1914 New Zealand general election

Last updated

Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1911 10 & 11 December 1914 1919  

All 80 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
41 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout84.7%
 First partySecond party
  William Ferguson Massey 1919.jpg Joseph Ward c. 1906.jpg
Leader William Massey Joseph Ward
Party Reform Liberal
Leader since11 February 1909 11 September 1913
Leader's seat Franklin Awarua
Last election38 seats36 seats
Seats before4132
Seats won4034
Seat changeDecrease2.svg 1Increase2.svg 2
Popular vote243,122222,299
Percentage47.1%43.1%

 Third partyFourth party
  Alfred H. Hindmarsh.png James McCombs 1920s.jpg
Leader Alfred Hindmarsh James McCombs
Party United Labour Social Democrat
Leader since7 April 1912Unclear
Leader's seat Wellington South Lyttelton
Seats before23
Seats won32
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 1Decrease2.svg 1
Popular vote22,67222,500
Percentage4.24%4.21%

Prime Minister before election

William Massey
Reform

Prime Minister-designate

William Massey
Reform

The New Zealand general election of 1914 was held on 10 December to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 19th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Maori vote was held on 11 December. A total number of 616,043 voters were registered, of which 84.7% voters turned out to vote. [1]

19th New Zealand Parliament

The 19th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It opened on 24 June 1915, following the 1914 election. It was dissolved on 27 November 1919 in preparation for 1919 election.

New Zealand Parliament legislative body of New Zealand

The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.

Contents

The election saw William Massey's Reform Government maintain power.

William Massey Prime Minister of New Zealand

William Ferguson Massey, commonly known as Bill Massey, was a politician who served as the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand from May 1912 to May 1925. He was the founding leader of the Reform Party, New Zealand's second organised political party, from 1909 until his death.

The Reform Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1912 to 1928. It is perhaps best remembered for its anti-trade union stance in the Waihi miners' strike of 1912 and a dockworkers' strike the following year. It also governed during World War I, during which a temporary coalition was formed with the Liberal Party.

The second-ballot voting system had been repealed in 1913, and first-past-the-post voting reinstated for the 1914 election. [1]

Two-round system voting system used to elect a single winner where a second round of voting is used if no candidate wins an absolute majority in the first round

The two-round system is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. However, if no candidate receives the required number of votes, then those candidates having less than a certain proportion of the votes, or all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting is held.

First-past-the-post voting voting system in which voters select one candidate, and the candidate who receives more votes than any other candidate wins

A first-past-the-post electoral system is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins. This is sometimes described as winner takes all. First-past-the-post voting is a plurality voting method. FPTP is a common, but not universal, feature of electoral systems with single-member electoral divisions, and is practised in close to one third of countries. Notable examples include Canada, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as most of their current or former colonies and protectorates.

Soldiers serving overseas in the NZEF were given a vote by the Expeditionary Forces Voting Act, 1914. They voted for a party (Liberal, Labour or Reform) and their votes were allocated to a candidate for their electorate by a representative of their party; which sometimes required the representative to choose between rival "Liberal" or "Labour" candidates. [2]

New Zealand Expeditionary Force

The New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) was the title of the military forces sent from New Zealand to fight alongside other British Empire and Dominion troops during World War I (1914–1918) and World War II (1939–1945). Ultimately, the NZEF of World War I became known as the First New Zealand Expeditionary Force. The NZEF of World War II was known as the Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force (2NZEF).

The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand. It governed from 1891 until 1912. The Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals, by buying large tracts of Māori land and selling it to small farmers on credit. The Liberal Government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, which was accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage.

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.

Summary of results

Party totals

Election results
PartyCandidatesTotal votesPercentageSeats won
Reform Party 84243,02545.4740
Liberal Party 77227,70642.6134
United Labour 1022,6724.243
Social Democrat 1122,5004.212
Independents1218,5543.471
Total valid votes534,45780
Informal votes5,6181.04
Registered voters616,043
Total candidates193

Votes summary

Popular Vote
Reform
46.90%
Liberal
43.10%
United Labour
4.24%
Social Democrat
4.21%
Independents
11.40%
Parliament seats
Reform
50.00%
Liberal
42.50%
United Labour
3.75%
Social Democrat
2.50%
Independents
1.25%

Results

The following are the results of the 1914 general election:

Key

  Liberal     Reform     United Labour     Social Democrat     Independent Labour     Independent   

The United Labour Party (ULP) of New Zealand was an early left-wing political party. Founded in 1912, it represented the more moderate wing of the labour movement. In 1916 it joined with other political groups to establish the modern Labour Party.

The Social Democratic Party of New Zealand was an early left-wing political party. It existed only a short time before being amalgamated into the new Labour Party. During its period of existence, the party held two seats in Parliament.

An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent.

Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1914 [3]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
General electorates
Ashburton William Nosworthy 157 William Maslin
Auckland Central Albert Glover 2,302 Michael Joseph Savage
Auckland East Arthur Myers 2,507Arthur Holmes
Auckland West James Bradney Charles Poole 1,411 James Bradney
Awarua Joseph Ward 1,226 John Hamilton
Avon George Russell 1,073 Dan Sullivan
Bay of Islands Vernon Reed 108 Peter Buck
Bay of Plenty William MacDonald 965 Kenneth Williams
Bruce James Allen 693Charles Smith
Buller James Colvin 2,195George Powell
Chalmers Edward Clark James Dickson 686William Mason
Christchurch East Thomas Davey Henry Thacker 1,890 Hiram Hunter
Christchurch North Leonard Isitt 1,217 Henry Toogood
Christchurch South Harry Ell 2,333 Gains Whiting
Clutha Alexander Malcolm 1,009 John Jenkinson
Dunedin Central Charles Statham 12 James Wright Munro
Dunedin North George Thomson Andrew Walker 322 George Thomson
Dunedin South Thomas Sidey 2,697Thomas Dalton
Dunedin West John A. Millar William Downie Stewart 345John Johnson
Eden John Bollard James Parr 2,456William Tuck
Egmont Charles Wilkinson 894David Astbury
Ellesmere Heaton Rhodes 273James Free
Franklin William Massey 2,928Arthur Glass
Gisborne James Carroll 1,249Harry de Lautour
Grey Paddy Webb 980 Henry Michel
Grey Lynn John Payne 89Murdoch McLean
Hawke's Bay Hugh Campbell Robert McNab 40Hugh Campbell
Hurunui George Forbes 1,486William Banks
Hutt Thomas Wilford 943Albert Samuel
Invercargill Josiah Hanan 1,590 John Lillicrap
Kaiapoi David Buddo 1,181 David Jones
Kaipara Gordon Coates 1,118Richard Hoe
Lyttelton James McCombs 1,598Malcolm Miller
Manukau Frederic Lang 1,224John McLarin
Marsden Francis Mander 940Edmund Purdie
Masterton George Sykes 193 Alexander Hogg
Mataura George Anderson 174William Mehaffey
Motueka Roderick McKenzie Richard Hudson 602Roderick McKenzie
Napier Vigor Brown 2,215George William Venables [4]
Nelson Harry Atmore Thomas Field 90Harry Atmore
Oamaru Ernest Lee 338 John MacPherson
Ohinemuri Hugh Poland 100Joseph Clark
Oroua David Guthrie 1,119John Morrison
Otago Central Robert Scott 999William Bodkin
Otaki John Robertson William Field 640John Robertson
Pahiatua James Escott 683John Mathews
Palmerston David Buick 1,109 Jim Thorn
Parnell James Dickson 1,172Jeremiah Sullivan
Patea George Pearce 118William Morrison
Raglan Richard Bollard 1,448William Thompson
Rangitikei Edward Newman 903 Robert Hornblow
Riccarton George Witty 1,215Bertram Bunn
Selwyn William Dickie 1,227George Sheat
Stratford John Hine 637William Hawkins
Taranaki Henry Okey 201Daniel Hughes
Taumarunui Charles Wilson William Jennings 205Charles Wilson
Tauranga William Herries 1,992Ralph Stewart
Temuka Thomas Buxton Charles Talbot 407Charles Kerr
Thames Thomas Rhodes 515 Edmund Taylor
Timaru James Craigie 1,110Francis Smith
Waikato Alexander Young 2,193Alexander Scholes
Waimarino Robert Smith 1,995Hugh Speed
Waipawa George Hunter 138 Albert Jull
Wairarapa Walther Buchanan J. T. Marryat Hornsby 60Walter Buchanan
Wairau Richard McCallum 369 John Duncan
Waitaki Francis Smith John Anstey 156Norton Francis
Waitemata Alexander Harris 1,013Henry Cromwell Tewsley [5]
Wanganui Bill Veitch 852 Frederick Pirani
Wakatipu William Fraser 897Joseph Stephens [6]
Wallace John Thomson 881Alexander Rodger
Wellington Central Francis Fisher Robert Fletcher 2,329 Francis Fisher
Wellington East Alfred Newman 48 David McLaren
Wellington North Alexander Herdman 2,655William Turnbull
Wellington South Alfred Hindmarsh 1,215 John Luke
Wellington Suburbs and Country William Bell Robert Wright 1,002 Frank Moore
Westland Tom Seddon 826Arthur Paape
Maori electorates
Eastern Maori Sir Āpirana Ngata 2,825Hetekia Pere
Northern Maori Te Rangi Hiroa Taurekareka Henare 176Hemi te Paa
Southern Maori Taare Parata 238Teone Matapura Erihana
Western Maori Māui Pōmare Māui Pōmare 2,107Hema te Ao

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References

  1. 1 2 "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  2. Barry Gustafson (1980). Labour’s Path to Political Independence. Auckland University Press. pp. 87–88.
  3. Hislop, J. (1915). The General Election, 1914. National Library. pp. 1–33. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  4. "General Election". The Press . L (15116). 4 November 1914. p. 7. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  5. "Mr. H.C. Tewsley". Observer. XXXV (14). 12 December 1914. p. 15. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  6. "Labour's Candidates". Maoriland Worker . 12 (299). 22 November 1922. p. 12. Retrieved 26 January 2014.

See also