|Founder||Albert Davy and William Goodfellow|
|Merged into||National Party|
|Ideology|| Classical liberalism |
The New Zealand Democrat Party was a political party in New Zealand, founded in 1934 with the purpose of opposing socialist legislation by the government.
A political party is an organized group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests.
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be public, collective or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms.
The Democrat Party was founded and developed by Albert Davy, a prominent political organiser of the time. Davy had worked first for the Reform Party, then for the United Party, and finally for Reform again. He was highly effective in both campaign management and fundraising, but often came into conflict with those he worked for. Politically, Davy was an advocate of reducing the size of government, and of minimising government intervention in the business world — the slogan "More Business in Government, Less Government in Business", once used by the Reform Party, was thought up by Davy. When the United Party and the Reform Party formed a coalition, Davy initially supported it, but later resigned in protest at the legislation the coalition enacted to counter the Great Depression. Davy denounced the coalition as "socialistic by inclination, action and fact".
Albert Ernest Davy was a New Zealand political organiser and campaign manager; and at the height of his career, was regarded as one of the best in the country. He was a strong opponent of socialism, and spent most of his life fighting what he saw as socialist tendencies in New Zealand politics.
The United Party of New Zealand, a party formed out of the remnants of the Liberal Party, formed a government between 1928 and 1935, and in 1936 merged with the Reform Party to establish the National Party.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.
In 1934, Davy was approached by William Goodfellow, a wealthy Auckland businessman and industrialist. Goodfellow strongly opposed the economic policies of the United-Reform Coalition, and was also concerned by the rise of the Labour Party. Goodfellow hoped that a small but committed party could hold the balance of power in Parliament, and force the government to adopt more business-friendly policies. It was hoped by Goodfellow and his allies that Davy's talents could create an effective organisation.
Sir William Goodfellow was a New Zealand hardware merchant, dairying industrialist, company director and philanthropist. He was born in Alexandra, Waikato, New Zealand, on 26 May 1880.
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. The Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
In response to this, the New Zealand Democrat Party was founded. Its primary base of support was the business community, particularly in Auckland. Before long, however, Davy and Goodfellow came into conflict. The most notable cause for dispute was the scale of Davy's plans — Goodfellow had wanted a small party focused on winning a select few seats, but Davy was recruiting candidates as though the Democrats were a major party. Goodfellow tried to remove Davy from the chairmanship of the Democrats in July 1935, and later initiated court proceedings to recover part of the salary Davy had been paid. Davy remained in office, however, and the Democrat Party continued on. The sitting Mayor of Wellington, Thomas Hislop, was recruited as the party's political leader, while Davy remained its chief organiser and strategist.
The Mayor of Wellington City is the head of the municipal government of Wellington, New Zealand, and presides over the Wellington City Council. Adjacent local bodies – Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt, and Porirua – have their own mayors. The Mayor is directly elected using STV.
Thomas Charles Atkinson Hislop was the Mayor of Wellington from 1931 to 1944.
In the 1935 elections, Davy's campaign was not as effective as his previous efforts. The Democrats fielded fifty-one candidates, including seven former United Party candidates and members of Parliament including Bill Veitch and Arthur Stallworthy. — by splitting the anti-Labour vote they probably contributed to Labour's overwhelming victory in 1935.However, the Democrats did not win any seats. In total, they won around 7.8% of the national vote (66,695 votes). Despite their failure to enter Parliament, their impact on the election may have been the opposite to what was intended
William Andrew Veitch was a New Zealand politician. He began his career in the labour movement, but was a strong opponent of socialism, and rejected the militant views held by many of his colleagues.
Arthur John Stallworthy was a New Zealand politician of the United Party, and a Cabinet minister.
Among the defeated Democrat candidates were Frederick Doidge and Matthew Oram who would become future National Party MPs.Davy himself went on to found the People's Movement and the New Zealand Co-operative Party but eventually retired from politics and returned to business. The party's remnants amalgamated with the National Party in 1936.
