2002 New Zealand general election

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2002 New Zealand general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1999 27 July 2002 (2002-07-27) 2005  

120 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
61 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout2,055,404 (76.98%) Decrease2.svg7.79%
 First partySecond partyThird party
 
Helen Clark 2.jpg
Bill-English-Parliament-Profile.jpg
Winston Peters cropped.PNG
Leader Helen Clark Bill English Winston Peters
Party Labour National NZ First
Leader since 1 December 1993 8 October 2001 18 July 1993
Leader's seat Mount Albert Clutha-Southland Tauranga
Last election49 seats, 38.74%39 seats, 30.50%5 seats, 4.26%
Seats won522713
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 3Decrease2.svg 12Increase2.svg 8
Popular vote838,219425,310210,912
Percentage41.26%20.93%10.38%
SwingIncrease2.svg 2.52%Decrease2.svg 9.57%Increase2.svg 6.12%

 Fourth partyFifth partySixth party
 
Richard Prebble.jpg
Green party co-leaders 2005.png
Peter Dunne.jpg
Leader Richard Prebble Rod Donald &
Jeanette Fitzsimons
Peter Dunne
Party ACT Green United Future
Leader sinceMarch 19961995 / 19952000
Leader's seatListList / List Ohariu-Belmont
Last election9 seats, 7.04%7 seats, 5.16%1 seat, 1.65%a
Seats won998
Seat changeSteady2.svg 0Increase2.svg 2Increase2.svg 7
Popular vote145,078142,250135,918
Percentage7.14%7.00%6.69%
SwingIncrease2.svg 0.10%Increase2.svg 1.84%Increase2.svg 5.04%

 Seventh partyEighth party
 
Jim Anderton, 2010.jpg
Laila Harre.jpg
Leader Jim Anderton Laila Harré
Party Progressive Alliance
Leader since2002 (party foundation)20 April 2002
Leader's seat Wigram List (lost seat)
Last electionNot yet founded10 seats, 7.74%
Seats won20
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 2Decrease2.svg 10
Popular vote34,54225,888
Percentage1.70%1.27%
SwingIncrease2.svg 1.70%Decrease2.svg 6.47%

Prime Minister before election

Helen Clark
Labour

Subsequent Prime Minister

Helen Clark
Labour

The 2002 New Zealand general election was held on 27 July 2002 to determine the composition of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. It saw the reelection of Helen Clark's Labour Party government, as well as the worst-ever performance by the opposition National Party.

47th New Zealand Parliament

The 47th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 2002 election, and it sat until 11 August 2005.

Helen Clark 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand

Helen Elizabeth Clark is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017. She was New Zealand's fifth-longest-serving prime minister, and the second woman to hold that office.

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.

Contents

A controversial issue in the election campaign was the end of a moratorium on genetic engineering, strongly opposed by the Green Party. Some commentators have claimed that the tension between Labour and the Greens on this issue was a more notable part of the campaign than any tension between Labour and its traditional right-wing opponents. The release of Nicky Hager's book Seeds of Distrust prior to the election also sparked much debate. The book examined how the government handled the contamination of a shipment of imported corn with genetically modified seeds. Helen Clark called the Greens "goths and anarcho-feminists" during the campaign.

Genetic engineering Direct manipulation of an organisms genome using biotechnology

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. The first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome.

The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a left-wing political party in New Zealand. Like many Green parties around the world it has four organisational pillars: ecology, social responsibility, grassroots democracy, and nonviolence. It also accepts Te Tiriti o Waitangi as the founding document of Aotearoa New Zealand and recognises Māori as Tangata Whenua.

Nicky Hager author and investigative journalist

Nicky Hager is a New Zealand investigative journalist. He has produced six books since 1996, covering topics such as intelligence networks, environmental issues and politics. He is the only New Zealand member of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.

Background

On 12 June the government announced that the country would have a general election on 27 July. This was several months earlier than was required, a fact which caused considerable comment. The Prime Minister, Helen Clark, claimed that an early poll was necessary due to the collapse of her junior coalition partner, the Alliance. Critics, however, claimed that Clark could have continued to govern, and that the early election was called to take advantage of Labour's strong position in the polls. [1] Some commentators believe that a mixture of these factors was responsible.

