1946 New Zealand general election

Last updated

1946 New Zealand general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1943 26 November 1946 (Māori)
27 November 1946 (general)
1949  

All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout1,047,205 (93.5%)
 First partySecond party
  Peter Fraser.jpg Sidney George Holland (1951).jpg
Leader Peter Fraser Sidney Holland
Party Labour National
Leader since 4 April 1940 26 November 1940
Leader's seat Brooklyn Christchurch North
Last election45 seats, 47.6%34 seats, 42.8%
Seats won4238
Seat changeDecrease2.svg 3Increase2.svg 4
Popular vote536,994507,139
Percentage51.3%48.4%
SwingIncrease2.svg 3.7%Increase2.svg 5.6%

1946 New Zealand general election - Results.svg
Results of the election.

Prime Minister before election

Peter Fraser
Labour

Subsequent Prime Minister

Peter Fraser
Labour

The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 28th term. It saw the governing Labour Party re-elected, but by a substantially narrower margin than in the three previous elections. The National Party continued its gradual rise.

Contents

Background

The Labour Party had been in government since winning the 1935 elections, and had been re-elected twice. However, the National Party had managed to overcome the internal problems which had once troubled it, and now presented a credible threat to Labour. National's leader, Sidney Holland, was proving more effective than his predecessor, while the Prime Minister, Peter Fraser, was weary and in poor health. The after-effects of World War II, including ongoing shortages, were affecting the government's popularity.

The next New Zealand census was scheduled for 1946, but having had to postpone the 1941 census due to WWII, the government brought it forward. The 1945 census was held on Tuesday, 25 September, so that the results could be used for the 1946 electoral redistribution prior to the planned 1946 election. [1] In August 1945, there was a first hint that the government considered abolishing the country quota through the Electoral Amendment Act, 1945. [2] The amendment bill was introduced on 18 October 1945 and proposed the complete abolition of the country quota and that electorates be based on adult, as opposed to total, population. [3] The Electoral Amendment Act, 1945 was given royal assent on 12 November [4] and it reduced the number and increased the size of rural electorates. None of the existing electorates remained unchanged, 26 electorates were abolished, 19 electorates were created for the first time, and six former electorates were re-established. [5] The 1946 electoral redistribution had to take ten years of population growth and movements into account. The North Island gained a further two electorates from the South Island due to faster population growth.

MPs retiring in 1946

Five Labour MPs and one National MP intended to retire at the end of the Parliament.

PartyNameElectorate
Labour Joe Hodgens Palmerston North
Leonard Lowry Otaki
Peter Neilson Dunedin Central
Ben Roberts Wairarapa
Paddy Webb Buller
National Adam Hamilton Wallace

Date of election

The election should have been held earlier. The 27th parliament "forgot to mark the calendar, forgot the previous election had been earlier than usual and accidentally ran for two extra months". [6]

The election

The date for the main 1946 elections was 27 November, a Wednesday. Elections to the four Māori electorates were held the day before. 1,081,898 people were registered to vote, and there was a turnout of 93.5%. This turnout was the highest ever recorded at this point. The number of seats being contested was 80, a number which had been fixed since 1902. [7]

Election results

Party standings

The 1946 election saw the governing Labour Party retain office by a four-seat margin, winning forty-two seats to the National Party's thirty-eight. In the popular vote — Labour won 51.3% and National won 48.4%. The election was a straight fight between the two main parties (unlike the 1943 election), and only 8 of the 76 European electorates had more than two candidates. The Democratic Labour Party did not take part, and National absorbed many of the miscellaneous candidates and splinter movements. The European electorates divided equally and the Maori seats decided the issue. [8]

No other parties won any significant share of the vote, and no independents were elected — only 0.3% of voters did not support one of the two major parties. After Harry Atmore of Nelson died, no candidate who was not from the two main parties managed to enter Parliament until the 1966 elections, when the Social Credit Party won its first seat.