Sir Frederick Widdowson Doidge was a journalist in New Zealand and England, then a National Party member in the New Zealand House of Representatives.
Sir Matthew Henry Oram was a New Zealand politician of the National Party. He was the 13th Speaker of the House of Representatives, from 1950 to 1957.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
George William Forbes was a New Zealand politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of New Zealand from 28 May 1930 to 6 December 1935.
The extent to which socialism plays a part in modern New Zealand politics depends on which definitions of socialist are used, but few mainstream politicians would describe themselves using the word "socialist". The term "social-democrat" is more common, but the more general "left-wing" or "centre-left" are used far more frequently. New Zealand has a complicated assortment of socialist causes and organisations. Some of these play a considerable role in public activism—some commentators claim that New Zealand socialists are more prominent in causes such as the anti-war movement than in promoting socialism itself. Other groups are strongly committed to radical socialist revolution.
This article discusses Christian politics in New Zealand.
This article gives an overview of historic liberalism in New Zealand. It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament.
The United Labour Party of New Zealand was an early left-wing political party. Founded in 1912, it represented the more moderate wing of the labour movement. In 1916 it joined with other political groups to establish the modern Labour Party.
The Reform Party, formally the New Zealand Political Reform League, was New Zealand's second major political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party. It was in government between 1912 and 1928, and later formed a coalition with the United Party, and then merged with United to form the modern National Party.
The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 25th term. It resulted in the Labour Party's first electoral victory, with Michael Joseph Savage becoming the first Labour Prime Minister. The governing coalition, consisting of the United Party and the Reform Party, suffered a major defeat, attributed by many to their handling of the Great Depression. The year after the election, United and Reform took their coalition further, merging to form the modern National Party.
The 1931 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 24th term. It resulted in the newly formed coalition between the United Party and the Reform Party remaining in office as the United-Reform coalition Government, although the opposition Labour Party made some minor gains despite tallying more votes than any other single party.
The 1938 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 26th term. It resulted in the governing Labour Party being re-elected, although the newly founded National Party gained a certain amount of ground.
Joseph Gordon Coates served as the 21st Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1925 to 1928. He was the third successive Reform prime minister since 1912.
The Independent Political Labour League (IPLL) was a small New Zealand political party. It was the second organised political party to win a seat in the House of Representatives, and was a forerunner of the modern Labour Party.
The 25th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It opened on 25 March 1936, following the 1935 election. It was dissolved on 16 September 1938 in preparation for the 1938 election.
The People's Movement was a political party in New Zealand. It was active in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and was individualist in outlook. It campaigned for a reduction in the size of government, a reform of the civil service, a limit on the powers of political parties, and an end to the governing Labour Party's "socialist" policies.
The United–Reform Coalition, also known as the National Political Federation from 1935, was a coalition between two of the three major parties of New Zealand, the United and Reform parties, from 1931–1936. The Coalition formed the Government of New Zealand from its formation in September 1931, successfully contesting and winning the 1931 general election in December. The Coalition was defeated at the 1935 general election by Labour. The following year the coalition was formalised by the formation of the modern New Zealand National Party.
The Wellington North by-election of 1918 was a by-election held in the Wellington North electorate during the 19th New Zealand Parliament, on 12 February 1918. It was caused by the resignation of incumbent MP Alexander Herdman of the Reform Party, who was appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court, and was won by John Luke with a majority of 420.
In April 1912 and July 1913, two "unity conferences" were held to discuss and determine the future of organised labour in New Zealand. The events mainly centred around the debate over whether industrial action or political activity should be the means of achieving the aims of workers and additionally to unite the "moderate" and "militant" factions within the labour movement. Whilst neither conference fully unified the labour movement, it laid a framework of co-operation that would later assist during the creation of the current New Zealand Labour Party in 1916.
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