All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 28th term. It saw the governing Labour Party re-elected, but by a substantially narrower margin than in the three previous elections. The National Party continued its gradual rise.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.
The 28th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1946 general election in November of that year.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
The Labour Party had been in government since winning the 1935 elections, and had been re-elected twice. However, the National Party had managed to overcome the internal problems which had once troubled it, and now presented a credible threat to Labour. National's leader, Sidney Holland, was proving more effective than his predecessor, while the Prime Minister, Peter Fraser, was weary and in poor health. The after-effects of World War II, including ongoing shortages, were affecting the government's popularity.
The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 25th term. It resulted in the Labour Party's first electoral victory, with Michael Joseph Savage becoming the first Labour Prime Minister. The governing coalition, consisting of the United Party and the Reform Party, suffered a major defeat, attributed by many to their handling of the Great Depression. The year after the election, United and Reform took their coalition further, merging to form the modern National Party.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
Sir Sidney George Holland was a New Zealand politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 13 December 1949 to 20 September 1957. He was instrumental in the creation and consolidation of the New Zealand National Party, which was to dominate New Zealand politics for much of the second half of the 20th century.
The next New Zealand census was scheduled for 1946, but the government brought it forward to Tuesday 25 September 1945, so that the results could be used for the 1946 electoral redistribution prior to the planned 1946 election.The 1946 electoral redistribution had to take ten years of population growth and movements into account. The North Island gained a further two electorates from the South Island due to faster population growth. The abolition of the country quota through the Electoral Amendment Act, 1945 reduced the number and increased the size of rural electorates. None of the existing electorates remained unchanged, 26 electorates were abolished, 19 electorates were created for the first time, and six former electorates were re-established.
The New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings is a national population and housing census conducted by government department Statistics New Zealand every five years. There have been thirty-three censuses since 1851. In addition to providing detailed information about national demographics, the results of the census play an important part in the calculation of resource allocation to local service providers.
The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,749,200.
The South Island, also officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area; the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi), making it the world's 12th-largest island. It has a temperate climate.
The date for the main 1946 elections was 27 November, a Wednesday. Elections to the four Māori electorates were held the day before. 1,081,898 people were registered to vote, and there was a turnout of 93.5%. This turnout was the highest ever recorded at this point. The number of seats being contested was 80, a number which had been fixed since 1902.
In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; there are currently seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, and the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are often among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion.
The outcome of the election was probably affected by the abolition of the country quota the previous year.[ citation needed ] This had required rural electorates to be smaller than urban electorates, thus increasing the importance of the rural vote. Since National was more popular than Labour in rural areas, the change may have cost National the election.
The 1946 election saw the governing Labour Party retain office by a four-seat margin, winning forty-two seats to the National Party's thirty-eight. In the popular vote — Labour won 51.3% and National won 48.4%. The election was a straight fight between the two main parties (unlike the 1943 election), and only 8 of the 76 European electorates had more than two candidates. The Democratic Labour Party did not take part, and National absorbed many of the miscellaneous candidates and splinter movements. The European electorates divided equally and the Maori seats decided the issue.
The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 27th term. With the onset of World War II, elections were initially postponed, but it was eventually decided to hold a general election in September 1943, around two years after it would normally have occurred. The election saw the governing Labour Party re-elected by a comfortable margin, although the party nevertheless lost considerable ground to the expanding National Party.
The Democratic Labour Party (DLP) was a left-wing political party in New Zealand in the 1940s. It was a splinter from the larger Labour Party, and was led by the prominent socialist John A. Lee.
No other parties won any significant share of the vote, and no independents were elected — only 0.3% of voters did not support one of the two major parties. After Harry Atmore of Nelson died, no candidate who was not from the two main parties managed to enter Parliament until the 1966 elections, when the Social Credit Party won its first seat.
