Monarchism

Last updated

Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule. [1] A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government, independent of any specific monarch; one who espouses a particular monarch is a royalist. Conversely, the opposition to monarchical rule is sometimes referred to as republicanism.

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication.

A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim. In the abstract, this position is royalism. It is distinct from monarchism, which advocates a monarchical system of government, but not necessarily a particular monarch. Most often, the term royalist is applied to a supporter of a current regime or one that has been recently overthrown to form a republic.

Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary significantly based on historical context and methodological approach.

Contents

Depending on the country, a monarchist may advocate for the rule of the person who sits on the throne, a pretender, or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed.

Pretender someone who claims a relation to a throne

A pretender is one who maintains or is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent, or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority. Most often, it refers to a former monarch, or descendant thereof, whose throne is occupied or claimed by a rival or has been abolished.

History

Monarchical rule is among the oldest political institutions. [2] Monarchy has often claimed legitimacy from a higher power (in early modern Europe the divine right of kings, and in China the Mandate of Heaven).

Divine right of kings political and religious doctrine of the legitimacy of monarchs

The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm. It implies that only God can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God and may constitute a sacrilegious act. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch.

Mandate of Heaven political and religious doctrine of the Emperor of China

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China. According to this belief, heaven —which embodies the natural order and will of the universe—bestows the mandate on a just ruler of China, the "Son of Heaven" of the "Celestial Empire". If a ruler was overthrown, this was interpreted as an indication that the ruler was unworthy, and had lost the mandate. It was also a common belief among citizens that natural disasters such as famine and flood were signs of heaven's displeasure with the ruler, so there would often be revolts following major disasters as citizens saw these as signs that the Mandate of Heaven had been withdrawn.

In England, royalty ceded power elsewhere in a gradual process. In 1215, a group of nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, which guaranteed its barons certain liberties and established that the king's powers were not absolute. In 1687-88, the Glorious Revolution and the overthrow of King James II established the principles of constitutional monarchy, which would later be worked out by Locke and other thinkers. However, absolute monarchy, justified by Hobbes in Leviathan (1651), remained a prominent principle elsewhere. In the 18th century, Voltaire and others encouraged "enlightened absolutism", which was embraced by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and by Catherine II of Russia.

John, King of England 13th-century King of England and grantor of Magna Carta

John, also known as John Lackland, was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. John lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

Magna Carta Angevin charter

Magna Carta Libertatum, commonly called Magna Carta, is a charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215. First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown, to be implemented through a council of 25 barons. Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III, leading to the First Barons' War.

Glorious Revolution 17th Century British revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, refers to the November 1688 deposition and subsequent replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William of Orange. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, while the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.

In the late 18th century, the American Revolution and the French Revolution were both additional steps in the weakening of power of European monarchies. Each in its different way exemplified the concept of popular sovereignty upheld by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 1848 then ushered in a wave of revolutions against the continental European monarchies.

American Revolution Colonial revolt in which the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt which occurred between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the assistance of France, winning independence from Great Britain and establishing the United States of America.

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

World War I and its aftermath saw the end of three major European monarchies: the Russian Romanov dynasty, the German Hohenzollern dynasty, including all other German monarchies and the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg dynasty.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

House of Romanov imperial dynasty of Russia

The House of Romanov was the reigning royal house of Russia from 1613 to 1917.

House of Hohenzollern dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania

The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.

The rise of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919 provoked an increase in support for monarchism; however, efforts by Hungarian monarchists failed to bring back a royal head of state, and the monarchists settled for a regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, to represent the monarchy until it could be restored. Horthy was regent from 1920 to 1944. In similar wise the 1938 autocratic state of Franco in Spain claimed to have reconstituted the Spanish monarchy in absentia (and in this case ultimately yielded to a restoration, in the person of King Juan Carlos). In 1920s Germany a number of monarchists gathered around the German National People's Party which demanded the return of the Hohenzollern monarchy and an end to the Weimar Republic; the party retained a large base of support until the rise of Nazism in the 1930s.

With the arrival of socialism in Eastern Europe by the end of 1947, the remaining Eastern European monarchies, namely the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Albania, the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, were all abolished and replaced by socialist republics.

The aftermath of World War II also saw the return of monarchist and republican rivalry in Italy, where a referendum was held on whether the state should remain a monarchy or become a republic. The republican side won the vote by a narrow margin, and the modern Republic of Italy was created.

Monarchism as a political force internationally has substantially diminished since the end of the Second World War, though it had an important role in the 1979 Iranian Revolution and also played a role in the modern political affairs of Nepal. Nepal was one of the last states to have had an absolute monarch, which continued until King Gyanendra was peacefully deposed in May 2008 and the country became a federal republic. One of the world's oldest monarchies was abolished in Ethiopia in 1974 with the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie.