1946 nz parliament.svg
Election results
PartyCandidatesTotal votesPercentageSeats wonChange
Labour 80536,99451.2842-3
National 80507,14948.4338+4
Communist 31,1810.110±0
Independent 92,8860.180-1
Total1721,047,21080

Votes summary

Popular Vote
Labour
51.28%
National
48.43%
Others
0.29%
Parliament seats
Labour
52.50%
National
47.50%

Initial MPs

The table below shows the results of the 1946 general election:

Key

  Labour   National   Independent

Electorate results for the 1946 New Zealand general election [9] [10]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
General electorates
Arch Hill New electorate Bill Parry [11] 6,585Edward James Clark
Ashburton New electorate Geoff Gerard 1,453 Mabel Newlands
Auckland Central Bill Parry [11] Bill Anderton [12] 3,478 Leon Götz [13]
Avon Dan Sullivan 5,180Robert Alexander McDowell
Awarua George Richard Herron 2,588Gilbert Gregory Mitchell
Bay of Plenty Bill Sullivan [14] 1,634 Ray Boord [15] [9]
Brooklyn New electorate Peter Fraser [16] 3,935Stewart Hardy
Buller Paddy Webb Jerry Skinner 2,912Phil McDonald
Central Otago William Bodkin 2,909Claude Charles Capell
Christchurch Central New electorate Robert Macfarlane 4,420Alan J. Wills
Clutha James Roy 2,140John Patrick Thompson
Dunedin Central Peter Neilson Phil Connolly 2,000 Stuart Sidey [17] [9]
Dunedin North Robert Walls 1,630 Norman Jones [18]
Eden Bill Anderton [12] Wilfred Fortune [19] 1,281 Warren Freer [20] [9]
Egmont Ernest Corbett [21] 3,398Clarence Robert Parker
Fendalton New electorate Sidney Holland 3,004Alan Williams
Franklin Jack Massey 4,023Alex Gunn
Gisborne David Coleman 2,015 Harry Barker [22]
Grey Lynn Fred Hackett 5,910Harold Stapleton Barry
Hamilton Hilda Ross 327 Jack Granville
Hastings New electorate Ted Cullen 483Eric Pryor [23]
Hauraki Andy Sutherland 2,891 John William Neate
Hawke's Bay Ted Cullen Cyril Harker 2,014Henry Edward Beattie
Hobson New electorate Sidney Walter Smith 3,580Hubert Knox Hatrick
Hurunui William Gillespie 1,440 John Mathison
Hutt Walter Nash 2,587Jim Vogel
Invercargill William Denham Ralph Hanan 224William Denham
Island Bay New electorate Robert McKeen 3,958Herbert Edward Childs
Karori New electorate Charles Bowden 2,042Patrick Connolly McGavin
Lyttelton Terry McCombs 1,543 Ted Taylor [24]
Manawatu Matthew Oram 2,467 Phil Holloway
Marlborough Ted Meachen Tom Shand 179Ted Meachen
Marsden Alfred Murdoch 2,149 John Stewart
Miramar New electorate Bob Semple 2,482Len Jacobsen
Mornington New electorate Wally Hudson 4,681Lewis Donald McIver
Mount Albert New electorate Arthur Shapton Richards 1,857Frederick Ashley Hosking
Mount Victoria New electorate Jack Marshall 911 Eugene Casey
Napier Tommy Armstrong 1,845Alan John Price
Nelson vacant [nb 1] Edgar Neale 585Cyril Harold Goodman
New Plymouth Ernest Aderman 405George Nimmo
North Shore New electorate Martyn Finlay 249 Henry Thorne Morton [25]
Oamaru Arnold Nordmeyer 232Thomas Ross Beatty
Onehunga Arthur Osborne 3,424William Kenneth King
Onslow New electorate Harry Combs 1,578Philip Patrick Lynch
Otahuhu Charles Robert Petrie 220Albert Murdoch
Otaki Leonard Lowry Jimmy Maher 44 Jim Thorn
Pahiatua Keith Holyoake 3,697Otto Ernest Niederer
Palmerston North Joe Hodgens Ormond Wilson 928 Gus Mansford
Parnell New electorate Duncan Rae 206 Bill Schramm
Patea William Sheat 870Richard John O'Dea
Petone New electorate Mick Moohan 4,019George London
Piako New electorate Stan Goosman 5,101 Ben Waters
Ponsonby New electorate Ritchie Macdonald 3,431Peter E Dempsey [26]
Raglan Hallyburton Johnstone Alan Baxter 13 Hallyburton Johnstone
Rangitikei Edward Gordon 2,307John Capstick
Remuera Ronald Algie 4,410James Freeman
Riccarton Jack Watts Angus McLagan 3,875Vic Wilson
Rodney New electorate Clifton Webb 2,850Alex Dixon
Roskill Arthur Shapton Richards Frank Langstone 155 Roy McElroy [27]
St Albans New electorate Jack Watts 86 Morgan Williams [28]
St Kilda New electorate Fred Jones 1,248Leonard James Ireland
Selwyn New electorate John McAlpine 472Alan Sharp
Sydenham New electorate Mabel Howard 6,746Ruric Hunter
Tamaki New electorate Tom Skinner 231John George Concanon Wales
Tauranga Frederick Doidge 2,704Dudley A. Hill
Timaru Clyde Carr 520 Jack Acland [29]
Waikato Stan Goosman Geoffrey Sim 4,385John Dwyer
Waimarino Frank Langstone Paddy Kearins 681Norman Robert Hill
Waimate New electorate David Campbell Kidd 789William Roy Davison
Wairarapa Ben Roberts Garnet Mackley 235George Anders Hansen
Waitakere New electorate Rex Mason 2,797Archibald Morrison Laing
Waitomo Walter Broadfoot 3,951Alan George Goldsmith
Wallace Adam Hamilton Tom Macdonald 3,716David Munro
Wanganui Joe Cotterill 1,934Eric Merewether
Wellington Central Peter Fraser Charles Chapman 1,680 Agnes Weston [nb 2]
Westland James O'Brien 4,716Frank Chivers [32] [33]
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Tiaki Omana 1,517 Āpirana Ngata
Northern Maori Tapihana Paraire Paikea 2,555 James Henare [34]
Southern Maori Eruera Tirikatene 581Vernon Ohaia Mason Thomas
Western Maori Matiu Ratana 6,491 Hoeroa Marumaru [35]

