Whanganui (New Zealand electorate)

Last updated
Whanganui electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election Whanganui electorate, 2014.svg
Whanganui electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Whanganui (known as Wanganui until 1996) is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first established in 1860 for the 3rd Parliament and has existed continuously since then.

Contents

It has been held by Harete Hipango of the National Party since the 2017 general election.

Population centres

In the 1860 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of representatives by 12, reflecting the immense population growth since the original electorates were established in 1853. The redistribution created 15 additional electorates with between one and three members, and the Wanganui and Rangitikei electorate was split into two separate electorates: the Rangitikei electorate and the Wanganui electorate. [1]

The electorate is based on the city of Whanganui, the towns Opunake and Hawera, and smaller centres Kaponga, Eltham, Normanby, Manaia, Patea and Waverley.

History

Henry Shafto Harrison was the first representative. His 7 February 1861 election was declared invalid. He stood again in the 1861 by-election and was elected again. He then served the electorate until the end of the term in 1866. [2] [3]

Harrison, John Bryce and John Garner contested the 1866 election. The nomination meeting was held on Friday, 2 March 1866. Harrison, Bryce and Garner received 51, 102 and 7 votes, respectively, at the election on the following day. Bryce was thus declared elected. [4] Bryce resigned in 1867. [5]

The resulting 6 May 1867 by-election was won by Harrison, and he served until the dissolution of Parliament on 30 December 1870. [2]

Bryce was again elected in the 30 January 1871 election. This time, he served three parliamentary terms until the dissolution in November 1881. [5]

Wanganui became a two-member electorate for the 12 January 1875–76 election. Apart from Bryce, Julius Vogel was elected, who was later to become Premier. Vogel resigned on 9 September 1876. [6]

The resulting 2 October 1876 by-election was won by William Fox, resulting in his second period of representation of this electorate. He served until the end of the term on 15 August 1879. [7]

Bryce and John Ballance won the 1879 election. They both server until the end of the term, with Parliament being dissolved on 8 November 1881. [8]

For the 1881 election, the electorate reverted to being represented by a single member. The election, held on 9 December, was won by William Hogg Watt. He served until the end of the term, with Parliament being dissolved on 27 June 1884. [9]

The 1884 election was once again won by John Ballance. This time, he would serve in three successive Parliaments. He died in office on 27 April 1893 during the 11th Parliament. [8] Ballance formed the Liberal Party after the 1890 election and became its leader, and thus introduced party politics to New Zealand. The Liberal Government of New Zealand would last for 21 years and is the longest serving government in New Zealand's history.

Ballance’s death triggered the 1893 by-election, which was held on 13 June and won by Archibald Willis, who was re-elected at the 1893 election a few months later. [10]

Gilbert Carson was successful in the 1896 election. He served one term. [11] He was succeeded by Willis in the 1899 election, who served two more terms for the electorate. [10]

James Thomas Hogan won the 1905 election. He served two terms [12] and was defeated in the 1911 election by Bill Veitch.

Veitch had a long career in the electorate, serving until 1935, when he defeated. He was initially an Independent, but joined the Liberal Party in 1925, and changed to the United Party in 1928.

Joseph Cotterill won the electorate in the 1935 election for the Labour Party. He also had a long career, retiring in 1960 from the Wanganui seat.

He was succeeded by his party colleague George Spooner in the 1960 election, who served three terms and was defeated in 1969 election by Bill Tolhurst from the National Party.

Tolhurst served one term and at the 1972 election, the electorate returned to Labour. Russell Marshall served six terms and retired in 1990.

In the 1990 election, Cam Campion secured the seat for National. He retired in 1993 and died two years after that.

The seat returned to Labour again, with Jill Pettis winning the 1993 election. She was the first woman to represent Wanganui. She served four terms, until her defeat in the 2005 election by Chester Borrows of the National Party. [13] Pettis served an additional term as a List MP until 2008. Borrows announced in 2016 that he would not seek reelection at the 2017 general election [14] and the seat was won by Harete Hipango, retaining it for the National Party.

Several members (Fox, Vogel and Ballance) became Premier. Terry Heffernan stood in the electorate five times for four parties, from 1981 to 1993.

Members of Parliament

Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at a general election.