Current monarchies

The majority of current monarchies are constitutional monarchies. In most of these, the monarch wields only symbolic power, although in some, the monarch does play a role in political affairs. In Thailand, for instance, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who reigned from 1946 to 2016, played a critical role in the nation's political agenda and in various military coups. Similarly, in Morocco, King Mohammed VI wields significant, but not absolute power.

Liechtenstein is a democratic principality whose citizens have voluntarily given more power to their monarch in recent years.

There remain a handful of countries in which the monarch is the true ruler. The majority of these countries are oil-producing Arab Islamic monarchies like Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. Other strong monarchies include Brunei and Eswatini.

Justifications for monarchism

Absolute monarchy stands as an opposition to anarchism and, additionally from the Age of Enlightenment, liberalism, and communism.

Otto von Habsburg advocated a form of constitutional monarchy based on the primacy of the supreme judicial function, with hereditary succession, mediation by a tribunal is warranted if suitability is problematic. [3] [4]

Nonpartisan head of state

A monarchy has been justified on the grounds that it provides for a nonpartisan head of state, separate from the head of government, and thus ensures that the highest representative of the country, at home and internationally, does not represent a particular political party, but all people. [5]

Safeguard for liberty

The International Monarchist League, founded in 1943, has always sought to promote monarchy on the grounds that it strengthens popular liberty, both in a democracy and in a dictatorship, because by definition the monarch is not beholden to politicians.

British-American libertarian writer Matthew Feeney, on the occasion of the birth of Prince George of Cambridge, the likely future king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Commonwealth Realms, in 2013, wrote: [6]

Connection to the past

Since the middle of the 19th century, some monarchists have stopped defending monarchy on the basis of abstract, universal principles applicable to all nations or even on the grounds that a monarchy would be the best or most practical government for the nation in question but prefer invoking local symbolic grounds that they would be a particular nation's link to the past.

Hence, post-19th century debates on whether to preserve a monarchy or to adopt a republican form of government have often been debates over national identity, with the monarch generally serving as a symbol for other issues.

For example, in countries like Belgium and the Netherlands anti-monarchist talk is often centered on the perceived symbolism of a monarch contrasting with those nation's political culture of egalitarianism. In Belgium, another factor are the anti-Belgian sentiments of the separatist Flemish movement. The latter see the monarchy as a predominantly francophone institution of which the historical roots lie in the French-speaking elite that ruled Belgium until circa 1950s.

In Canada and Australia, by contrast, debates over monarchy represent or represented debates whose driving force concerned each nation's relationship with the United Kingdom and the cultural heritage that this relationship represents.

Human desire for hierarchy

In a 1943 essay in The Spectator , "Equality", British author C.S. Lewis criticized egalitarianism, and its corresponding call for the abolition of monarchy, as contrary to human nature, writing, "Where men are forbidden to honour a king they honour millionaires, athletes, or film-stars instead: even famous prostitutes or gangsters. For spiritual nature, like bodily nature, will be served; deny it food and it will gobble poison." [7]

Support for the restoration of monarchy

This is a list of countries showing support for the restoration of a previously abolished monarchy.

RankCountrySupporters% of country
population
Source
1Flag of Romania.svg Romania 4,123,98037% [8]
2Flag of Albania.svg Albania 1,389,27533% [9]
3Flag of Russia.svg Russia 31,781,95928% [10]
4Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 355,12325% [11]
5Flag of Austria.svg Austria 1,754,60020% [12]
6Flag of Germany.svg Germany 15,646,31019% [13]
7Flag of France.svg France 11,053,89017% [14]
8Flag of Italy.svg Italy 12,000,00015% [15]
9Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal 1,546,43515% [16]
10Flag of Greece.svg Greece 1,342,04614% [17]
11Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 31,236,95713% [18]
12Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic 1,379,42313% [19]
13Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico 6,500,0005% [20]

Monarchists

American

Australian

Austrian

Brazilian

Belgian

British

Canadian

Croatian

Czech

Fiji

French

Georgian

German

Greek

Hungarian

Japan

Polish

Portuguese

Russian

Serbian/Yugoslavian

See also

Related Research Articles

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait and Bahrain, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Japan and Sweden where the monarch retains no formal authorities.

Governor General of Canada representative of the monarch of Canada

The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The person of the sovereign is shared equally both with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada, but resides predominantly in her oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom. The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has also been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone officeholders—although many recent governors general have been bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time.

Monarchy of Canada Monarchy in Canada

The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the executive (Queen-in-Council), legislative (Queen-in-Parliament), and judicial (Queen-on-the-Bench) branches within both federal and provincial jurisdictions. The sovereign is the personification of the Canadian state and is Queen of Canada as a matter of constitutional law. The current Canadian monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth's eldest son, Prince Charles, is heir apparent.

Republicanism in the United Kingdom is the political movement that seeks to replace the United Kingdom's monarchy with a republic. For those who want a non-hereditary head of state, the method by which one should be chosen is not agreed upon, with some favouring an elected president, some an appointed head of state with little power. Others support something akin to the Swiss model, with a directorate functioning as a collective head of state.

