Last updated

Monarchism is the advocacy of the system of monarchy or monarchical rule. [1] A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government independent of any specific monarch, whereas one who supports a particular monarch is a royalist. Conversely, the opposition to monarchical rule is referred to as republicanism.


Depending on the country, a royalist may advocate for the rule of the person who sits on the throne, a pretender, or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed.


Monarchical rule is among the oldest political institutions. [2] Monarchies have existed in some form since ancient Sumeria. [3] Monarchy has often claimed legitimacy from a higher power (in early modern Europe the divine right of kings, and in China the Mandate of Heaven).

In England, royalty ceded power elsewhere in a gradual process. In 1215, a group of nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, which guaranteed its barons certain liberties and established that the king's powers were not absolute. In 1687–88, the Glorious Revolution and the overthrow of King James II established the principles of constitutional monarchy, which would later be worked out by Locke and other thinkers. However, absolute monarchy, justified by Hobbes in Leviathan (1651), remained a prominent principle elsewhere. In the 18th century, Voltaire and others encouraged "enlightened absolutism", which was embraced by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and by Catherine II of Russia.

In 1685 the Enlightenment began. [4] This would result in new anti-monarchist ideas [5] which resulted in several revolutions such as the 18th century, American Revolution and the French Revolution. Which were both additional steps in the weakening of power of European monarchies. Each in its different way exemplified the concept of popular sovereignty upheld by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 1848 then ushered in a wave of revolutions against the continental European monarchies.

World War I and its aftermath saw the end of three major European monarchies: the Russian Romanov dynasty, the German Hohenzollern dynasty, including all other German monarchies and the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg dynasty.

The rise of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919 provoked an increase in support for monarchism; however, efforts by Hungarian monarchists failed to bring back a royal head of state, and the monarchists settled for a regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, to represent the monarchy until it could be restored. Horthy was regent from 1920 to 1944. In similar wise the 1938 autocratic state of Franco in Spain claimed to have reconstituted the Spanish monarchy in absentia (and in this case ultimately yielded to a restoration, in the person of King Juan Carlos). In 1920s Germany a number of monarchists gathered around the German National People's Party which demanded the return of the Hohenzollern monarchy and an end to the Weimar Republic; the party retained a large base of support until the rise of Nazism in the 1930s.

With the arrival of socialism in Eastern Europe by the end of 1947, the remaining Eastern European monarchies, namely the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Albania, the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, were all abolished and replaced by socialist republics.

The aftermath of World War II also saw the return of monarchist and republican rivalry in Italy, where a referendum was held on whether the state should remain a monarchy or become a republic. The republican side won the vote by a narrow margin, and the modern Republic of Italy was created.

Monarchism as a political force internationally has substantially diminished since the end of the Second World War, though it had an important role in the 1979 Iranian Revolution and also played a role in the modern political affairs of Nepal. Nepal was one of the last states to have had an absolute monarch, which continued until King Gyanendra was peacefully deposed in May 2008 and the country became a federal republic. One of the world's oldest monarchies was abolished in Ethiopia in 1974 with the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie.

Current monarchies

The majority of current monarchies are constitutional monarchies. In most of these, the monarch wields only symbolic power, although in some, the monarch does play a role in political affairs. In Thailand, for instance, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who reigned from 1946 to 2016, played a critical role in the nation's political agenda and in various military coups. Similarly, in Morocco, King Mohammed VI wields significant, but not absolute power.

Liechtenstein is a democratic principality whose citizens have voluntarily given more power to their monarch in recent years.

There remain a handful of countries in which the monarch is the true ruler. The majority of these countries are oil-producing Arab Islamic monarchies like Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. Other strong monarchies include Brunei and Eswatini.

Justifications for monarchism

Absolute monarchy stands as an opposition to anarchism and, additionally from the Age of Enlightenment, liberalism, and communism.