Prime Minister of New Zealand head of the New Zealand government

The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017.

The Alliance was a left-wing political party in New Zealand. It was formed at the end of 1991 by the linking of four smaller parties. The Alliance positioned itself as a democratic socialist alternative to the centre-left New Zealand Labour Party. It was influential throughout the 1990s, but suffered a major setback after its founder and leader, Jim Anderton, left the party in 2002, taking with him several of its members of parliament (MPs). After the remaining MPs lost their seats in the 2002 general election, some commentators predicted the demise of the party.

Before the election, the Labour Party held 49 seats in parliament. It governed in coalition with the smaller (and more left-wing) Alliance, which had 10 seats. It also relied on support from the Greens, but this was a largely informal arrangement, and the Greens were not a part of the administration itself. Opposing Labour were the National Party (centre-right), United Future (centrist), New Zealand First (populist), ACT New Zealand (free-market). Many opinion polls for the election indicated that Labour was popular enough to conceivably win an absolute majority, leaving it able to govern without the support of smaller parties. Labour's dominance over National was such that for many people, the question was not whether Labour would win, but whether Labour would receive the absolute majority it sought.

New Zealand National Party Major New Zealand political party

The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.

United Future New Zealand political party

United Future New Zealand, usually known as United Future, was a centrist political party in New Zealand. The party was in government between 2005 and 2017, first alongside Labour (2005–2008) and then supporting National (2008–2017).

New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. It was founded in July 1993, following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. It has formed governments with both major parties in New Zealand, first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to present.

The election

There were 2,670,030 registered voters, the highest number for any election in New Zealand. However, only 77% of these registered voters chose to cast a vote, a considerable drop from previous elections. Many commentators cited Labour's dominance in the polls as a reason for this low turnout. Many people saw the outcome as inevitable, and so did not bother to vote at all.

In the election 683 candidates stood, and there were 14 registered parties with party lists. Of the candidates, 433 were electorate and list, 160 were electorate only, and 90 were list only. 71% of candidates (487) were male and 29% (196) female. [2] [3]

Summary of results

As most people expected, Labour was victorious. It did not, however, receive an absolute majority, gaining only 52 seats (eight seats short of the half-way mark). Labour's former coalition partner, the Alliance (which had splintered shortly before the election), was not returned to parliament. However, the new Progressive Coalition (now the Progressive Party) started by former Alliance leader Jim Anderton won two seats, and remained allied with Labour. The Greens, who were now distanced from Labour over the genetic engineering controversy, gained nine seats (an increase of two).

Jim Anderton New Zealand politician

James Patrick Anderton was a New Zealand politician who led a succession of left-wing parties after leaving the Labour Party in 1989.

In general, it was a bad election for the parties of the right. The National Party, once referred to as "the natural party of government", suffered its worst-ever electoral defeat, gaining only 21% of the vote. ACT New Zealand, National's more right-wing neighbour, failed to capitalise on the exodus of National supporters, retaining the same number of seats as before. Instead, the most notable gains among opposition parties were made by two centrist parties. One of these was Winston Peters's New Zealand First, a populist and nationalist party opposed to immigration. Strong campaigning by Peters allowed the party to recover from its serious losses in the 1999 election. The other was United Future New Zealand party, a centrist party based on a merger of the United Party and the Future New Zealand party - primarily due to the performance of leader Peter Dunne, the party shot from having one seat to having eight seats.

Once the final distribution of seats was determined, it was clear that Labour would be at the centre of the government, and that it would be allied with the Progressives. However, this still left Labour needing support in matters of confidence and supply, as the two parties together fell short of an absolute majority. Labour expressed a preference for an "agreement" rather than a full coalition, hoping to establish an arrangement similar to the one that existed with the Greens prior to the election. Three realistic choices existed for a partner - the Greens, United Future, and New Zealand First. Labour had repeatedly ruled out deals with New Zealand First during the election campaign, and reaffirmed this soon after the election, leaving just the Greens and United Future as candidates. After a period of negotiation, Labour opted to ally with United Future, being unwilling to change their genetic engineering policies to secure the Green Party's support.

Labour and the Progressives remained in power, with support in confidence and supply votes from United Future.