Key

  Independent     Liberal     Conservative     Liberal–Labour     United Labour     United     Labour     National   

single-member electorate

ElectionWinner
1861 election Henry Harrison
1861 by-election
1866 election John Bryce
1867 by-election Henry Harrison (2nd time)
1871 election John Bryce (2nd time)

multi-member electorate

ElectionWinners
1876 election John Bryce Julius Vogel
1876 by-election William Fox
1879 election John Ballance

single-member electorate

ElectionWinner
1881 election William Watt
1884 election John Ballance (2nd time)
1887 election
1890 election
1893 by-election Archibald Willis
1893 election
1896 election Gilbert Carson
1899 election Archibald Willis (2nd time)
1902 election
1905 election James Thomas Hogan
1908 election
1911 election Bill Veitch
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election Joseph Cotterill
1938 election
1943 election
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election George Spooner
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election Bill Tolhurst
1972 election Russell Marshall
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election Cam Campion
1993 election Jill Pettis
1996 election
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election Chester Borrows
2008 election
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election Harete Hipango

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

ElectionWinner
1996 election Peter Gresham
2005 election Jill Pettis

Election results

2017 election

2017 general election: Whanganui [15]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Harete Hipango 16,75116,87444.73%
Labour Steph Lewis15,04513,74836.44%
NZ First Reginald Herbert Skipworth2,5803,78310.02%
Green Nicola Patrick2,0671,7754.70%
ACT Alan Davidson2941680.44%
Opportunities  6391.69%+1.69
Māori  1620.43
Legalise Cannabis  154
Conservative  94
Ban 1080  56
Outdoors  25
People's Party  23
United Future  23
Democrats  20
Mana  12
Internet  7
Informal votes560161
Total Valid votes37,29737,724
National holdMajority1,706

2014 election

2014 general election: Whanganui [16]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Chester Borrows 18,64953.15-0.5416,68747.13-0.43
Labour Hamish McDouall 14,14440.31+2.809,01225.45-1.96
Conservative Kim MacIntyre8722.49+2.491,7715.00+1.77
Māori Nancy Tuaine6101.74+1.742050.58+0.13
ACT Alan Daniel Davidson2520.72+0.291670.47-0.61
Democrats Heather Marion Smith2080.59+0.20570.16+0.01
NZ First  4,22111.92+2.39
Green  2,5467.19-1.77
Internet Mana  2590.73+0.49
Legalise Cannabis  1900.54-0.01
United Future  750.21-0.24
Ban 1080  560.16+0.16
Civilian  220.06+0.06
Focus  140.04+0.04
Independent Coalition  130.04+0.04
Informal votes350112
Total Valid votes35,08535,407
National holdMajority4,50512.84-3.34

2011 election

2011 general election: Whanganui [17]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Chester Borrows 16,74353.69-2.6115,15147.56+1.25
Labour Hamish McDouall 11,69737.51-0.108,73327.41-8.10
Green John Milnes1,4444.63+0.192,8558.96+3.68
NZ First Ian Brougham1,0433.34+3.343,0359.53+4.39
ACT Alan Daniel Davidson1350.43-0.563451.08-1.99
Democrats Heather Marion Smith1210.39-0.28470.15-0.07
Conservative  1,0303.23-+3.23
Māori  2250.71-0.29
Legalise Cannabis  1760.55+0.21
United Future  1430.45-0.20
Mana  750.24+0.24
Libertarianz  220.07+0.02
Alliance  210.07-0.02
Informal votes616235
Total Valid votes31,18331,858
National holdMajority5,04616.18-2.51

Electorate (as at 11 November 2011): 43,350 [18]

2008 election

2008 general election: Whanganui [19]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Chester Borrows 19,07256.3015,86946.30
Labour Hamish McDouall 12,73937.6112,17035.51
Green John Milnes1,5034.441,8095.28
ACT Alan Davidson3360.991,0523.07
Democrats Heather Marion Smith2250.66730.21
NZ First  1,7615.14
Māori  3421.00
Progressive  2530.74
Bill and Ben  2490.73
United Future  2240.65
Kiwi  1860.54
Legalise Cannabis  1160.34
Family Party  910.27
Alliance  280.08
Libertarianz  180.05
Workers Party  160.05
Pacific  100.03
RONZ  30.01
RAM  20.01
Informal votes304162
Total Valid votes33,87534,272
National holdMajority6,333