Otto von Habsburg advocated a form of constitutional monarchy based on the primacy of the supreme judicial function, with hereditary succession, mediation by a tribunal is warranted if suitability is problematic. [6] [7]

Nonpartisan head of state and unifying force

British political scientist Vernon Bogdanor justifies monarchy on the grounds that it provides for a nonpartisan head of state, separate from the head of government, and thus ensures that the highest representative of the country, at home and internationally, does not represent a particular political party, but all people. [8] Bogdanor also notes that monarchies can play a helpful unifying role in a multinational state, noting that "In Belgium, it is sometimes said that the king is the only Belgian, everyone else being either Fleming or Walloon" and that the British sovereign can belong to all of the United Kingdom's constituent countries (England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland), without belonging to any particular one of them. [8]

Safeguard for liberty

The International Monarchist League, founded in 1943, has always sought to promote monarchy on the grounds that it strengthens popular liberty, both in a democracy and in a dictatorship, because by definition the monarch is not beholden to politicians.

British-American libertarian writer Matthew Feeney argues that Europe constitutional monarchies "have managed for the most part to avoid extreme politics"specifically fascism, communism, and military dictatorship"in part because monarchies provide a check on the wills of populist politicians" by representing entrenched customs and traditions. [9] Feeny notes that "European monarchies--such as the Danish, Belgian, Swedish, Dutch, Norwegian, and British--have ruled over countries that are among the most stable, prosperous, and free in the world." [9]

Human desire for hierarchy

In a 1943 essay in The Spectator , "Equality", British author C.S. Lewis criticized egalitarianism, and its corresponding call for the abolition of monarchy, as contrary to human nature, writing, "Where men are forbidden to honour a king they honour millionaires, athletes, or film-stars instead: even famous prostitutes or gangsters. For spiritual nature, like bodily nature, will be served; deny it food and it will gobble poison." [10]

Support for the restoration of monarchy

The following is a list of countries and opinion polls for the restoration of abolished monarchies in those countries.

CountryPolling firm/sourceSample sizePercentage of supportersDate conductedRef.
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Circle Monárquico Brasileiro18832%September 2019 [11]
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Consilium Regium Croaticum1,75941%2019 [12]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic SC&C Market Research13%2018 [13]
Flag of France.svg  France BVA Group95317%March 2007 [14]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany YouGov 1,04116%April 2016 [15]
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Doctrina56030%July 2015 [16]
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Kappa Research2,04011.6%April 2007 [17]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Piepoli institute15%2018 [18]
Flag of Nepal.svg  Nepal Interdisciplinary Analysts3,00049%January 2008 [19]
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Correio da Manha15.6%2004 [20]
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Institutul Roman pentru Evaluare si Strategie1,07321%March 2016 [21]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Russian Public Opinion Research Center ~1,8006% [note 1] March 2017 [22] [23]
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia SAS Intelligence1,61539.7%April 2013 [24]










Costa Rican















See also


  1. In the same question, 22 per cent of respondents answered that they were not opposed to a monarchy in principle, but could not think of a person "worthy of the Russian throne".

Related Research Articles

Constitutional monarchy Type of monarchy in which power is restricted by a constitution

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Monaco, Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait and Bahrain, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as the United Kingdom, Spain, Belgium, Sweden and Japan, where the monarch retains significantly less personal discretion in the exercise of their authority.

Governor General of Canada representative of the monarch of Canada

The governor general of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Queen, as a political sovereign, is shared equally both with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada, but she physically resides predominantly in her oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom. The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has also been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone officeholders—although many recent governors general have been bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time.

Monarchy of Canada Monarchy in Canada

The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional federal structure and Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the executive (Queen-in-Council), legislative (Queen-in-Parliament), and judicial (Queen-on-the-Bench) branches of both federal and provincial jurisdictions. The Queen of Canada has been Elizabeth II since 6 February 1952.

Republicanism in the United Kingdom is the political movement that seeks to replace the United Kingdom's monarchy with a republic. For those who want a non-hereditary head of state, the method by which one should be chosen is not agreed upon, with some favouring an elected president, some an appointed head of state with little power. Others support something akin to the Swiss model, with a directorate functioning as a collective head of state.

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions. Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance 'The Crown' refers to the functions of government and the civil service.

The Government of Canada, officially Her Majesty's Government, is the body responsible for the federal administration of Canada. In Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council. In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. The Crown is thus the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Canadian government. The monarch is personally represented by the governor general of Canada. The prime minister is the head of government who is invited by the Crown to form a government after securing the confidence of the House of Commons, which is typically determined through the election of enough members of a single political party in a federal election to provide a majority of seats in Parliament, forming a governing party. Further elements of governance are outlined in the rest of the Canadian Constitution, which includes written statutes in addition to court rulings, and unwritten conventions developed over centuries.

