120 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
61 seats needed for a majority
|Turnout||2,055,404 (76.98%) |
The 2002 New Zealand general election was held on 27 July 2002 to determine the composition of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. It saw the reelection of Helen Clark's Labour Party government, as well as the worst-ever performance by the opposition National Party.
The 47th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 2002 election, and it sat until 11 August 2005.
Helen Elizabeth Clark is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017. She was New Zealand's fifth-longest-serving prime minister, and the second woman to hold that office.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
A controversial issue in the election campaign was the end of a moratorium on genetic engineering, strongly opposed by the Green Party. Some commentators have claimed that the tension between Labour and the Greens on this issue was a more notable part of the campaign than any tension between Labour and its traditional right-wing opponents. The release of Nicky Hager's book Seeds of Distrust prior to the election also sparked much debate. The book examined how the government handled the contamination of a shipment of imported corn with genetically modified seeds. Helen Clark called the Greens "goths and anarcho-feminists" during the campaign.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. The first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome.
The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a left-wing political party in New Zealand. Like many Green parties around the world it has four organisational pillars: ecology, social responsibility, grassroots democracy, and nonviolence. It also accepts Te Tiriti o Waitangi as the founding document of Aotearoa New Zealand and recognises Māori as Tangata Whenua.
Nicky Hager is a New Zealand investigative journalist. He has produced six books since 1996, covering topics such as intelligence networks, environmental issues and politics. He is the only New Zealand member of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.
On 12 June the government announced that the country would have a general election on 27 July. This was several months earlier than was required, a fact which caused considerable comment. The Prime Minister, Helen Clark, claimed that an early poll was necessary due to the collapse of her junior coalition partner, the Alliance. Critics, however, claimed that Clark could have continued to govern, and that the early election was called to take advantage of Labour's strong position in the polls.Some commentators believe that a mixture of these factors was responsible.
The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017.
The Alliance was a left-wing political party in New Zealand. It was formed at the end of 1991 by the linking of four smaller parties. The Alliance positioned itself as a democratic socialist alternative to the centre-left New Zealand Labour Party. It was influential throughout the 1990s, but suffered a major setback after its founder and leader, Jim Anderton, left the party in 2002, taking with him several of its members of parliament (MPs). After the remaining MPs lost their seats in the 2002 general election, some commentators predicted the demise of the party.
Before the election, the Labour Party held 49 seats in parliament. It governed in coalition with the smaller (and more left-wing) Alliance, which had 10 seats. It also relied on support from the Greens, but this was a largely informal arrangement, and the Greens were not a part of the administration itself. Opposing Labour were the National Party (centre-right), United Future (centrist), New Zealand First (populist), ACT New Zealand (free-market). Many opinion polls for the election indicated that Labour was popular enough to conceivably win an absolute majority, leaving it able to govern without the support of smaller parties. Labour's dominance over National was such that for many people, the question was not whether Labour would win, but whether Labour would receive the absolute majority it sought.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
United Future New Zealand, usually known as United Future, was a centrist political party in New Zealand. The party was in government between 2005 and 2017, first alongside Labour (2005–2008) and then supporting National (2008–2017).
New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. It was founded in July 1993, following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. It has formed governments with both major parties in New Zealand, first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to present.
There were 2,670,030 registered voters, the highest number for any election in New Zealand. However, only 77% of these registered voters chose to cast a vote, a considerable drop from previous elections. Many commentators cited Labour's dominance in the polls as a reason for this low turnout. Many people saw the outcome as inevitable, and so did not bother to vote at all.
In the election 683 candidates stood, and there were 14 registered parties with party lists. Of the candidates, 433 were electorate and list, 160 were electorate only, and 90 were list only. 71% of candidates (487) were male and 29% (196) female.
As most people expected, Labour was victorious. It did not, however, receive an absolute majority, gaining only 52 seats (eight seats short of the half-way mark). Labour's former coalition partner, the Alliance (which had splintered shortly before the election), was not returned to parliament. However, the new Progressive Coalition (now the Progressive Party) started by former Alliance leader Jim Anderton won two seats, and remained allied with Labour. The Greens, who were now distanced from Labour over the genetic engineering controversy, gained nine seats (an increase of two).
James Patrick Anderton was a New Zealand politician who led a succession of left-wing parties after leaving the Labour Party in 1989.