Detailed results

Parliamentary parties

e    d  Summary of the 27 July 2002 New Zealand House of Representatives election results
partyvotes% of votesseats
%changeelectoratelisttotalchange
Labour 838,21941.26+2.5245752+3
National 425,31020.93-9.5721627-12
NZ First 210,91210.38+6.1211213+8
ACT 145,0787.14+0.100990
Green 142,2507.00+1.84099+2
United Future 135,9186.69+5.04a178+7
Progressive 34,5421.70+1.70112+2
other parties99,3884.89-7.76000-10b
total2,031,617100.0069511200
informal votes8,631
disallowed special votes15,156
total votes cast2,055,404
turnout76.98%

a Increase over the combined 1999 results of United and Future parties.
b Loss of ten seats by 'other parties' entirely due to disintegration of Alliance.

Non-parliamentary parties

e    d  Summary of MMP vote for minor
unrepresented registered parties.
PartyVotes%Change
Christian Heritage 27,4921.35-1.03
Outdoor Recreation 25,9851.28
Alliance 25,8881.27-6.47
Legalise Cannabis 12,9870.64-0.46
Mana Māori 49800.250.00
One New Zealand 17820.09+0.03
NMP 2740.01-0.04
Minor parties, total99,3884.89

Party vote by electorate

Votes summary

Popular Vote
Labour
41.26%
National
20.93%
NZ First
10.38%
ACT
7.14%
Green
7.00%
United Future
6.69%
Progressive
1.70%
Others
4.89%
Parliament seats
Labour
43.33%
National
22.50%
NZ First
10.83%
ACT
7.50%
Green
7.50%
United Future
6.67%
Progressive
1.67%

Electorate results

Party affiliation of winning electorate candidates. NewZealandElectorates2002-Labeled.png
Party affiliation of winning electorate candidates.

Of the 69 electorates in the 2002 election, a majority (45) were won by the Labour Party. The opposition National Party won 21 electorate seats. Labour dominated the urban areas, where it has traditionally been strongest, while National performed best in rural areas. However, Labour's strong position in this election led to National losing ground in a number of its traditional strongholds. The loss of Otago electorate, a rural area, was one notable example.

Labour also dominated in the seven Maori seats. National gained second place in only one Maori electorate, with Labour's main rivals being the Mana Maori Movement, the Greens, and the Alliance.

Of the minor parties, only three managed to win electorates, mostly due to the strong personal following of the incumbents. United Future leader Peter Dunne retained his strong support in the Wellington electorate of Ohariu-Belmont, while New Zealand First leader Winston Peters retained Tauranga. Progressive leader Jim Anderton retained the Christchurch seat of Wigram, which he had formerly held as leader of the Alliance.

The table below shows the results of the 2002 general election:

Key:

  Labour     National     NZ First     Green     United Future   
  Alliance     Progressive     Mana Māori     Independent   
Electorate results for the 2002 New Zealand general election [4]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
Aoraki Jim Sutton 6,453Wayne Marriott
Auckland Central Judith Tizard 5,205 Pansy Wong
Banks Peninsula Ruth Dyson 4,057 David Carter
Bay of Plenty Tony Ryall 5,597 Peter Brown
Christchurch Central Tim Barnett 10,353 Nicky Wagner
Christchurch East Lianne Dalziel 14,864Stephen Johnston
Clevedon New electorate Judith Collins 3,127 Dave Hereora
Clutha-Southland Bill English 6,808 Lesley Soper
Coromandel Jeanette Fitzsimons Sandra Goudie 5,958Max Purnell
Dunedin North Pete Hodgson 10,637 Katherine Rich
Dunedin South David Benson-Pope 14,724 Paul Foster-Bell
East Coast Janet Mackey 5,343Leanne Jensen-Daines
East Coast Bays New electorate Murray McCully 1,534Hamish McCracken
Epsom Richard Worth 5,619Di Nash
Hamilton East Tony Steel Dianne Yates 614 Tony Steel
Hamilton West Martin Gallagher 5,574 Bob Simcock
Helensville New electorate John Key 1,705Gary Russell
Hutt South Trevor Mallard 7,771Richard Townley
Ilam Gerry Brownlee 3,872Richard Pole
Invercargill Mark Peck 2,792 Eric Roy
Kaikoura Lynda Scott 3,069 Brendon Burns
Mana Graham Kelly Winnie Laban 6,376 Sue Wood
Mangere Taito Phillip Field 15,375Sylvia Taylor
Manukau East Ross Robertson 10,657 Arthur Anae
Manurewa George Hawkins 12,548Enosa Auva'a
Maungakiekie Mark Gosche 6,603 Belinda Vernon
Mount Albert Helen Clark 16,024Raewyn Bhana
Mount Roskill Phil Goff 13,715Brent Trewheela
Napier Geoff Braybrooke Russell Fairbrother 4,157 Anne Tolley
Nelson Nick Smith 4,232John Kennedy
New Lynn New electorate David Cunliffe 4,232Brendan Beach
New Plymouth Harry Duynhoven 14,930Geoff Horton
North Shore Wayne Mapp 5,098 Helen Duncan
Northcote Ann Hartley 2,624Jeremy Sole
Northland John Carter 7,558Rachel Rose
Ohariu-Belmont Peter Dunne 12,534Gil Boddy-Greer
Otago Gavan Herlihy David Parker 684 Gavan Herlihy
Otaki Judy Keall Darren Hughes 7,736 Nathan Guy
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson 4,556 Michael Wood
Palmerston North Steve Maharey 7,627Dave Scott
Piako New electorate Lindsay Tisch 1,621 Sue Moroney
Port Waikato Paul Hutchison 5,972Lesley Harry
Rakaia Jenny Shipley Brian Connell 6,076Tony Milne
Rangitikei Simon Power 5,315Margaret Hayward
Rimutaka Paul Swain 12,615Mike Leddy
Rodney Lockwood Smith 4,566Grant Duffy
Rongotai Annette King 11,493Glenda Hughes
Rotorua Steve Chadwick 7,744Malcolm Short
Tamaki Clem Simich 1,207Leila Boyle
Taranaki-King Country Shane Ardern 7,175Judy Hawkins
Taupo Mark Burton 7,128Weston Kirton
Tauranga Winston Peters 10,362 Margaret Wilson
Te Atatu Chris Carter 12,932 Tau Henare
Tukituki Rick Barker 6,419 Craig Foss
Waimakariri Clayton Cosgrove 10,536Dan Gordon
Wairarapa Georgina Beyer 6,372Ian Buchanan
Waitakere Brian Neeson Lynne Pillay 2,333 Laila Harré
Wellington Central Marian Hobbs 4,181 Hekia Parata
West Coast-Tasman Damien O'Connor 7,722Barry Nicolle
Whanganui Jill Pettis 2,070 Chester Borrows
Whangarei Phil Heatley 3,214 David Shearer
Wigram Jim Anderton Jim Anderton 3,176Mike Mora
Māori electorates
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner-up
Ikaroa-Rāwhiti Parekura Horomia 10,359Glenis Philip-Barbara
Tainui New electorate Nanaia Mahuta 3,430 Willie Jackson
Tāmaki Makaurau New electorate John Tamihere 9,444 Metiria Turei
Te Tai Hauāuru Tariana Turia 8,657 Ken Mair
Te Tai Tokerau Dover Samuels 5,336Mere Mangu
Te Tai Tonga Mahara Okeroa 8,052Bill Karaitiana
Waiariki Mita Ririnui 6,717Rihi Vercoe

List results

Highest polling party in each electorate. New Zealand Party Vote, 2002.png
Highest polling party in each electorate.

MPs returned via party lists, and unsuccessful candidates, were as follows: [5] [6]