Republicanism in Canada Movement to end constitutional monarchy in Canada

Canadian republicanism is a movement among Canadians for the replacement of the Canadian system of federal constitutional monarchy with a republican form of government. These beliefs are expressed either individually—usually in academic circles—or through the country's one republican lobby group. Republicans have no preferred model of republic, as individuals are driven by various factors, such as a perceived practicality of popular power being placed in the hands of an elected prime Minister or a different manifestation of the modern nation. As with its political counterpart, strong republicanism is not a prevalent element of contemporary Canadian society. The movement's roots precede Canadian Confederation and it has emerged from time to time in Canadian politics, but has not been a dominant force since the Rebellions of 1837, of which Canadian republicans consider their efforts to be a continuation.

Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia

The Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia is the viceregal representative in Nova Scotia of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is similarly tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties. The present, and 33rd, Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia is Arthur Joseph LeBlanc, who has served in the role since 28 June 2017.

Jacobite succession Wikimedia list article

The Jacobite succession is the line through which Jacobites believed that the crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland should have descended, applying primogeniture, since the deposition of James II and VII in 1688 and his death in 1701. It is in opposition to the line of succession to the British throne in law since that time.

125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal Canadian jubilee medal

The 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal is a commemorative medal struck by the Royal Canadian Mint to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the Confederation of Canada and was awarded to Canadians who were deemed to have made a significant contribution to their fellow citizens, to their community, or to Canada. Nominations were submitted to lieutenant governors and territorial commissioners, senators, members of parliament, provincial governments, the Public Service Commission of Canada, the Canadian Forces, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and various federal government departments, as well as organizations throughout the country, and some 42,000 medals were awarded.

The Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan also called the Saskatchewan Centennial Medal is a commemorative medal struck to celebrate the first 100 years since Saskatchewan's entrance into Canadian Confederation.

Monarchism in Canada Movement to preserve Canada as a monarchy

Canadian monarchism is a movement for raising awareness of Canada's constitutional monarchy among the Canadian public, and advocating for its retention, countering republican and anti-monarchical reform as being generally revisionist, idealistic, and ultimately impracticable. Generally, Canadian monarchism runs counter to anti-monarchist republicanism, but not necessarily to the classical form of republicanism itself, as most monarchists in Canada support the constitutional variety of monarchy, sometimes referred to as a crowned republic. These beliefs can be expressed either individually—generally in academic circles—or through what are known as loyal societies, which include monarchist leagues, legions, historical groups, ethnic organizations, and sometimes police and scout bodies. Though there may be overlap, this concept should not be confused with royalism, the support of a particular monarch or dynasty; Canadian monarchists may appreciate the monarchy without thinking highly of the monarch. There have also been, from time to time, suggestions in favour of a uniquely Canadian monarch, either one headed by a descendant of the present monarch and resident in Canada or one based on a First Nations royal house.

History of monarchy in Canada

The history of monarchy in Canada stretches from pre-colonial times through to the present day. Canada's monarchical status began with the establishment of the French colony of New France in the name of King Francis I in 1534; although a previous claim was made by England in the name of King Henry VII in 1497 when John Cabot made landfall in what is thought to be modern day Newfoundland or Nova Scotia. Through both these lineages, the present Canadian monarchy can trace itself back to the Anglo-Saxon period and ultimately to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings. Kings and queens reigning over Canada have included the monarchs of France, those of the United Kingdom, and those of Canada. Canadian historian Father Jacques Monet said of Canada's Crown: "[it is] one of an approximate half-dozen that have survived through uninterrupted inheritance from beginnings that are older than our Canadian institution itself."

Debate between monarchists and republicans in Canada has been taking place since before the country's confederation in 1867, though it has rarely been of significance since the rebellions of 1837. Open support for republicanism only came from the Patriotes in the early 19th century, the Red River Métis in 1869, and minor actions by the Fenians throughout the 19th century. However, paralleling the changes in constitutional law that saw the creation of a distinct Canadian monarchy, the emergence in the 1960s of Quebec nationalism, and the evolution of Canadian nationalism, the cultural role and relevance of the monarchy altered and was sometimes questioned in certain circles, while continuing to receive support in others.