2005 election

2005 general election: Whanganui [20]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Chester Borrows 15,84649.28+9.7013,41741.13
Labour Red x.svgN Jill Pettis 13,44441.81-4.5613,04539.99
Green John Milnes1,1713.641,4664.49
United Future David Ball5021.568852.71
Māori Aaron Makutu4291.332650.841
Progressive Debbie Lucas3711.154481.37
One NZ Ian Brougham2140.67520.16
Democrats Malcolm Murchie1750.54680.21
NZ First  2,1856.70
ACT  2960.91
Destiny  2820.86
Legalise Cannabis  680.21
Christian Heritage  620.19
Alliance  310.10
99 MP  180.06
Libertarianz  160.05
Family Rights  70.02
RONZ  70.02
Direct Democracy  60.02
Informal votes376144
National gain from Labour Majority2,4027.47+14.26

1999 election

Refer to Candidates in the New Zealand general election 1999 by electorate#Whanganui for a list of candidates.

1993 election

1993 general election: Wanganui [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Jill Pettis 7,399 36.6 +5.6
National Gael Donoghue4,02819.9
NZ First Terry Heffernan 3,62117.9
Independent Cam Campion 2,52512.4-20.6
Alliance F Frederiske2,25311.1
Christian Heritage J Rush3781.8
Majority3,37116.6
Turnout 20,204

1990 election

1990 general election: Wanganui [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Cam Campion 6,751 33.0
Labour Jill Pettis 6,34231.0
Democrats Terry Heffernan 5,98329.2-5.7
Green T Sarten7623.7
NewLabour M Blakely4462.1
Social Credit G Butler1230.6
Independent C Fackney220.1
Majority4092.0
Turnout 20,429

1987 election

1987 general election: Wanganui [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Russell Marshall 7,548 36.0 -10.7
Democrats Terry Heffernan 7,30034.9+5.8
National A R Anderson6,08929.1
Majority2481.1-16.5
Turnout 22,92592.7-1.4

1984 election

1984 general election: Wanganui [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Russell Marshall 10,391 46.7 +6.3
Social Credit Terry Heffernan 6,47329.1-3.5
National Sue Westwood4,57920.6
NZ Party Ian David Harrex7513.4
Independent T L Sullivan470.2
Majority3,91817.6+9.8
Turnout 23,96594.1+3.6

1981 election

1981 general election: Wanganui [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Russell Marshall 8,572 40.4 -6.4
Social Credit Terry Heffernan 6,90432.6
National Jennifer Tolhurst5,71927.0
Majority1,6687.8-7.2
Turnout 23,47790.5+15.5

1978 election

1978 general election: Wanganui [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Russell Marshall 9,703 46.8 +0.2
National J G Rowan6,60131.8-8.6
Social Credit Oliver Marks3,95619.1+9.4
Values R W Holmes4492.2
Independent T L Sullivan340.1±0.0
Majority3,10215.0+8.8
Turnout 27,74175.0-18.3

1975 election

1975 general election: Wanganui [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Russell Marshall 9,313 46.6 -7.8
National J G Rowan8,06940.4
Social Credit Oliver Marks1,9379.7
Values Roger Angus5412.7
Christian Democratic Tom Fouhy1000.5
Independent T L Sullivan160.1-0.2
Majority1,2446.2-9.5
Turnout 22,68988.3-4.4

1972 election

1972 general election: Wanganui [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Russell Marshall 9,987 54.4
National Bill Tolhurst 7,10838.7-9.3
Social Credit J S Humphreys1,1686.3-2.8
New Democratic R A Dowdie530.3
Independent T L Sullivan500.3+0.1
Majority2,87915.7
Turnout 19,94492.7+0.9

1969 election

1969 general election: Wanganui [24]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Bill Tolhurst 8,233 48.0 +6.1
Labour George Spooner 7,27442.5+.06
Social Credit J S Humphreys1,5579.1
Independent D M Lewis400.2
Independent T L Sullivan320.2
Majority9595.5
Turnout 18,75591.8+1.3

1966 election

1966 general election: Wanganui [24]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour George Spooner 6,499 41.9 -5.4
National John Grace5,59136.0-1.6
Social Credit P J Dempsey3,20620.6+4.5
Christian Democratic D G Tumery2331.5
Majority9085.9-2.8
Turnout 17,24990.5-2.5