In general, it was a bad election for the parties of the right. The National Party, once referred to as "the natural party of government", suffered its worst-ever electoral defeat, gaining only 21% of the vote. ACT New Zealand, National's more right-wing neighbour, failed to capitalise on the exodus of National supporters, retaining the same number of seats as before. Instead, the most notable gains among opposition parties were made by two centrist parties. One of these was Winston Peters's New Zealand First, a populist and nationalist party opposed to immigration. Strong campaigning by Peters allowed the party to recover from its serious losses in the 1999 election. The other was United Future New Zealand party, a centrist party based on a merger of the United Party and the Future New Zealand party - primarily due to the performance of leader Peter Dunne, the party shot from having one seat to having eight seats.
Once the final distribution of seats was determined, it was clear that Labour would be at the centre of the government, and that it would be allied with the Progressives. However, this still left Labour needing support in matters of confidence and supply, as the two parties together fell short of an absolute majority. Labour expressed a preference for an "agreement" rather than a full coalition, hoping to establish an arrangement similar to the one that existed with the Greens prior to the election. Three realistic choices existed for a partner - the Greens, United Future, and New Zealand First. Labour had repeatedly ruled out deals with New Zealand First during the election campaign, and reaffirmed this soon after the election, leaving just the Greens and United Future as candidates. After a period of negotiation, Labour opted to ally with United Future, being unwilling to change their genetic engineering policies to secure the Green Party's support.
Labour and the Progressives remained in power, with support in confidence and supply votes from United Future.
|party||votes||% of votes||seats|
|disallowed special votes||15,156|
|total votes cast||2,055,404|
a Increase over the combined 1999 results of United and Future parties.
b Loss of ten seats by 'other parties' entirely due to disintegration of Alliance.
|One New Zealand||1782||0.09||+0.03|
|Minor parties, total||99,388||4.89|
Of the 69 electorates in the 2002 election, a majority (45) were won by the Labour Party. The opposition National Party won 21 electorate seats. Labour dominated the urban areas, where it has traditionally been strongest, while National performed best in rural areas. However, Labour's strong position in this election led to National losing ground in a number of its traditional strongholds. The loss of Otago electorate, a rural area, was one notable example.
Labour also dominated in the seven Maori seats. National gained second place in only one Maori electorate, with Labour's main rivals being the Mana Maori Movement, the Greens, and the Alliance.
Of the minor parties, only three managed to win electorates, mostly due to the strong personal following of the incumbents. United Future leader Peter Dunne retained his strong support in the Wellington electorate of Ohariu-Belmont, while New Zealand First leader Winston Peters retained Tauranga. Progressive leader Jim Anderton retained the Christchurch seat of Wigram, which he had formerly held as leader of the Alliance.
The table below shows the results of the 2002 general election:
|Labour||National||NZ First||Green||United Future|
|Aoraki||Jim Sutton||6,453||Wayne Marriott|
|Auckland Central||Judith Tizard||5,205||Pansy Wong|