Monarchy in Quebec

By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, Canada's monarchy operates in Quebec as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy and constitution. As such, the Crown within Quebec's jurisdiction is referred to as the Crown in Right of Quebec, His/Her Majesty in Right of Quebec, or the Queen in Right of Quebec. The Constitution Act, 1867, however, leaves many royal duties in Quebec specifically assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy.

Monarchy in the Canadian provinces

The monarchy of Canada forms the core of each Canadian provincial jurisdiction's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy, being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government in each province. The monarchy has been headed since February 6, 1952 by Queen Elizabeth II who as sovereign is shared equally with both the Commonwealth realms and the Canadian federal entity. She, her consort, and other members of the Canadian Royal Family undertake various public and private functions across the country. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role.

Timeline of Canadian history Wikimedia list article

This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada, comprising important social, economic, political, military, legal, and territorial changes and events in Canada and its predecessor states.

William Henry McGarvey Canadian businessman

William Henry McGarvey was a Canadian business magnate, entrepreneur and politician. McGarvey is best known for his exploits in Galicia, where he operated a highly successful petroleum company. McGarvey was one of the most successful "foreign drillers" of Petrolia, becoming a multimillionaire before the outbreak of the First World War destroyed his business.


  1. Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989 edition, p. 924.
  2. "Sumerian King List" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  3. "The Sumerian king list: translation". Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  4. Editors, History com. "Enlightenment". HISTORY. Retrieved 2020-06-22.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. "A beginner's guide to the Age of Enlightenment (article)". Khan Academy. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  7. Otto von Habsburg "Monarchy or Republic?". ("Excerpted from The Conservative Tradition in European Thought, Copyright 1970 by Educational Resources Corporation.")
  8. 1 2 Bogdanor, Vernon (6 December 2000). "The Guardian has got it wrong". The Guardian.
  9. 1 2 Feeney, Matthew (July 25, 2013). "The Benefits of Monarchy". Reason magazine.
  10. C.S. Lewis (26 August 1943). "Equality". The Spectator.
  11. "CMB Pesquisa de conhecimento e opinião pública" (in Portuguese). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  12. Thomas, Mark. "Two-fifths of Croatians want a return to the monarchy". The Dubrovnik Times. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  13. "Průzkum ke 100 rokům od vzniku Československa: kdyby se monarchie nerozpadla, měli bychom se lépe nebo stejně". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  14. "BVA Group - Société d'études et conseil" (PDF). BVA. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  15. Schmidt, Matthias (13 April 2016). "König(in) von Deutschland: Jeder Sechste wäre dafür". (in German). YouGov. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  16. Kikacheishvili, Tamar (17 April 2017). "Georgia: Five-Year-Old Prince Prepares to Reign". Eurasianet. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  17. "Το ΒΗΜΑ onLine - ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΑ" (in Greek). 25 April 2007. Archived from the original on 25 April 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  18. "Emanule Filiberto: "Politici? Sono dei parac***"". Occhio, il Savoia vuole fare il re" (in Italian). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  19. "In Nepal, Long-Lived Monarchy Fades From View". NY Times. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  20. Almeida, Henrique. "Portugal royal says monarchy still tops republic". Reuters. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  21. Victor, Lupu (25 April 2016). "Only 21 pc of Romanians want monarchy". Romania Journal. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  22. "Democracy tops list of political systems preferred by Russians". RT. 14 April 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  23. Galanina, Angelina (23 March 2017). "Россияне против монархии". Izvestia (in Russian). National Media Group. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  24. Danas. "39 percent of Serbians in favor of monarchy, poll shows". b92. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  25. Coulombe, Charles A. (2016). Star-Spangled Crown: A Simple Guide to the American Monarchy. Tumblar House. ISBN   978-1-9443-3905-0.
