Whanganui (known as Wanganui until 1996) is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first established in 1860 for the 3rd Parliament and has existed continuously since then.
An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.
The third New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Elections for this term were held between 12 December 1860 and 28 March 1861 in 43 electorates to elect 53 MPs. Two electorates were added to this during this term, Gold Fields District and a new Dunedin electorate created by splitting the existing City of Dunedin into Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South, increasing the number of MPs to 57. During the term of this Parliament, six Ministries were in power.
It has been held by Harete Hipango of the National Party since the 2017 general election.
Harete Makere Hipango is a New Zealand politician and Member of Parliament in the House of Representatives for the National Party.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
The 2017 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 23 September 2017 to determine the membership of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament. The previous parliament was elected on 20 September 2014 and was officially dissolved on 22 August 2017. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives under New Zealand's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 71 members were elected from single-member electorates and 49 members were elected from closed party lists. Around 3.57 million people were registered to vote in the election, with 2.63 million (79.8%) turning out. Advance voting proved popular, with 1.24 million votes cast before election day, more than the previous two elections combined.
In the 1860 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of representatives by 12, reflecting the immense population growth since the original electorates were established in 1853. The redistribution created 15 additional electorates with between one and three members, and the Wanganui and Rangitikei electorate was split into two separate electorates: the Rangitikei electorate and the Wanganui electorate.
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.
The electorate is based on the city of Whanganui, the towns Opunake and Hawera, and smaller centres Kaponga, Eltham, Normanby, Manaia, Patea and Waverley.
Whanganui, also spelled Wanganui, is a city on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The Whanganui River, New Zealand's longest navigable waterway, runs from Mount Tongariro to the sea. Whanganui is part of the Manawatu-Wanganui region.
Opunake is a small town on the southwest coast of Taranaki in New Zealand's North Island. It is located 45 kilometres southwest of New Plymouth. Rahotu is 16 km to the northwest. Manaia is 29 km to the southeast. State Highway 45 passes through the town.
Hawera is the second-largest town in the Taranaki region of New Zealand's North Island, with a population of 12,150. It is near the coast of the South Taranaki Bight. The origins of the town lie in a government military base that was established in 1866, and the town of Hawera grew up around a blockhouse in the early 1870s.
Henry Shafto Harrison was the first representative. His 7 February 1861 election was declared invalid. He stood again in the 1861 by-election and was elected again. He then served the electorate until the end of the term in 1866.
Henry Shafto Harrison was a 19th-century Member of Parliament in Wanganui, New Zealand.
The New Zealand general election of 1860–61 was held between 12 December 1860 and 28 March 1861 to elect 53 MPs to the third session of the New Zealand Parliament. 13,196 electors were registered.
The 1861 Wanganui by-election was a by-election held on 5 July 1861 in the Wanganui electorate during the 3rd New Zealand Parliament.
Harrison, John Bryce and John Garner contested the 1866 election. The nomination meeting was held on Friday, 2 March 1866. Harrison, Bryce and Garner received 51, 102 and 7 votes, respectively, at the election on the following day. Bryce was thus declared elected.Bryce resigned in 1867.
John Bryce was a New Zealand politician from 1871 to 1891 and Minister of Native Affairs from 1879 to 1884. In his attitudes to Māori land questions, he favoured strict legal actions against Māori opposed to alienation, and he personally directed the invasion of Parihaka and the arrest of the leaders of the movement.
The New Zealand general election of 1866 was held between 12 February and 6 April to elect 70 MPs to the fourth term of the New Zealand Parliament.
The resulting 6 May 1867 by-election was won by Harrison, and he served until the dissolution of Parliament on 30 December 1870.
Bryce was again elected in the 30 January 1871 election. This time, he served three parliamentary terms until the dissolution in November 1881.
Wanganui became a two-member electorate for the 12 January 1875–76 election. Apart from Bryce, Julius Vogel was elected, who was later to become Premier. Vogel resigned on 9 September 1876.
The resulting 2 October 1876 by-election was won by William Fox, resulting in his second period of representation of this electorate. He served until the end of the term on 15 August 1879.
Bryce and John Ballance won the 1879 election. They both server until the end of the term, with Parliament being dissolved on 8 November 1881.
For the 1881 election, the electorate reverted to being represented by a single member. The election, held on 9 December, was won by William Hogg Watt. He served until the end of the term, with Parliament being dissolved on 27 June 1884.
The 1884 election was once again won by John Ballance. This time, he would serve in three successive Parliaments. He died in office on 27 April 1893 during the 11th Parliament.Ballance formed the Liberal Party after the 1890 election and became its leader, and thus introduced party politics to New Zealand. The Liberal Government of New Zealand would last for 21 years and is the longest serving government in New Zealand's history.
Ballance’s death triggered the 1893 by-election, which was held on 13 June and won by Archibald Willis, who was re-elected at the 1893 election a few months later.
Gilbert Carson was successful in the 1896 election. He served one term.He was succeeded by Willis in the 1899 election, who served two more terms for the electorate.
James Thomas Hogan won the 1905 election. He served two termsand was defeated in the 1911 election by Bill Veitch.
Veitch had a long career in the electorate, serving until 1935, when he defeated. He was initially an Independent, but joined the Liberal Party in 1925, and changed to the United Party in 1928.
Joseph Cotterill won the electorate in the 1935 election for the Labour Party. He also had a long career, retiring in 1960 from the Wanganui seat.
He was succeeded by his party colleague George Spooner in the 1960 election, who served three terms and was defeated in 1969 election by Bill Tolhurst from the National Party.
Tolhurst served one term and at the 1972 election, the electorate returned to Labour. Russell Marshall served six terms and retired in 1990.