Labour Michael Cullen
Jonathan Hunt 1
Margaret Wilson
Graham Kelly 1
Helen Duncan
Dave Hereora
Ashraf Choudhary
Unsuccessful: Moana Mackey 2, Lesley Soper 2, Carol Beaumont, Max Purnell, David Shearer, Gill Boddy-Greer, Brendon Burns, Louisa Wall, David Maka, Hamish McCracken, Eamon Daly, Lesley Harry, Brenda Lowe-Johnson, Steven Ching, Leila Boyle, John Cheesman, Richard Pole, Paul Gibson, Margaret Hayward, Di Nash, Denise Mackenzie, Judy Hawkins, Dinesh Tailor, Kath Peebles, Mike Mora, Yani Johanson, Nathan Saminathan, Ola Kamel, Jan Noonan, Maureen Waaka, Lyndsay Rackley, Wayne Hawker
National Roger Sowry
David Carter
Don Brash
Georgina te Heuheu
Pansy Wong
Katherine Rich
Unsuccessful: Hekia Parata, Gavan Herlihy, Bob Simcock, Allan Peachey, Sue Wood, Guy Salmon, Alec Neill, Belinda Vernon, Anne Tolley, Eric Roy, Arthur Anae, Ian Buchanan, Greg White, Marie Hasler, Annabel Young, Eric Liu, Tau Henare, Chester Borrows, Nicky Wagner, Leanne Jensen-Daines, Tim Macindoe, Wayne Marriott, Dan Gordon, Jeremy Sole, George Ngatai, Dale Stephens, Craig Foss, Glenda Hughes, Dave Scott, Weston Kirton, Hamuera Mitchell, Enosa Auva'a, Sylvia Taylor, Barry Nicolle, Paul Foster, Mita Harris, Brent Trewheela, Raewyn Bhana, Bill Karaitiana, Geoff Horton, Rodney Williams, Alan Delamere, Peter O'Brien, Rod O'Beirne
New Zealand First Peter Brown
Brian Donnelly
Ron Mark
Doug Woolerton
Barbara Stewart
Pita Paraone
Craig McNair
Jim Peters
Dail Jones
Edwin Perry
Bill Gudgeon
Brent Catchpole
Unsuccessful: Rob Harris, Dawn Mullins, Brett Webster, Gordon Stewart, Fletcher Tabuteau, Bob Daw, Dave Mackie, John Riley, John Bryce Geary
ACT Richard Prebble
Rodney Hide
Muriel Newman
Stephen Franks
Donna Awatere Huata 2
Deborah Coddington
Ken Shirley
Gerry Eckhoff
Heather Roy
Unsuccessful: Kenneth Wang 1, Paul King, Owen Jennings, Penny Webster, Andrew Davies, Dick Quax, Nigel Mattison, David Edward Olsen, Willie James Martin, Mary Hackshaw, John Thompson, Lech Beltowski, Joanne Reeder, Nicholas Cairney, Bruce Williams, Gerald Trass, Andrew Jollands, Bryce Bevin, Ron Scott, Dianne Mulcock, Shirley Marshall, Juanita Angell, John Peters, Glen Snelgar, Matt Ball, Ray Bassett, Carl Beentjes, Michael Coote, Brian George Dawson, Dianne Dawson, Ted Erskine-Legget, Simon Anthony Ewing-Jarvie, Ted Howard, Elizabeth Hurley, Dorothy King, Chris Newman, Chris O'Brien, Julie Pepper, Peter Phiskie, John Riddell, Robin Roodt, Ian Sage, Greg Sneddon, Graham Douglas Steenson, Ian Swan, Peter Talbot-King, Anthony Watson, John Waugh, Roland Weber, Trevor West, Smilie Wood
Greens Jeanette Fitzsimons
Rod Donald
Sue Bradford
Nándor Tánczos
Sue Kedgley
Ian Ewen-Street
Keith Locke
Metiria Turei
Mike Ward
Unsuccessful: Catherine Delahunty, Roland Sapsford, Meriel Anne Watts, Jon Carapiet, Richard Davies, Celia Wade-Brown, Cathy Olsen, Russel Norman, Janine McVeagh, Steffan Browning, Dayle Belcher, Kei Clendon, Craig Potton, David Musgrave, Deborah Martin, Te Ruruanga Te Keeti, Steve Abel, Sarah Millington, Calvin Green, Caro Henckels, Fliss Butcher, Peter Berger, Hana Blackmore, Gareth Bodle, Paul Bruce, Craig Carson, Terry Creighton, Jan Davey, Paul de Spa, Pip Direen, Ian Douglas, Gaye Dyson, Jeanette Elley, Don Fairley, Nick Fisher, Jo Francis, Richard Green, Caroline Greig, Lois Griffiths, Perce Harpham, David Hill, Laurie Hoverd, Stephen Lee, Kate Lowe, Paul Lowe, Rachel Mackintosh, Mary McCammon, Margaret McKenzie, Olivia Mitchell, Matt Morris, Chris Norton-Brown, Fraser Palmer-Hesketh, Di Pennell, David Rose, Christiaan Briggs, Jane Williams
United Future Gordon Copeland
Bernie Ogilvy
Marc Alexander
Murray Smith
Larry Baldock
Judy Turner
Paul Adams