  26. "Sounds of Summer: Dame Joan Sutherland". PM. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2 January 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  27. Pearlman, Johnathan (7 September 2013). "Ten things you didn't know about Tony Abbott". Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 19 Nov 2013.
  28. 1 2 Johnson, Carol; Wanna, John; Lee, Hsu-Ann (2015). Abbott's Gambit: The 2013 Australian Federal Election. ANU Press. p. 281. ISBN   978-1-9250-2209-4.
  29. Bourke, Latika (2018-10-17). "Australia's position on a republic untenable: Queen 'believes'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
  30. Gordon, Brook-Shepherd (1991). The Last Empress: The Life and Times of Zita of Austria-Hungary, 1892-1989. HarperCollins. p. 289. ISBN   0-0021-5861-2.
  31. Rosenfeld, Sidney (2001). Understanding Joseph Roth. University of South Carolina Press. p. 55. ISBN   1-5700-3398-6.
  32. von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik (2001). "Monarchy and War". Journal of Libertarian Studies. 15 (1): 1–41. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  33. "Ernst Fuchs posthum als Monarchist geoutet". (in German). Funke Mediengruppe. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  34. 1 2 "Danilo Gentili recebe o Príncipe Dom Bertrand no The Noite". SBT. 2017-09-22. Retrieved 2017-11-18.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Monarquistas ocupam cargos em Brasília e reabilitam grupo católico ultraconservador" [Monarchists occupy posts in Brasília and rehabilitate ultraconservative Catholic group]. BBC Brasil. 2019-04-04.
  36. "Monarquista, graças a Deus". Gazeta do Povo. 2016-10-16.
  37. Letters, no. 52, to Christopher Tolkien, 29 November 1943
  38. "Joan Collins so happy with husband". 4 February 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  39. "Sir Alan? Oh no, it'd be like wearing a suit every day". The Independent. 31 May 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  40. Expressed support for the British monarchy in the TV series Royalty A-Z (2002). Narrator of The Royal Story.
  41. Moore, J.; Sonsino, S. (2003). Leadership Unplugged. Springer. p. 71. ISBN   0-2305-9643-6.
  42. "The monarchy remains the most powerful symbol of one unified nation." (2002).
  43. "Long live the Queen?" . Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  44. "A lot of people of my generation have decided in part because of how important a unifier for the country the Queen has been that actually [the monarchy] is a better system - rationally." (2002)
  45. "The monarchy stands for everything that I love and I feel proud to be British. Yes, I am a royalist." (2007)
  46. Fry, Stephen (2017-06-30). "Happy Birthday, America. One Small Suggestion ..." The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  47. "Patrons | British Monarchist Society and Foundation". Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  48. Rojas, John-Paul Ford (2011-12-28). "Tracey Emin: I'm abused by other artists for voting Tory" . Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  49. "I used to be anti monarchy – but now I’m a royalist." (2017)
  50. Referred to herself as a Monarchist on the debate show The Pledge (2016).
  51. Jones, Dylan (2010). Cameron on Cameron: Conversations with Dylan Jones . Fourth Estate. ISBN   978-0-00-728537-2.
  52. Gray, Charlotte (2016). The Promise of Canada: 150 Years--People and Ideas That Have Shaped Our Country. Simon and Schuster. ISBN   978-1-4767-8469-4. Back home, Cartier impressed Upper Canadians with his unabashed anglophilia: he was a passionate monarchist who named his third daughter Reine-Victoria and believed that the Conquest in 1763 had saved Lower Canada from the misery and shame of the French Revolution.
  53. 1 2 3 4 Brouillet, Eugénie; Gagnon, Alain-G.; Laforest, Guy (2018). The Quebec Conference of 1864: Understanding the Emergence of the Canadian Federation. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 121. ISBN   978-0-7735-5605-8.