In the 1990 election, Cam Campion secured the seat for National. He retired in 1993 and died two years after that.
The seat returned to Labour again, with Jill Pettis winning the 1993 election. She was the first woman to represent Wanganui. She served four terms, until her defeat in the 2005 election by Chester Borrows of the National Party.Pettis served an additional term as a List MP until 2008. Borrows announced in 2016 that he would not seek reelection at the 2017 general election and the seat was won by Harete Hipango, retaining it for the National Party.
Several members (Fox, Vogel and Ballance) became Premier. Terry Heffernan stood in the electorate five times for four parties, from 1981 to 1993.
Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at a general election.
Independent Liberal Conservative Liberal–Labour United Labour United Labour National
|1861 election||Henry Harrison|
|1866 election||John Bryce|
|1867 by-election||Henry Harrison (2nd time)|
|1871 election||John Bryce (2nd time)|
|1876 election||John Bryce||Julius Vogel|
|1876 by-election||William Fox|
|1879 election||John Ballance|
|1881 election||William Watt|
|1884 election||John Ballance (2nd time)|
|1893 by-election||Archibald Willis|
|1896 election||Gilbert Carson|
|1899 election||Archibald Willis (2nd time)|
|1905 election||James Thomas Hogan|
|1911 election||Bill Veitch|
|1935 election||Joseph Cotterill|
|1960 election||George Spooner|
|1969 election||Bill Tolhurst|
|1972 election||Russell Marshall|
|1990 election||Cam Campion|
|1993 election||Jill Pettis|
|2005 election||Chester Borrows|
|2017 election||Harete Hipango|
Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.
|1996 election||Peter Gresham|
|2005 election||Jill Pettis|
|2017 general election: Whanganui|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Reginald Herbert Skipworth||2,580||3,783||10.02%|
|Total Valid votes||37,297||37,724|
|2014 general election: Whanganui|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|ACT||Alan Daniel Davidson||252||0.72||+0.29||167||0.47||-0.61|
|Democrats||Heather Marion Smith||208||0.59||+0.20||57||0.16||+0.01|
|Total Valid votes||35,085||35,407|
|2011 general election: Whanganui|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Ian Brougham||1,043||3.34||+3.34||3,035||9.53||+4.39|
|ACT||Alan Daniel Davidson||135||0.43||-0.56||345||1.08||-1.99|
|Democrats||Heather Marion Smith||121||0.39||-0.28||47||0.15||-0.07|
|Total Valid votes||31,183||31,858|
Electorate (as at 11 November 2011): 43,350
|2008 general election: Whanganui|
|Democrats||Heather Marion Smith||225||0.66||73||0.21|
|Bill and Ben||249||0.73|
|Total Valid votes||33,875||34,272|
|2005 general election: Whanganui|
|United Future||David Ball||502||1.56||885||2.71|
|One NZ||Ian Brougham||214||0.67||52||0.16|
|National gain from Labour||Majority||2,402||7.47||+14.26|
Refer to Candidates in the New Zealand general election 1999 by electorate#Whanganui for a list of candidates.
|NZ First||Terry Heffernan||3,621||17.9|
|Christian Heritage||J Rush||378||1.8|
|Social Credit||G Butler||123||0.6|
|National||A R Anderson||6,089||29.1|
|Social Credit||Terry Heffernan||6,473||29.1||-3.5|
|NZ Party||Ian David Harrex||751||3.4|
|Independent||T L Sullivan||47||0.2|
|Social Credit||Terry Heffernan||6,904||32.6|
|National||J G Rowan||6,601||31.8||-8.6|
|Social Credit||Oliver Marks||3,956||19.1||+9.4|
|Values||R W Holmes||449||2.2|
|Independent||T L Sullivan||34||0.1||±0.0|
|National||J G Rowan||8,069||40.4|
|Social Credit||Oliver Marks||1,937||9.7|
|Christian Democratic||Tom Fouhy||100||0.5|
|Independent||T L Sullivan||16||0.1||-0.2|
|Social Credit||J S Humphreys||1,168||6.3||-2.8|
|New Democratic||R A Dowdie||53||0.3|
|Independent||T L Sullivan||50||0.3||+0.1|
|Social Credit||J S Humphreys||1,557||9.1|
|Independent||D M Lewis||40||0.2|
|Independent||T L Sullivan||32||0.2|
|Social Credit||P J Dempsey||3,206||20.6||+4.5|
|Christian Democratic||D G Tumery||233||1.5|
|Social Credit||P J Dempsey||2,593||16.1|
|National||E J Crotty||5,911||39.1|
|Social Credit||Roly Marks||3,132||20.7||-1.7|
|National||A K MacLean||5,131||34.1|
|Social Credit||Roly Marks||3,378||22.4||-4.0|
|National||J S Rumbold||4,810||35.7|
|Social Credit||Roly Marks||3,378||26.4|
|National||E V O'Keefe||6,553||49.2||+2.9|
|National||E V O'Keefe||6,317||46.3|
|National||E J Kirk||4,254||31.18|
|Real Democracy||Roly Marks||1,722||12.62|
|Democratic Labour||S Duffy||832||6.09|
|Reform||Norman Rhind Bain||1,754||16.74|
|Independent Liberal||James Thomas Hogan||524||5.00|
|Reform||N J Lewis||2,650||25.31|
|Liberal–Labour||James Thomas Hogan||3,041||45.85|
|Liberal–Labour||James Thomas Hogan||3,602||54.30||+8.46|
|Independent Liberal||John Michael Murphy||108||2.10|
|Independent||William Hogg Watt||154||17.11||-33.14|
|Independent||William Hogg Watt||397||50.25|
|Independent||Sir William Fox||501||62.31|
|Independent||Henry Shafto Harrison||143||57.66|
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