by dissatisfied members of ACT New Zealand, and advocates similar policies of low taxation, privatisation, and reduced government. It never attempted to register with the New Zealand Electoral Commission and did not stand any candidates.
OurNZ Party 20112011A party advocating a new currency, binding referenda, and a written constitution.
New Economics Party 2011?A party advocating substantial economic reform such as a universal basic income and multiple currencies. It stood a single candidate in one election.
Thrive New Zealand 20122013Party logo registered in August 2013. Advocated Direct Democracy via an online tool called RealVoice.
Focus NZ 20122016A party aimed at representing rural New Zealand.
1Law4All Party 20132015A party aimed at overturning the Treaty of Waitangi.
Civilian Party 20132015A joke party which arose from a popular New Zealand satirical website.
Expatriate Party 20142014A party related to issues facing New Zealanders outside New Zealand.
NZ Climate Party 20142017A party which advocated greater action on climate change.
Ban 1080 Party 20142018A party that opposed the use of sodium fluoroacetate (1080) poison.
Internet Party 20142018A party advocating for less surveillance, copyright reform and cheap internet. The Internet Party contested the 2014 general election in an alliance called Internet Party and Mana Movement, and contested the 2017 election on its own.
New Zealand People's Party 20152020?A party with a focus on immigrant rights. It became a component party of Advance New Zealand for the 2020 election.
GOdsownNZ 20172018A "non-PC" Christian conservative party.
Sustainable New Zealand Party 20192021A Green Liberal party founded by former Green and National Member Vernon Tava. Considered to be "teal" or "blue-green" by the Media.
New Zealand Public Party 20202021A component party of Advance New Zealand. [31] Founded in June 2020 by Billy Te Kahika Jr. At its launch, Te Kahika said that the COVID-19 pandemic would enable globalist leaders to implement UN agendas that would totally control people's lives, and that billionaires had developed weaponised viruses and patented treatments for the viruses they had made, in order to enslave humanity. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] It merged with Advance New Zealand in July 2020. [37]
Integrity Party 20202020?
Advance New Zealand 20202021A party founded by former National Party MP Jami-Lee Ross.
Attica Project 20202022?An anti-neoliberal party.
New Zealand TEA Party 20202022A fiscally conservative party.

See also

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The 1999 New Zealand general election was held on 27 November 1999 to determine the composition of the 46th New Zealand Parliament. The governing National Party, led by Prime Minister Jenny Shipley, was defeated, being replaced by a coalition of Helen Clark's Labour Party and the smaller Alliance. This marked an end to nine years of the Fourth National Government, and the beginning of the Fifth Labour Government which would govern for nine years in turn, until its loss to the National Party in the 2008 general election. It was the first New Zealand election where both major parties had female leaders.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1996 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. Under the new MMP system, 65 members were elected in single-member districts by first-past-the-post voting, while a further 55 "top-up" members were allocated from closed lists to achieve a proportional distribution based on each party's share of the nationwide party vote.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1993 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

The 1993 New Zealand general election was held on 6 November 1993 to determine the composition of the 44th New Zealand Parliament. Voters elected 99 members to the House of Representatives, up from 97 members at the 1990 election. The election was held concurrently with an electoral reform referendum to replace the first-past-the-post system, with all members elected from single-member electorates, with mixed-member proportional representation. It saw the governing National Party, led by Jim Bolger, win a second term in office, despite a major swing away from National in both seats and votes, and the carrying of the referendum by 53.9% to 46.1%.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Māori electorates</span> Electoral districts for Māori voters in New Zealand

In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that give reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; as of 2020, there are seven Māori electorates. Since 1967, candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare that they are of Māori descent.

A list MP is a member of parliament (MP) elected from a party list rather than from a geographic electoral district. The place in Parliament is due to the number of votes that the party won, not to votes received by the MP personally. This occurs only in countries which have an electoral system based wholly or partly on party-list proportional representation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New Zealand electorates</span> Voting districts for election to the New Zealand Parliament

An electorate or electoral district is a geographic constituency used for electing a member (MP) to the New Zealand Parliament. The size of electorates is determined such that all electorates have approximately the same population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Electoral system of New Zealand</span> System by which New Zealand parliament is elected

The New Zealand electoral system has been mixed-member proportional (MMP) since the 1996 election. MMP was introduced following a referendum in 1993. It replaced the first-past-the-post (FPP) system New Zealand had previously used for most of its history. Under MMP, New Zealanders have two secret ballot votes to elect members of Parliament (MPs). The first vote is for a candidate from an electorate, a geographic electoral district. The second is the party vote for the political party the voter wants to form the government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Voting in New Zealand</span> Aspect of political history

Voting in New Zealand was introduced after colonisation by British settlers. The first New Zealand Constitution Act was passed in 1852, and the first parliamentary elections were held the following year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Te Tai Tokerau</span> Māori electorate in Northland, New Zealand

Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was held first by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Te Tai Tonga</span> Māori electorate in New Zealand

Te Tai Tonga is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was established for the 1996 general election, replacing Southern Maori. It covers all of the South Island, Stewart Island, the Chatham Islands, and parts of both Wellington City and the Hutt Valley. The current MP for Te Tai Tonga is Tākuta Ferris of Te Pāti Māori.

Waipareira was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate that existed for one parliamentary term from 1996 to 1999. Located in West Auckland, it was held by Brian Neeson of the New Zealand National Party, who had narrowly beaten Labour's Chris Carter.

The 2011 New Zealand voting system referendum was a referendum on whether to keep the existing mixed member proportional (MMP) voting system, or to change to another voting system, for electing Members of Parliament to New Zealand's House of Representatives. It was held on 26 November 2011 in conjunction with the 2011 general election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2014 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

The 2014 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 20 September 2014 to determine the membership of the 51st New Zealand Parliament.

The Mana Movement, originally known as the Mana Party, is a former political party in New Zealand. The party was led by Hone Harawira who formed it in April 2011 following his resignation from the Māori Party. Harawira won the by-election in Te Tai Tokerau of 25 June 2011 for the Mana Party and retained the seat during the 2011 general election in November.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2020 New Zealand general election</span>

The 2020 New Zealand general election was held on Saturday 17 October 2020 to determine the composition of the 53rd New Zealand Parliament. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives, 72 from single-member electorates and 48 from closed party lists. Two referendums, one on the personal use of cannabis and one on euthanasia, were also held on the same day. Official results of the election and referendums were released on 6 November.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Next New Zealand general election</span> Next general election in New Zealand

The next New Zealand general election will be held after the current 54th New Zealand Parliament is dissolved or expires. The current Parliament was elected on Saturday, 14 October 2023. The last possible date for the election to be held is Saturday, 19 December 2026.

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