|Banks Peninsula||Ruth Dyson||4,057||David Carter|
|Bay of Plenty||Tony Ryall||5,597||Peter Brown|
|Christchurch Central||Tim Barnett||10,353||Nicky Wagner|
|Christchurch East||Lianne Dalziel||14,864||Stephen Johnston|
|Clevedon||New electorate||Judith Collins||3,127||Dave Hereora|
|Clutha-Southland||Bill English||6,808||Lesley Soper|
|Coromandel||Jeanette Fitzsimons||Sandra Goudie||5,958||Max Purnell|
|Dunedin North||Pete Hodgson||10,637||Katherine Rich|
|Dunedin South||David Benson-Pope||14,724||Paul Foster-Bell|
|East Coast||Janet Mackey||5,343||Leanne Jensen-Daines|
|East Coast Bays||New electorate||Murray McCully||1,534||Hamish McCracken|
|Epsom||Richard Worth||5,619||Di Nash|
|Hamilton East||Tony Steel||Dianne Yates||614||Tony Steel|
|Hamilton West||Martin Gallagher||5,574||Bob Simcock|
|Helensville||New electorate||John Key||1,705||Gary Russell|
|Hutt South||Trevor Mallard||7,771||Richard Townley|
|Ilam||Gerry Brownlee||3,872||Richard Pole|
|Invercargill||Mark Peck||2,792||Eric Roy|
|Kaikoura||Lynda Scott||3,069||Brendon Burns|
|Mana||Graham Kelly||Winnie Laban||6,376||Sue Wood|
|Mangere||Taito Phillip Field||15,375||Sylvia Taylor|
|Manukau East||Ross Robertson||10,657||Arthur Anae|
|Manurewa||George Hawkins||12,548||Enosa Auva'a|
|Maungakiekie||Mark Gosche||6,603||Belinda Vernon|
|Mount Albert||Helen Clark||16,024||Raewyn Bhana|
|Mount Roskill||Phil Goff||13,715||Brent Trewheela|
|Napier||Geoff Braybrooke||Russell Fairbrother||4,157||Anne Tolley|
|Nelson||Nick Smith||4,232||John Kennedy|
|New Lynn||New electorate||David Cunliffe||4,232||Brendan Beach|
|New Plymouth||Harry Duynhoven||14,930||Geoff Horton|
|North Shore||Wayne Mapp||5,098||Helen Duncan|
|Northcote||Ann Hartley||2,624||Jeremy Sole|
|Northland||John Carter||7,558||Rachel Rose|
|Ohariu-Belmont||Peter Dunne||12,534||Gil Boddy-Greer|
|Otago||Gavan Herlihy||David Parker||684||Gavan Herlihy|
|Otaki||Judy Keall||Darren Hughes||7,736||Nathan Guy|
|Pakuranga||Maurice Williamson||4,556||Michael Wood|
|Palmerston North||Steve Maharey||7,627||Dave Scott|
|Piako||New electorate||Lindsay Tisch||1,621||Sue Moroney|
|Port Waikato||Paul Hutchison||5,972||Lesley Harry|
|Rakaia||Jenny Shipley||Brian Connell||6,076||Tony Milne|
|Rangitikei||Simon Power||5,315||Margaret Hayward|
|Rimutaka||Paul Swain||12,615||Mike Leddy|
|Rodney||Lockwood Smith||4,566||Grant Duffy|
|Rongotai||Annette King||11,493||Glenda Hughes|
|Rotorua||Steve Chadwick||7,744||Malcolm Short|
|Tamaki||Clem Simich||1,207||Leila Boyle|
|Taranaki-King Country||Shane Ardern||7,175||Judy Hawkins|
|Taupo||Mark Burton||7,128||Weston Kirton|
|Tauranga||Winston Peters||10,362||Margaret Wilson|
|Te Atatu||Chris Carter||12,932||Tau Henare|
|Tukituki||Rick Barker||6,419||Craig Foss|
|Waimakariri||Clayton Cosgrove||10,536||Dan Gordon|
|Wairarapa||Georgina Beyer||6,372||Ian Buchanan|
|Waitakere||Brian Neeson||Lynne Pillay||2,333||Laila Harré|
|Wellington Central||Marian Hobbs||4,181||Hekia Parata|
|West Coast-Tasman||Damien O'Connor||7,722||Barry Nicolle|
|Whanganui||Jill Pettis||2,070||Chester Borrows|
|Whangarei||Phil Heatley||3,214||David Shearer|
|Wigram||Jim Anderton||Jim Anderton||3,176||Mike Mora|
|Ikaroa-Rāwhiti||Parekura Horomia||10,359||Glenis Philip-Barbara|
|Tainui||New electorate||Nanaia Mahuta||3,430||Willie Jackson|
|Tāmaki Makaurau||New electorate||John Tamihere||9,444||Metiria Turei|
|Te Tai Hauāuru||Tariana Turia||8,657||Ken Mair|
|Te Tai Tokerau||Dover Samuels||5,336||Mere Mangu|
|Te Tai Tonga||Mahara Okeroa||8,052||Bill Karaitiana|
|Waiariki||Mita Ririnui||6,717||Rihi Vercoe|
MPs returned via party lists, and unsuccessful candidates, were as follows:
|Labour|| Michael Cullen |
Jonathan Hunt 1
Graham Kelly 1
|Unsuccessful: Moana Mackey 2, Lesley Soper 2, Carol Beaumont, Max Purnell, David Shearer, Gill Boddy-Greer, Brendon Burns, Louisa Wall, David Maka, Hamish McCracken, Eamon Daly, Lesley Harry, Brenda Lowe-Johnson, Steven Ching, Leila Boyle, John Cheesman, Richard Pole, Paul Gibson, Margaret Hayward, Di Nash, Denise Mackenzie, Judy Hawkins, Dinesh Tailor, Kath Peebles, Mike Mora, Yani Johanson, Nathan Saminathan, Ola Kamel, Jan Noonan, Maureen Waaka, Lyndsay Rackley, Wayne Hawker|
|National|| Roger Sowry |
Georgina te Heuheu
|Unsuccessful: Hekia Parata, Gavan Herlihy, Bob Simcock, Allan Peachey, Sue Wood, Guy Salmon, Alec Neill, Belinda Vernon, Anne Tolley, Eric Roy, Arthur Anae, Ian Buchanan, Greg White, Marie Hasler, Annabel Young, Eric Liu, Tau Henare, Chester Borrows, Nicky Wagner, Leanne Jensen-Daines, Tim Macindoe, Wayne Marriott, Dan Gordon, Jeremy Sole, George Ngatai, Dale Stephens, Craig Foss, Glenda Hughes, Dave Scott, Weston Kirton, Hamuera Mitchell, Enosa Auva'a, Sylvia Taylor, Barry Nicolle, Paul Foster, Mita Harris, Brent Trewheela, Raewyn Bhana, Bill Karaitiana, Geoff Horton, Rodney Williams, Alan Delamere, Peter O'Brien, Rod O'Beirne|
|New Zealand First|| Peter Brown |
|Unsuccessful: Rob Harris, Dawn Mullins, Brett Webster, Gordon Stewart, Fletcher Tabuteau, Bob Daw, Dave Mackie, John Riley, John Bryce Geary|
|ACT|| Richard Prebble |
Donna Awatere Huata 2
|Unsuccessful: Kenneth Wang 1, Paul King, Owen Jennings, Penny Webster, Andrew Davies, Dick Quax, Nigel Mattison, David Edward Olsen, Willie James Martin, Mary Hackshaw, John Thompson, Lech Beltowski, Joanne Reeder, Nicholas Cairney, Bruce Williams, Gerald Trass, Andrew Jollands, Bryce Bevin, Ron Scott, Dianne Mulcock, Shirley Marshall, Juanita Angell, John Peters, Glen Snelgar, Matt Ball, Ray Bassett, Carl Beentjes, Michael Coote, Brian George Dawson, Dianne Dawson, Ted Erskine-Legget, Simon Anthony Ewing-Jarvie, Ted Howard, Elizabeth Hurley, Dorothy King, Chris Newman, Chris O'Brien, Julie Pepper, Peter Phiskie, John Riddell, Robin Roodt, Ian Sage, Greg Sneddon, Graham Douglas Steenson, Ian Swan, Peter Talbot-King, Anthony Watson, John Waugh, Roland Weber, Trevor West, Smilie Wood|
|Greens|| Jeanette Fitzsimons |
|Unsuccessful: Catherine Delahunty, Roland Sapsford, Meriel Anne Watts, Jon Carapiet, Richard Davies, Celia Wade-Brown, Cathy Olsen, Russel Norman, Janine McVeagh, Steffan Browning, Dayle Belcher, Kei Clendon, Craig Potton, David Musgrave, Deborah Martin, Te Ruruanga Te Keeti, Steve Abel, Sarah Millington, Calvin Green, Caro Henckels, Fliss Butcher, Peter Berger, Hana Blackmore, Gareth Bodle, Paul Bruce, Craig Carson, Terry Creighton, Jan Davey, Paul de Spa, Pip Direen, Ian Douglas, Gaye Dyson, Jeanette Elley, Don Fairley, Nick Fisher, Jo Francis, Richard Green, Caroline Greig, Lois Griffiths, Perce Harpham, David Hill, Laurie Hoverd, Stephen Lee, Kate Lowe, Paul Lowe, Rachel Mackintosh, Mary McCammon, Margaret McKenzie, Olivia Mitchell, Matt Morris, Chris Norton-Brown, Fraser Palmer-Hesketh, Di Pennell, David Rose, Christiaan Briggs, Jane Williams|
|United Future|| Gordon Copeland |
|Unsuccessful: Kelly Chal*, Wayne Chapman, Andrew Kubala, Gray Eatwell, Bruce McGrail, Hassan Hosseini, Craig Hunt, Kevin Harper, Russell Judd, Anne Drake, Ian McInnes, Graham Butterworth, Andrea Deeth, Cindy Ruakere, Chris Bretton, Susanne Fellner, Jim Howard, Martyn Seddon, Tom Smithers, Ross Tizard, Grant Bowater, Steve Taylor, Graham Turner, Dave Fitness, Paul Duxbury, Richard Carter, Lee Edmonds, Stephen Russell, Sharee Adams, Lee Robertson, Rachel Smithers, Rob Moodie, Witana Murray, Frank Owen, Graeme Torckler, Denis Gilmore, Andrew Smith, Tony Bunting, Graeme Barr, James Te Kahupuku Hippolite, Mike Mitcalfe, Stephanie McEwin, Bruce Settle, Peter Collins, Todd Whitcombe, Joy Lietze, Gray Phillips, Chris Collier, Allan Smellie, Jesse O'Brien, Julee Smith-Mischeski, Vince Smith, Dennis Wells|