  54. Little, John (2013). Patrician Liberal: The Public and Private Life of Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, 1829-1908. University of Toronto Press. ISBN   978-1-4426-6699-3. As a Canadian nationalist and constitutional monarchist, he firmly believed that the lieutenant governor was considerably more than a figurehead...
  55. Udall, Sharyn Roshlfsen (2001). Carr, O'Keeffe, Kahlo: Places of Their Own. Yale University Press. p.  30. ISBN   0-3000-9186-9.
  56. Chodos, Robert; Murphy, Rae; Hamovitch, Eric (1991). The Unmaking of Canada: The Hidden Theme in Canadian History Since 1945. James Lorimer Company. p. 20. ISBN   1-5502-8337-5.
  57. Silcox, David P.; Milne, David (1996). Painting Place: The Life and Work of David B. Milne, Volume 1. University of Toronto Press. p. 206. ISBN   0-8020-4095-0.
  58. 1 2 Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (2002). Fifty Years the Queen: A Tribute to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on Her Golden Jubilee. Dundurn. p. 12. ISBN   1-5500-2360-8.
  59. Hubbard, R. H. (1977). Rideau Hall: An Illustrated History of the Government House, Ottawa, from Victorian Times to the Present Day . McGill-Queen's Press. p.  221. ISBN   0-7735-9452-3.
  60. Coady, Mary Frances (2011). Georges and Pauline Vanier: Portrait of a Couple. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 208. ISBN   978-0-7735-3883-2.
  61. Blake, Jason (2010). Canadian Hockey Literature: A Thematic Study. University of Toronto Press. p. 19. ISBN   978-0-8020-9713-2.
  62. Buckner, Philip (2007). Canada and the End of Empire. UBC Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN   978-0-7748-5066-7.
  63. Forsey, Helen (2012). Eugene Forsey, Canada's Maverick Sage: Canada's Maverick Sage. Dundurn. p. 434. ISBN   978-1-4597-0243-1.
  64. Tombs, George (2010). Robber Baron: Lord Black of Crossharbour. ECW Press. p. 67. ISBN   978-1-5549-0312-2.
  65. Ross, Val (2009). Robertson Davies: A Portrait in Mosaic. McClelland & Stewart. p. 96. ISBN   978-1-5519-9211-2.
  66. Harrison, Trevor W.; Friesen, John W. (2015). Canadian Society in the Twenty-First Century, 3e: An Historical Sociological Approach. Canadian Scholars' Press. p. 208. ISBN   978-1-5513-0735-0.
  67. Hutchison, Bruce (1985). The unfinished country: to Canada with love and some misgivings . Douglas & McIntyre. p.  40. ISBN   0-8889-4481-0.
  68. "Nancy Bell, 65 independent voice in Senate", Toronto Star, December 1, 1989
  69. 1 2 Jackson, D. Michael (2013). The Crown and Canadian Federalism. Dundurn. ISBN   978-1-4597-0990-4. [s]ome people think the NDP may want to get rid of the monarchy but I can assure you that's absolutely not the case. My Dad was a big time monarchist and so am I.
  70. Clarkson, Michael (2010). The Secret Life of Glenn Gould: A Genius in Love . ECW Press. ISBN   978-1-5549-0681-9. Glenn was a right winger and a monarchist, said pianist Anton Kuerti, who was friends with Gould and taught Gaylord.
  71. Chrétien, Jean (2018). My Stories, My Times. Random House of Canada. ISBN   978-0-7352-7735-9. Seeing me, she exclaimed, "You again!" I instantly replied, "I am the monarchist from Quebec."
  72. O'Connor, Joe (2 March 2012). "Don Cherry happy Canada finally coming around to his way of thinking". National Post. Postmedia Network Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  73. Atwood, Margaret [@MargaretAtwood] (20 May 2013). "Actually I'm a monarchist. Read again. Nobody's suggesting Queen Vic must go. But nice if (real) Canada honoured its treaties" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  74. Wise, Leonard (2017). Charles Pachter: Canada's Artist. Dundurn. ISBN   978-1-4597-3876-8. Paradox defines him... He's a monarchist who loves royalty, yet he delights in satirizing them.
  75. 1 2 Johnson, David (2018). Battle Royal: Monarchists vs. Republicans and the Crown of Canada. Dundurn. p. 160. ISBN   978-1-4597-4014-3.
  76. Shore, Cris; Williams, David V. (2019). The Shapeshifting Crown: Locating the State in Postcolonial New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the UK. Cambridge University Press. p. 156. ISBN   978-1-1084-9646-9.
  77. Smith, Jordan Michael (March 2012). "Reinventing Canada: Stephen Harper's Conservative Revolution". World Affairs Journal. World Affairs Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  78. Cosh, Colby (23 July 2013). "God save the constitutional Monarchy: Colby Cosh on why he will take his chances with the Royal Baby as head of state". Maclean's. Rogers Digital Media. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  79. "Meet Ray Novak, the PM's new chief of staff". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 May 2013.