Table footnotes:

  1. Harry Atmore, the previous holder of the Nelson electorate, died on 20 August 1946
  2. Claude Weston died suddenly on 10 November 1946 and was replaced by his wife [30] [31]

Notes

  1. "Politics brought the 1946 Census forward to 1945". Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  2. "Country quota". The Press . Vol. LXXXI, no. 24635. 3 August 1945. p. 4. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  3. "Political storm bursts: electoral amendment sprung on House". Evening Star . No. 25618. 19 October 1945. p. 3. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  4. "Stop press". Evening Star . No. 25639. 13 November 1945. p. 8. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  5. McRobie 1989, pp. 91–96.
  6. Maoate-Cox, Daniela; Smith, Phil (12 August 2020). "Dissolving Parliament - what is that?". Radio New Zealand . Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  7. "General elections 1853–2005 – dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  8. Lipson 2011, p. 220-21.
  9. 1 2 3 4 "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  10. "The Lists Close". No. 25951. Evening Star. 16 November 1946. p. 9.
  11. 1 2 Wilson 1985, p. 225.
  12. 1 2 Wilson 1985, p. 180.
  13. Gustafson 1986, p. 315.
  14. Wilson 1985, p. 237.
  15. Norton 1988, p. 200.
  16. Wilson 1985, p. 198.
  17. Norton 1988, p. 212.
  18. Gustafson 1986, pp. 323f.
  19. Wilson 1985, p. 197.
  20. Norton 1988, p. 220.
  21. Wilson 1985, p. 190.
  22. Milton-Tee, Ann. "Harry Heaton Barker". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  23. Gustafson 1986, p. 382.
  24. Gustafson 1986, p. 387.
  25. Gustafson 1986, p. 334.
  26. Gustafson 1986, pp. 360f.
  27. Gustafson 1986, p. 375.
  28. Wilson 1985, p. 245.
  29. Wilson 1985, p. 179.
  30. Gustafson 1986, p. 389.
  31. "Claude Horace Weston". Auckland War Memorial Museum . Retrieved 9 July 2022 via Online Cenotaph.
  32. "General Election". Auckland Star . Vol. LXXIV, no. 203. 27 August 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  33. "Chivers, E Frank, DSM, MID". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum . Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  34. Gustafson 1986, p. 367.
  35. Gustafson 1986, p. 377.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1972 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

The 1972 New Zealand general election was held on 25 November to elect MPs to the 37th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Labour Party, led by Norman Kirk, defeated the governing National Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1969 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

The 1969 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of Parliament's 36th term. It saw the Second National Government headed by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake of the National Party win a fourth consecutive term. This is the most recent election where an incumbent government won a fourth term in office.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1949 New Zealand general election</span>

The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 29th term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the opposition National Party. This marked the end of the 14-year First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.