1963 election

1963 general election: Wanganui [24]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour George Spooner 7,430 46.3 +6.1
National John Grace6,03337.6
Social Credit P J Dempsey2,59316.1
Majority1,3978.7+7.6
Turnout 17,25893.4

1960 election

1960 general election: Wanganui [24]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour George Spooner 6,071 40.2
National E J Crotty5,91139.1
Social Credit Roly Marks 3,13220.7-1.7
Majority1601.1
Turnout 16,33593.0-1.9

1957 election

1957 general election: Wanganui [24]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joseph Cotterill 6,550 43.5 +5.6
National A K MacLean5,13134.1
Social Credit Roly Marks 3,37822.4-4.0
Majority1,4199.4+7.2
Turnout 15,91194.9+1.8

1954 election

1954 general election: Wanganui [24]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joseph Cotterill 5,115 37.9 -12.9
National J S Rumbold4,81035.7
Social Credit Roly Marks 3,37826.4
Majority3052.2+0.6
Turnout 14,56293.1+4.7

1951 election

1951 general election: Wanganui [25]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joseph Cotterill 6,779 50.8 -2.9
National E V O'Keefe6,55349.2+2.9
Majority2261.6-5.8
Turnout 14,99389.2-3.1

1949 election

1949 general election: Wanganui [26]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joseph Cotterill 7,336 53.7 -3.4
National E V O'Keefe6,31746.3
Majority1,0197.4-6.6
Turnout 14,86392.3-0.7

1946 election

1946 general election: Wanganui [27]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joseph Cotterill 7,833 57.0
National Eric Merewether5,89943.0
Majority1,93414.0
Turnout 14,73093.0

1943 election

1943 general election: Wanganui [28]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joseph Cotterill 6,691 49.05 -15.34
National E J Kirk4,25431.18
Real Democracy Roly Marks 1,72212.62
Democratic Labour S Duffy8326.09
Informal votes1421.04+0.58
Majority2,43717.86+11.38
Turnout 13,64196.69+1.95
Registered electors 14,107

1938 election

1938 general election: Wanganui [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joseph Cotterill 8,630 64.39 +18.09
National Bill Veitch 4,71035.14+3.70
Informal votes620.46-0.20
Majority3,92029.24+14.38
Turnout 13,40294.74
Registered electors 14,145

1935 election

1935 general election: Wanganui [30]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joseph Cotterill 4,887 46.66
Democrat Bill Veitch 3,31831.68-21.39
Reform Norman Rhind Bain1,75416.74
Independent Liberal James Thomas Hogan 5245.00
Informal votes610.58+0.06
Majority1,56914.98
Turnout 10,47391.59+8.41
Registered electors 11,434

1931 election

1931 general election: Wanganui [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
United Bill Veitch 5,096 53.07 +5.52
Labour Bill Rogers 4,50646.93+19.79
Majority5906.14-14.26
Informal votes500.52-0.05
Turnout 9,65283.18-4.55
Registered electors 11,604

1928 election

1928 general election: Wanganui [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
United Bill Veitch 4,979 47.55 +4.28
Labour Bill Rogers 2,84227.14+4.80
Reform N J Lewis2,65025.31
Majority2,13720.41+11.52
Informal votes600.57-0.11
Turnout 10,53187.73-4.09
Registered electors 12,004

1925 election

1925 general election: Wanganui [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Bill Veitch 4,339 43.27
Reform John Coull [34] 3,44834.39
Labour Bill Rogers 2,24022.34
Majority8918.89
Informal votes690.68
Turnout 10,09691.82
Registered electors 10,996

1908 election

1908 general election: Wanganui, first ballot [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal–Labour James Thomas Hogan 3,041 45.85
Conservative George Hutchison 1,882 28.37
Independent Charles Mackay 1,71025.78
Majority1,15917.47
Turnout 6,63378.06
Registered electors 8,497
1908 general election: Wanganui, second ballot [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal–Labour James Thomas Hogan 3,602 54.30 +8.46
Conservative George Hutchison 2,86043.1214.74
Majority74211.19-6.29
Turnout 6,46276.05-2.01
Registered electors 8,497