Unsuccessful: Kelly Chal*, Wayne Chapman, Andrew Kubala, Gray Eatwell, Bruce McGrail, Hassan Hosseini, Craig Hunt, Kevin Harper, Russell Judd, Anne Drake, Ian McInnes, Graham Butterworth, Andrea Deeth, Cindy Ruakere, Chris Bretton, Susanne Fellner, Jim Howard, Martyn Seddon, Tom Smithers, Ross Tizard, Grant Bowater, Steve Taylor, Graham Turner, Dave Fitness, Paul Duxbury, Richard Carter, Lee Edmonds, Stephen Russell, Sharee Adams, Lee Robertson, Rachel Smithers, Rob Moodie, Witana Murray, Frank Owen, Graeme Torckler, Denis Gilmore, Andrew Smith, Tony Bunting, Graeme Barr, James Te Kahupuku Hippolite, Mike Mitcalfe, Stephanie McEwin, Bruce Settle, Peter Collins, Todd Whitcombe, Joy Lietze, Gray Phillips, Chris Collier, Allan Smellie, Jesse O'Brien, Julee Smith-Mischeski, Vince Smith, Dennis Wells
Progressive Matt Robson
Unsuccessful: Grant Gillon, John Wright, Stephnie de Ruyter, Peter Campbell, Rosie Brown, Meng Ly, Susi Pa'o Williams, Jill Henry, Phil Clearwater, David Angus Wilson, Sue Elizabeth Wharewaka-Topia Watts, Pasene Tauialo-o-Lilimaiava, Nong Li, John Pemberton, Bruce Parr, Vivienne Shepherd, Trevor Lance Barnard, Russell Franklin, Annette Anderson, Adrian James Bayly, Victor Bradley, Lyndsay Brock, Robert Bryan, Christine Cheesman, Fleur Churton, David Culverhouse, Jamie Daly, Clare Dickson, Bob Fox, Russell Edwards, David Espin, Bill Henderson, Steven Charles Ihaia, Frede Jorgensen, Te Pare Joseph, Doreen Henderson, Toni Jowsey, Peter David Kane, C Kerr, John Kilbride, Martin Lawrence, Doug McCallum, Philippa Main, John Neill, Garry Oster, Ram Parkash, Dawn Patchett, Bob Peck, Jim Medland, Rob Shirley, Lynley Simmons, Heather Marion Smith, Arthur Toms, Gillian Dance, Hessel Van Wieren, Ross Weddell, Roger White, Barry Pulford
Christian HeritageUnsuccessful: Graham Capill, Merepeka Raukawa-Tait, Vic Pollard, Dick Holland, Vic Jarvis, Gerald Barker, Ken Munn, Roger Payne, Ruth Jarvis, Nick Barber, Gavin Denby, Chris Salt, Ian Cummings, Grant Bradfield, McGregor Simpson, Rod Harris, Margaret Burgess, Mike Ferguson, Matthew Flannagan, Madeline Jane Flannagan
Outdoor RecreationUnsuccessful: Lester Phelps, David O'Neill, Paul Check, Warren Sinclair, Henry Willems, Peter Ellery, Edwin Sylva, James Cook, Peter Gibbons, Michael Holmes, James Rudd, Harry Bimler
AllianceUnsuccessful: Laila Harré, Willie Jackson, Matt McCarten, Liz Gordon, Tricia Cutforth, Gerard Hehir, Vern Winitana, Rebecca Matthews, Mike Treen, Naida Glavish, Robert Reid, Jill Ovens, Sam Huggard, Janice Panoho-Smith, Vernon Iosefa Tile, Julie Fairey, Gavin MacLean, Carolyn Payne-Harker, Kamaka Manuel, Mary-Ellen O'Connor, Maxine Boag, Moira Lawler, Len Richards, Ravaani Ghaemmaghamy, John Tuwhakairiora Tibble, Anna McMartin, Anna Sutherland, Hayley Rawhiti, Joseph Randall, Sean Gourley, Peter Wheeler, Val McClimont, Margaret Jeune, Dion Martin, Paula Henderson, Brendon Lane, Peter Jamieson, Fiona McLaren, Solly Southwood, Michael Gilchrist, Paul Protheroe, Justin Wilson, Karl Bartleet, Richard Wallis, Simon Shields, Craig Willis, Helen Mackinlay, Robert Van Ruyssevelt
Legalise CannabisUnsuccessful: Michael Appleby, Michael Britnell, Irinka Britnell, Dave Moore, Christine Mitchell, Jeanette Saxby, Paul John Michael McMullan, Judy Daniels, Judy Matangi, Paula Lambert, Sugra Morley, Peter Green
Mana MaoriUnsuccessful: Angeline Greensill, Ken Mair, Glenis Philip-Barbara, Tame Iti, Jacqui Amohanga, Rihi Vercoe, Mere Takoko, Tanima Bernard, Colleen Skerrett-White, Piripi Haami, Ngahape Lomax, Sharon Pehi-Barlow
One New ZealandUnsuccessful: John Porter, Jim White, Alan McCulloch, Janet White, Richard Fisher, David Moat, Walter Christie, Gill Edwards, Peter Grove, John Bull
NMPUnsuccessful: Mark Atkin, Brett Kenneth Gifkins