Arch Hill was one of 80 electorates in New Zealand between 1946 and 1954. Located in central Auckland, the electorate was considered a safe seat for the Labour Party in its eight years of existence.

Piako was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate established in 1946 and disestablished in 2008. It was last held by Lindsay Tisch MP from 2002 to 2008.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Waitakere (New Zealand electorate)</span> Former electorate in Auckland, New Zealand

Waitakere was a parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. The electorate was first formed for the 1946 election and existed until 2014, with breaks from 1969 to 1978 and from 1987 to 1993. The last MP for Waitakere was Paula Bennett of the National Party, who had held this position since the 2008 election.

Brooklyn was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in Wellington city from 1946 to 1954. It was represented by two prominent members of the Labour Party: Peter Fraser, who was Prime Minister (1940–1949), and Arnold Nordmeyer, who was later Minister of Finance (1957–1960).

Mount Victoria is a former New Zealand electorate, centred on the inner-city suburb of Mount Victoria in the southern suburbs of Wellington. It existed from 1946 to 1954, and was represented by one Member of Parliament, Jack Marshall.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Miramar (New Zealand electorate)</span> Former electorate in Wellington, New Zealand

Miramar was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the south-eastern suburbs of Wellington. It was created in 1946, replacing Wellington East, and was replaced by Rongotai for the first MMP election of 1996.

Hamilton is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate that existed from 1922 to 1969. The electorate covered the urban area of the city of Hamilton. In 1969, the city was part of two rural electorates, Hamilton East and Waikato. For the 1972 election, the nature of Hamilton East changed to urban, and the Hamilton West electorate complements it to form a second urban electorate.

Petone is a former parliamentary electorate in the lower Hutt Valley of New Zealand, from 1946 to 1978. The electorate was represented by two Members of Parliament from the Labour Party.

Hobson is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed from 1946 to 1978 and then from 1987 to 1996, and was represented by five Members of Parliament, four of whom represented the National Party. It is notable for returning a member of the Social Credit Party in the 1966 election, as no other candidate not aligned with either Labour or National had been elected to Parliament since 1943. With the re-drawing of boundaries in the first MMP election in 1996, the seat was absorbed into the Northland and Whangarei electorates.

Grey Lynn is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, in the city of Auckland. It existed from 1902 to 1978, and was represented by nine Members of Parliament.

Fendalton is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed during two periods between 1946 and 1996. The electorate was in the western suburbs of Christchurch, New Zealand. Fendalton is an expensive suburb, and was always represented by the National Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Remuera (New Zealand electorate)</span> Former electorate in Auckland, New Zealand

Remuera is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, in the city of Auckland. It existed from 1938, when it replaced the Parnell electorate, until 1996. It was consistently held by members of the National Party.

Mornington is a former parliamentary electorate from 1946 to 1963, centred on the suburb of Mornington in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand.

Ponsonby was a parliamentary electorate in Auckland, New Zealand from 1887 to 1890 and from 1946 to 1963. The Ponsonby electorate was represented by two Members of Parliament.

Hastings was a parliamentary electorate in the Hawke's Bay Region of New Zealand from 1946 to 1996. The electorate was represented by nine Members of Parliament. The Hastings electorate was a typical bellwether electorate, frequently changing between the two main parties.

Waimate was a parliamentary electorate in the Canterbury region of New Zealand from 1881 to 1893 and from 1946 to 1957. It was represented by three Members of Parliament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">28th New Zealand Parliament</span> 1946–1949 term of the then bicameral legislature

The 28th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1946 general election in November of that year.

References