1899 election

1899 general election: Wanganui [37] [38]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Archibald Willis 2,878 55.83
Conservative Gilbert Carson 2,16942.08
Independent Liberal John Michael Murphy1082.10
Majority70913.75
Turnout 5,15580.53
Registered electors 6,401

1893 by-election

1893 Wanganui by-election [39]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Archibald Willis 1,031 62.37
Conservative Gilbert Carson 62237.62
Majority40924.74
Turnout 1,653

1890 election

1890 general election: Wanganui [40]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal John Ballance 808 50.85 -15.95
Conservative Gilbert Carson 78149.15+15.95
Majority271.69-31.9
Turnout 1,58975.20-4.19
Registered electors 2,113

1887 election

1887 general election: Wanganui [41]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent John Ballance 865 66.80
Independent Gilbert Carson 43033.20
Majority43533.59
Turnout 1,29579.39
Registered electors 1,631

1884 election

1884 general election: Wanganui [42]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent John Ballance 541 60.11 +10.36
Independent George Hutchison 20522.77
Independent William Hogg Watt 15417.11-33.14
Majority33637.332.69
Turnout 90066.86
Registered electors 1,346

1881 election

1881 general election: Wanganui [43]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent William Hogg Watt 397 50.25
Independent John Ballance 39349.75-18.28
Majority40.50
Turnout 79064.17+4.44
Registered electors 1,231

1879 election

1879 general election: Wanganui [44]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent John Bryce 560 69.65
Independent John Ballance 547 68.03
Independent Sir William Fox 50162.31
Majority465.72
Turnout 80459.73
Registered electors 1,346

1876 by-election

1876 Wanganui by-election [45]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent William Fox 256 60.81
Independent John Morgan16539.19
Turnout 421
Majority9121.62

1867 by-election

1867 Wanganui by-election [46]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Henry Shafto Harrison 143 57.66
Independent William Hutchison 10542.34
Turnout 248
Majority3815.32

Notes

  1. McRobie 1989, pp. 32f.
  2. 1 2 Scholefield 1925, p. 100.
  3. Wilson 1985, p. 203.
  4. "The Wanganui Election". Wellington Independent. XXI (2331). 6 March 1866. p. 4. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  5. 1 2 Scholefield 1925, p. 81.
  6. Scholefield 1925, pp. 142-143.
  7. Scholefield 1925, p. 94.
  8. 1 2 Scholefield 1925, p. 77.
  9. Scholefield 1925, p. 145.
  10. 1 2 Scholefield 1925, p. 147.
  11. Scholefield 1925, p. 84.
  12. Scholefield 1925, p. 103.
  13. "Hon Chester Borrows". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  14. Moir, Jo (29 November 2016). "In hindsight National's Chester Borrows says he "could have had more fights" as an MP". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  15. "Official Count Results -- Whanganui". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  16. 2014 election results
  17. 2011 election results
  18. "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  19. 2008 election results
  20. 2005 election results
  21. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993.
  22. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Norton 1988, pp. 385.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Norton 1988, pp. 384.
  25. "The New Zealand Official Year-Book, 1951–52". Statistics New Zealand . Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  26. "The General Election, 1949". National Library. 1950. pp. 1–5, 8. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  27. "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  28. "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. p. 11. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  29. "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  30. The General Election, 1935. Government Printer. 1936. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  31. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 5. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  32. The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. 1929. p. 5. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  33. The General Election, 1925. Government Printer. 1926. p. 3. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  34. "Local and General News". The New Zealand Herald . LXII (19163). 31 October 1925. p. 12. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  35. AtoJs 1908 election 1909, p. 30.
  36. AtoJs 1908 election 1909, p. 11.
  37. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  38. "Electoral District of Wanganui". Wanganui Chronicle . XLIII (1500). 5 December 1899. p. 3. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  39. "Wanganui Election". Woodville Examiner. VIII (2054). 12 June 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  40. "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  41. "The General Election, 1887". National Library. 1887. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  42. Cooper, G. S. (1884). The General Election, 1884. National Library. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  43. Cooper, G. S. (1882). Votes Recorded for Each Candidate. Government Printer. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  44. "Wanganui Election". XII (9507). Wanganui Herald. 6 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  45. "Local and General". The Oamaru Mail . 3 October 1876.
  46. "Wanganui". Wellington Independent. 4 May 1867.

References