*Chal was ranked fifth on the United Future list and was declared elected, serving as an MP for 17 days. However, it emerged that Chal was not actually eligible to stand for election, as she was not a New Zealand citizen. As a result, she was removed from the party list.

Notes
  1. These party list members later entered parliament in the term as other list MPs elected resigned from parliament.
  2. These party list members later resigned during the parliamentary term.

Summary of seat changes

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The New Zealand electoral system has been mixed-member proportional (MMP) since 1996. MMP was introduced after a referendum in 1993. MMP replaced the first-past-the-post (FPP) system New Zealand had previously used for most of its history.

2008 New Zealand general election election

The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand parliament. The conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government of New Zealand which would govern for 9 years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.

2011 New Zealand general election election in New Zealand

The 2011 New Zealand general election on Saturday 26 November 2011 determined the membership of the 50th New Zealand Parliament.

50th New Zealand Parliament

The 50th New Zealand Parliament was elected at the 2011 general election. It had 121 members, and was in place from December 2011 until September 2014, followed by the 2014 general election. The first sitting of the 50th Parliament was held on 20 December 2011, where members were sworn in and Lockwood Smith was elected Speaker of the House. This was followed by the speech from the throne on 21 December. John Key continued to lead the Fifth National Government. Following the resignation of Smith, David Carter was elected Speaker.

51st New Zealand Parliament

The 51st New Zealand Parliament was elected at the 2014 general election. This Parliament consists of 121 members and was in place from September 2014 until August 2017, followed by the 2017 New Zealand general election. Following the final vote count John Key was able to continue to lead the Fifth National Government.

2017 New Zealand general election Election on 23 September 2017

The 2017 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 23 September 2017 to determine the membership of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament. The previous parliament was elected on 20 September 2014 and was officially dissolved on 22 August 2017. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives under New Zealand's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 71 members were elected from single-member electorates and 49 members were elected from closed party lists. Around 3.57 million people were registered to vote in the election, with 2.63 million (79.8%) turning out. Advance voting proved popular, with 1.24 million votes cast before election day, more than the previous two elections combined.

Next New Zealand general election

The next New Zealand general election will be held after the currently elected 52nd New Zealand Parliament is dissolved or expires. The current Parliament was elected on Saturday, 23 September 2017. The last possible date for the next general election to be held is Saturday, 21 November 2020.

References

  1. James, Colin (14 June 2011). "John Key, modest constitutional innovator". Otago Daily Times . Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  2. The Baubles of Office: The New Zealand General Election of 2005 p87, edited by Stephen Levine & Nigel S Roberts (2007, Victoria University Press, Wellington) ISBN   978-0-86473-539-3
  3. Boston, Jonathan (2003). New Zealand Votes: The General Election of 2002. Wellington: Victoria University Press. p. 22. ISBN   0-86473-468-9 . Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  4. "Official Count Results -- Electorate Status". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  5. "Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  6. "Party Lists of Unsuccessful Registered Parties". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 26 August 2013.

Further reading