|Party||Candidates||Total votes||Percentage||Seats won||Change|
The table below shows the results of the 1946 general election:
Labour National Independent
|Arch Hill||New electorate||Bill Parry||6,585||Edward James Clark|
|Ashburton||New electorate||Richard Geoffrey Gerard||1,453||Mabel Newlands|
|Auckland Central||Bill Parry||Bill Anderton||3,478||Leon Götz|
|Avon||Dan Sullivan||5,180||Robert Alexander McDowell|
|Awarua||George Richard Herron||2,588||Gilbert Gregory Mitchell|
|Bay of Plenty||Bill Sullivan||1,634||Ray Boord|
|Brooklyn||New electorate||Peter Fraser||3,935||Stewart Hardy|
|Buller||Paddy Webb||Jerry Skinner||2,912||Phil McDonald|
|Central Otago||William Bodkin||2,909||Claude Charles Capell|
|Christchurch Central||New electorate||Robert Macfarlane||4,420||Alan J. Wills|
|Clutha||James Roy||2,140||John Patrick Thompson|
|Dunedin Central||Peter Neilson||Phil Connolly||2,000||Stuart Sidey|
|Dunedin North||Robert Walls||1,630||Norman Jones|
|Eden||Bill Anderton||Wilfred Fortune||1,281||Warren Freer|
|Egmont||Ernest Corbett||3,398||Clarence Robert Parker|
|Fendalton||New electorate||Sidney Holland||3,004||Alan Williams|
|Franklin||Jack Massey||4,023||Alex Gunn|
|Gisborne||David William Coleman||2,015||Harry Barker|
|Grey Lynn||Fred Hackett||5,910||Harold Stapleton Barry|
|Hamilton||Hilda Ross||327||John Granville|
|Hastings||New electorate||Ted Cullen||483||Eric Pryor|
|Hauraki||Andrew Sutherland||2,891||John William Neate|
|Hawke's Bay||Ted Cullen||Cyril Harker||2,014||Henry Edward Beattie|
|Hobson||New electorate||Sidney Walter Smith||3,580||Hubert Knox Hatrick|
|Hurunui||William Gillespie||1,440||John Mathison|
|Hutt||Walter Nash||2,587||Jim Vogel|
|Invercargill||William Denham||Ralph Hanan||224||William Denham|
|Island Bay||New electorate||Robert McKeen||3,958||Herbert Edward Childs|
|Karori||New electorate||Charles Bowden||2,042||Patrick Connolly McGavin|
|Lyttelton||Terry McCombs||1,543||Ted Taylor|
|Manawatu||Matthew Oram||2,467||Phil Holloway|
|Marlborough||Edwin Meachen||Tom Shand||179||Edwin Meachen|
|Marsden||Alfred Murdoch||2,149||John Stewart|
|Miramar||New electorate||Bob Semple||2,482||Leonard Theodor Jacobsen|
|Mornington||New electorate||Wally Hudson||4,681||Lewis Donald McIver|
|Mount Albert||New electorate||Arthur Shapton Richards||1,857||Frederick Ashley Hosking|
|Mount Victoria||New electorate||Jack Marshall||911||Eugene Casey|
|Napier||Tommy Armstrong||1,845||Alan John Price|
|Nelson||vacant||Edgar Neale||585||Cyril Harold Goodman|
|New Plymouth||Ernest Aderman||405||George Nimmo|
|North Shore||New electorate||Martyn Finlay||249||Henry Thorne Morton|
|Oamaru||Arnold Nordmeyer||232||Thomas Ross Beatty|
|Onehunga||Arthur Osborne||3,424||William Kenneth King|
|Onslow||New electorate||Harry Ernest Combs||1,578||Philip Patrick Lynch|
|Otahuhu||Charles Robert Petrie||220||Albert Murdoch|
|Otaki||Leonard Lowry||James Joseph Maher||44||Jim Thorn|
|Pahiatua||Keith Holyoake||3,697||Otto Ernest Niederer|
|Palmerston North||Joe Hodgens||Ormond Wilson||928||Gus Mansford|
|Parnell||New electorate||Duncan Rae||206||Frederick Schramm|
|Patea||William Sheat||870||Richard John O'Dea|
|Petone||New electorate||Michael Moohan||4,019||George London|
|Piako||New electorate||William Goosman||5,101||Ben Waters|
|Ponsonby||New electorate||Ritchie Macdonald||3,431||Peter E Dempsey|
|Raglan||Hallyburton Johnstone||Alan Baxter||13||Hallyburton Johnstone|
|Rangitikei||Edward Gordon||2,307||John Capstick|
|Remuera||Ronald Algie||4,410||James Freeman|
|Riccarton||Jack Watts||Angus McLagan||3,875||Vic Wilson|
|Rodney||New electorate||Clifton Webb||2,850||Alexander Boyd Dixon|
|Roskill||Arthur Shapton Richards||Frank Langstone||155||Roy McElroy|
|St Albans||New electorate||Jack Watts||86||Morgan Williams|
|St Kilda||New electorate||Fred Jones||1,248||Leonard James Tobin Ireland|
|Selwyn||New electorate||John McAlpine||472||Alan Sharp|
|Sydenham||New electorate||Mabel Howard||6,746||Ruric Hunter|
|Tamaki||New electorate||Tom Skinner||231||John George Concanon Wales|
|Tauranga||Frederick Doidge||2,704||Dudley Alexander Hill|
|Timaru||Clyde Carr||520||Jack Acland|
|Waikato||William Goosman||Geoffrey Sim||4,385||John Dwyer|
|Waimarino||Frank Langstone||Paddy Kearins||681||Norman Robert Hill|
|Waimate||New electorate||David Campbell Kidd||789||William Roy Davison|
|Wairarapa||Ben Roberts||Garnet Hercules Mackley||235||George Anders Hansen|
|Waitakere||New electorate||Rex Mason||2,797||Archibald Morrison Laing|
|Waitomo||Walter Broadfoot||3,951||Alan George Goldsmith|
|Wallace||Adam Hamilton||Tom Macdonald||3,716||David Johnston Munro|
|Wanganui||Joseph Cotterill||1,934||Eric Merewether|
|Wellington Central||Peter Fraser||Charles Henry Chapman||1,680||Agnes Louisa Weston|
|Westland||James O'Brien||4,716||E Frank Chivers|
|Eastern Maori||Tiaki Omana||1,517||Āpirana Ngata|
|Northern Maori||Tapihana Paraire Paikea||2,555||James Henare|
|Southern Maori||Eruera Tirikatene||581||Vernon Ohaia Mason Thomas|
|Western Maori||Matiu Ratana||6,491||Hoeroa Marumaru|
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The 1969 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of Parliament's 36th term. It saw the Second National Government headed by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake of the National Party win a fourth consecutive term.
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