  80. 1 2 3 Sáenz Carbonell, Jorge Francisco (1996). Don Joaquín de Oreamuno y Muñoz de la Trinidad. Vida de un monárquico costarricense. Editorial Universidad Estatal a Distancia. ISBN   9789977647845.
  81. de Laubier, Charles (29 July 2017). "Quand de Gaulle faisait discrètement allégeance à la noblesse français". L'Express (in French). Groupe L'Express. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  82. "Charles Maurras on the French Revolution · Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  83. Nagy, Zsuzsa L. (1983). The liberal opposition in Hungary, 1919-1945. Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 51. ISBN   9-6305-2998-X.
  84. Balogh, Margit (2013). "Two Visits — Two Eras: The Canadian Tours of Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty, 1947 and 1973". Hungarian Studies Review. 40 (2): 125.
  85. Bauer, Yehuda (1989). Remembering for the Future: Jews and Christians during and after the Holocaust. 1. Pergamon Press. p. 207. ISBN   0-0803-6754-2.
  86. Nakata, Hiroko (8 May 2007). "Sakurai weighs in on patriotism". The Japan Times. News2u Holdings, Inc. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  87. Clurman, Harold (1998). "The Life and Death of Yukio Mishima". The New York Times. The New York Times Company.
  88. "Ćwiakowski Aleksy 1895-1953". Parlamentarzyści (in Polish). Sejm. 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  89. Adekoya, Remi; Smith, Helena; Davies, Lizzy; Penketh, Anne; Oltermann, Philip (26 May 2014). "Meet the new faces ready to sweep into the European parliament". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  90. Bennett, Asa; Simons, Ned (20 October 2014). "Ukip's New EU Ally Joked About Wife Beating And Defended Hitler". The Huffington Post UK. Oath Inc.
  91. Powers, Williams F. (13 December 1994). "American Success Tory". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  92. "Uneasy riders". The Economist. The Economist Group. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  93. Wheeler, Douglas L. (1998). Republican Portugal: A Political History, 1910-1926. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 39. ISBN   0-2990-7454-4.
  94. Brooker, Peter; Bru, Sascha; Thacker, Andrew (2013). The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines. Oxford University Press. p. 427. ISBN   978-0-1996-5958-6.
  95. Dix, Steffan (2017). Portuguese Modernisms: Multiple Perspectives in Literature and the Visual Arts. Routledge. p. 162. ISBN   978-1-3515-5360-5.
  96. Williams, Frederick G. (2006). Poets of Portugal: a bilingual selection of poems from the thirteenth through twentieth centuries. Luso-Brazilian Books. p. 59. ISBN   0-8505-1703-6.
  97. Raby, D. L. (1988). Fascism and Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals and Military Dissidents in the Opposition to Salazar, 1941-1974. Machester University Press. p. 203. ISBN   0-7190-2797-7.
  98. Morgan, Roger; Claire, Tame (2016). Parliaments and Parties: The European Parliament in the Political Life of Europe. Springer. p. 307. ISBN   978-1-3492-4387-7.
  99. 1 2 3 Yasmann, Victor (2 October 2006). "Russia: Monarchist Nostalgia Remains Powerful". Radio Free Europe. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  100. "Russian Monarchist Withdraws Presidential Bid After Founding 'Romanov Empire' in Africa". The Moscow Times. MoscowTimes LLC. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  101. Carroll, Oliver (3 November 2017). "Inside Russia's secretive cult of Tsar worship: How royalism is thriving 100 years after murder of Nicholas II". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  102. Balmforth, Tom (6 March 2018). "Claim That Nicholas II Is Weeping Holy Tears In Crimea Prompts Laughter". Radio Free Europe. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  103. Sokirianskaia, Ekaterina (22 March 2017). "Vladimir Putin has one reliable set of allies: Russia's iron ladies". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  104. Haynes, Rebecca; Rady, Martyn (2011). In the Shadow of Hitler: Personalities of the Right in Central and Eastern Europe. I.B.Tauris. p. 296. ISBN   978-1-8451-1697-2.
  105. Case Studies on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Volume One: A World Survey. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 1975. p. 91. ISBN   9-0247-1780-9.