|Unsuccessful: Grant Gillon, John Wright, Stephnie de Ruyter, Peter Campbell, Rosie Brown, Meng Ly, Susi Pa'o Williams, Jill Henry, Phil Clearwater, David Angus Wilson, Sue Elizabeth Wharewaka-Topia Watts, Pasene Tauialo-o-Lilimaiava, Nong Li, John Pemberton, Bruce Parr, Vivienne Shepherd, Trevor Lance Barnard, Russell Franklin, Annette Anderson, Adrian James Bayly, Victor Bradley, Lyndsay Brock, Robert Bryan, Christine Cheesman, Fleur Churton, David Culverhouse, Jamie Daly, Clare Dickson, Bob Fox, Russell Edwards, David Espin, Bill Henderson, Steven Charles Ihaia, Frede Jorgensen, Te Pare Joseph, Doreen Henderson, Toni Jowsey, Peter David Kane, C Kerr, John Kilbride, Martin Lawrence, Doug McCallum, Philippa Main, John Neill, Garry Oster, Ram Parkash, Dawn Patchett, Bob Peck, Jim Medland, Rob Shirley, Lynley Simmons, Heather Marion Smith, Arthur Toms, Gillian Dance, Hessel Van Wieren, Ross Weddell, Roger White, Barry Pulford|
|Christian Heritage||Unsuccessful: Graham Capill, Merepeka Raukawa-Tait, Vic Pollard, Dick Holland, Vic Jarvis, Gerald Barker, Ken Munn, Roger Payne, Ruth Jarvis, Nick Barber, Gavin Denby, Chris Salt, Ian Cummings, Grant Bradfield, McGregor Simpson, Rod Harris, Margaret Burgess, Mike Ferguson, Matthew Flannagan, Madeline Jane Flannagan|
|Outdoor Recreation||Unsuccessful: Lester Phelps, David O'Neill, Paul Check, Warren Sinclair, Henry Willems, Peter Ellery, Edwin Sylva, James Cook, Peter Gibbons, Michael Holmes, James Rudd, Harry Bimler|
|Alliance||Unsuccessful: Laila Harré, Willie Jackson, Matt McCarten, Liz Gordon, Tricia Cutforth, Gerard Hehir, Vern Winitana, Rebecca Matthews, Mike Treen, Naida Glavish, Robert Reid, Jill Ovens, Sam Huggard, Janice Panoho-Smith, Vernon Iosefa Tile, Julie Fairey, Gavin MacLean, Carolyn Payne-Harker, Kamaka Manuel, Mary-Ellen O'Connor, Maxine Boag, Moira Lawler, Len Richards, Ravaani Ghaemmaghamy, John Tuwhakairiora Tibble, Anna McMartin, Anna Sutherland, Hayley Rawhiti, Joseph Randall, Sean Gourley, Peter Wheeler, Val McClimont, Margaret Jeune, Dion Martin, Paula Henderson, Brendon Lane, Peter Jamieson, Fiona McLaren, Solly Southwood, Michael Gilchrist, Paul Protheroe, Justin Wilson, Karl Bartleet, Richard Wallis, Simon Shields, Craig Willis, Helen Mackinlay, Robert Van Ruyssevelt|
|Legalise Cannabis||Unsuccessful: Michael Appleby, Michael Britnell, Irinka Britnell, Dave Moore, Christine Mitchell, Jeanette Saxby, Paul John Michael McMullan, Judy Daniels, Judy Matangi, Paula Lambert, Sugra Morley, Peter Green|
|Mana Maori||Unsuccessful: Angeline Greensill, Ken Mair, Glenis Philip-Barbara, Tame Iti, Jacqui Amohanga, Rihi Vercoe, Mere Takoko, Tanima Bernard, Colleen Skerrett-White, Piripi Haami, Ngahape Lomax, Sharon Pehi-Barlow|
|One New Zealand||Unsuccessful: John Porter, Jim White, Alan McCulloch, Janet White, Richard Fisher, David Moat, Walter Christie, Gill Edwards, Peter Grove, John Bull|
|NMP||Unsuccessful: Mark Atkin, Brett Kenneth Gifkins|
*Chal was ranked fifth on the United Future list and was declared elected, serving as an MP for 17 days. However, it emerged that Chal was not actually eligible to stand for election, as she was not a New Zealand citizen. As a result, she was removed from the party list.
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