Northland is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. The electorate was established for the 1996 election. It was represented by National Party MP John Carter (New Zealand politician) (1996-2011), and then National's Mike Sabin until his resignation on 30 January 2015. This forced a by-election in March 2015 which was won by New Zealand First party leader Winston Peters. Peters was defeated by National's Matt King in the 2017 general election held on 23 September 2017.
An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
Northland is the northernmost general electorate of New Zealand. The electorate encompasses the entire Far North District and Kaipara District, and a small rural section of Whangarei District. At the 2008 election, the town of Wellsford became part of Northland due to heavy population growth in the Rodney seat.No boundary adjustments were undertaken in the subsequent 2013/14 redistribution.
The Far North District is the northernmost territorial authority district of New Zealand, consisting of the northern part of the Northland Peninsula in the North Island. It stretches from North Cape and Cape Reinga in the north, down to the Bay of Islands, the Hokianga and the town of Kaikohe.
The Kaipara District is located in the Northland Region in northern New Zealand.
Whangarei District is a territorial authority district in the Northland Region of New Zealand that is governed by the Whangarei District Council. The district is made up in area largely by rural land, and includes a fifth of the Northland Region. It extends southwards to the southern end of Bream Bay, northwards to Whangaruru and almost to the Bay of Islands, and westwards up the Mangakahia River valley past Pakotai and almost to Waipoua Forest. It includes the Hen and Chicken Islands and the Poor Knights Islands.
Taipa-Mangonui or Taipa Bay-Mangonui is a string of small resort settlements – Taipa, Cable Bay, Coopers Beach, and Mangonui – that lie along the coast of Doubtless Bay and are so close together that they have run together to form one larger settlement. The area had a combined population in 2013 of 1662.
Kaitaia is a town in the Far North District of New Zealand, at the base of the Aupouri Peninsula, about 160 km northwest of Whangarei. It is the last major settlement on State Highway 1. Ahipara Bay, the southern end of Ninety Mile Beach, is 5 km west.
Kerikeri, the largest town in Northland, New Zealand, is a tourist destination 240 kilometres (150 mi) north of Auckland and 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of the northern region's largest city, Whangarei. It is sometimes called the Cradle of the Nation, as it was the site of the first permanent mission station in the country, and it has some of the most historic buildings in the country.
The Northland electorate was created ahead of the introduction of Mixed Member Proportional voting in 1996. It contains all of the Far North electorate (called Bay of Islands before 1993), and a large section of the old Hobson seat.
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received. The constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both.
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.
Far North is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, which existed for one parliamentary term from 1993 to 1996, and was held by National's John Carter.
Former Bay of Islands and then Far North MP John Carter was elected MP for Northland in 1996, and was returned at every election until the 2008 election. Carter left Parliament in June 2011 to take up a post as New Zealand's High Commissioner to the Cook Islands. His departure did not result in a by-election, as the vacancy occurred within six months of the next general election.In May 2011 Mike Sabin was selected as the National Party candidate to replace Carter. Sabin had a majority of 11,362 and 9,300 votes in 2011 and 2014, respectively. In December 2014 New Zealand media reported that Northland MP Mike Sabin was under investigation by police over an assault complaint. The reports were not confirmed by the New Zealand Police, the Prime Minister or Sabin himself. Sabin resigned from parliament on 30 January 2015 with immediate effect "due to personal issues that were best dealt with outside Parliament." The resignation forced a by-election in the Northland electorate.
John McGregor Carter is a New Zealand politician, and member of the National Party. He represented the Bay of Islands, Far North and Northland electorates from 1987 until July 2011, when he became New Zealand's High Commissioner to the Cook Islands. Since the October 2013 local elections, he has been mayor of the Far North District.
The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand Parliament. The liberal-conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government which governed for the next nine years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.
The Cook Islands is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 islands whose total land area is 240 square kilometres (92.7 sq mi). The Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers 1,800,000 square kilometres (690,000 sq mi) of ocean.
The electorate is one where National traditionally performs well; Labour has not won a general electorate north of Wellsford since a one-off victory in Whangarei in 1972. The upper North Island is also a place where New Zealand First has one of its strongest voter bases; in 1996, Ian Peters and Frank Grover of the Alliance beat Labour's candidate into fourth place and nine percent of the vote. Third parties do well in Northland - at the 1960 and 1963 elections, Social Credit candidate Vernon Cracknell came runner up in Hobson, before taking the seat with 48 percent of the vote in 1966. The area had previously been receptive to social credit theory - Harold Rushworth of the credit-influenced Country Party had held Bay of Islands for three terms, from 1928 to 1938.
Whangarei is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate that was first created for the 1972 election. The electorate is a reasonably safe National seat, and was held for long periods by John Banks (1981–1999) and Phil Heatley (1999–2014), before being won in the 2014 election by Shane Reti.
The New Zealand general election of 1972 was held on 25 November to elect MPs to the 37th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Labour Party, led by Norman Kirk, defeated the governing National Party.
New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. It was founded in July 1993, following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. It has formed governments with both major parties in New Zealand, first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to present.
|1996 election||John Carter|
|2011 election||Mike Sabin|
|2015 by-election||Winston Peters|
|2017 election||Matt King|
Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Northland electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.
|1996 election||Frank Grover 1|
|1999 election||Sue Bradford|
|2002 election||Jim Peters|
|2005 election||Shane Jones|
|2014 election||David Clendon|
|2017 election||Winston Peters|
1 Grover left the Alliance in 1999 and joined the Christian Heritage Party.
|2017 general election: Northland|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Total Valid votes||39,796||40,636|
|National gain from NZ First||Majority||1,389||3.49||−23.36|
The following table shows final by-election results:
|2015 Northland by-election|
Notes: Blue background denotes the winner of the by-election.
|NZ First||Winston Peters||16,089||54.45||+54.45|
|Legalise Cannabis||Maki Herbert||94||0.32||+0.32|
|Total Valid votes||29,548|
|NZ First gain from National||Majority||4,441||15.03|
|2014 general election: Northland|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Democrats||David Angus Wilson||173||0.50||+0.50||64||0.18||+0.07|
|Money Free||Jordan Osmaston||75||0.22||+0.22|
|Total Valid votes||34,637||35,553|
|2011 general election: Northland|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Total Valid votes||31,604||32,665|
Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 44,182
|2008 general election: Northland|
|ACT||Alan (Smilie) Wood||565||1.68||1,443||4.21|
|Family Party||Melanie Taylor||319||0.95||162||0.47|
|United Future||Phil Johnson||162||0.48||228||0.67|
|Bill and Ben||153||0.45|
|Total Valid votes||33,633||34,240|
|2005 general election: Northland|
|NZ First||Jim Peters||2,547||8.32||3,162||10.19|
|United Future||Phil Johnson||315||1.03||618||1.99|
|Direct Democracy||Mel Whaanga||10||0.03||5||0.02|
|Total Valid votes||30,628||31,039|
Refer to Candidates in the New Zealand general election 1999 by electorate#Northland for a list of candidates.
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