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions. Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance 'The Crown' refers to the functions of government and the civil service.

The Government of Canada, officially Her Majesty's Government, is the corporation responsible for the federal administration of Canada. In Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council. In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. The Crown is thus the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Canadian government. Further elements of governance are outlined in the rest of the Canadian Constitution, which includes written statutes, court rulings, and unwritten conventions developed over centuries.

Republicanism in Canada

Canadian republicanism is a movement among Canadians for the replacement of the Canadian system of federal constitutional monarchy with a republican form of government. These beliefs are expressed either individually—usually in academic circles—or through the country's one republican lobby group. Republicans have no preferred model of republic, as individuals are driven by various factors, such as a perceived practicality of popular power being placed in the hands of an elected president or a different manifestation of the modern nation. As with its political counterpart, strong republicanism is not a prevalent element of contemporary Canadian society. The movement's roots precede Canadian Confederation and it has emerged from time to time in Canadian politics, but has not been a dominant force since the Rebellions of 1837, of which Canadian republicans consider their efforts to be a continuation.

125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal

The 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal is a commemorative medal struck by the Royal Canadian Mint to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the Confederation of Canada and was awarded to Canadians who were deemed to have made a significant contribution to their fellow citizens, to their community, or to Canada. Nominations were submitted to lieutenant governors and territorial commissioners, senators, members of parliament, provincial governments, the Public Service Commission of Canada, the Canadian Forces, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and various federal government departments, as well as organizations throughout the country, and some 42,000 medals were awarded.

The Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan also called the Saskatchewan Centennial Medal is a commemorative medal struck to celebrate the first 100 years since Saskatchewan's entrance into Canadian Confederation.

Monarchism in Canada

Canadian monarchism is a movement among Canadian monarchists for raising awareness of Canada's constitutional monarchy among the Canadian public, and advocating for its retention, countering republican and anti-monarchical reform as being generally revisionist, idealistic, and ultimately impracticable. Generally, Canadian monarchism runs counter to anti-monarchist republicanism, but not necessarily to the classical form of republicanism itself, as most monarchists in Canada support the constitutional variety of monarchy, sometimes referred to as a crowned republic. These beliefs can be expressed either individually—generally in academic circles—or through what are known as loyal societies, which include monarchist leagues, legions, historical groups, ethnic organizations, and sometimes police and scout bodies. Though there may be overlap, this concept should not be confused with royalism, the support of a particular monarch or dynasty; Canadian monarchists may appreciate the monarchy without thinking highly of the monarch. There have also been, from time to time, suggestions in favour of a uniquely Canadian monarch, either one headed by a descendant of the present monarch and resident in Canada or one based on a First Nations royal house.

History of monarchy in Canada

The history of monarchy in Canada stretches from pre-colonial times through to the present day. Canada's monarchical status began with the establishment of the French colony of New France in the name of King Francis I in 1534; although a previous claim was made by England in the name of King Henry VII in 1497 when John Cabot made landfall in what is thought to be modern day Newfoundland or Nova Scotia. Through both these lineages, the present Canadian monarchy can trace itself back to the Anglo-Saxon period and ultimately to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings. Kings and queens reigning over Canada have included the monarchs of France, those of the United Kingdom, and those of Canada. Canadian historian Father Jacques Monet said of Canada's Crown: "[it is] one of an approximate half-dozen that have survived through uninterrupted inheritance from beginnings that are older than our Canadian institution itself."

Debate between monarchists and republicans in Canada has been taking place since before the country's confederation in 1867, though it has rarely been of significance since the rebellions of 1837. Open support for republicanism only came from the Patriotes in the early 19th century, the Red River Métis in 1869, and minor actions by the Fenians throughout the 19th century. However, paralleling the changes in constitutional law that saw the creation of a distinct Canadian monarchy, the emergence in the 1960s of Quebec nationalism, and the evolution of Canadian nationalism, the cultural role and relevance of the monarchy altered and was sometimes questioned in certain circles, while continuing to receive support in others.

Monarchy in Quebec

By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, Canada's monarchy operates in Quebec as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy and constitution. As such, the Crown within Quebec's jurisdiction is referred to as the Crown in Right of Quebec, His/Her Majesty in Right of Quebec, or the Queen in Right of Quebec. The Constitution Act, 1867, however, leaves many royal duties in Quebec specifically assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy.

Monarchy in Alberta

By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, Canada's monarchy operates in Alberta as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. As such, the Crown within Alberta's jurisdiction is referred to as the Crown in Right of Alberta, Her Majesty in Right of Alberta, or The Queen in Right of Alberta. The Constitution Act, 1867, however, leaves many royal duties in Alberta specifically assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Alberta, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy.

Monarchy in the Canadian provinces

The monarchy of Canada forms the core of each Canadian provincial jurisdiction's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy, being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government in each province. The monarchy has been headed since February 6, 1952 by Queen Elizabeth II who as sovereign is shared equally with both the Commonwealth realms and the Canadian federal entity. She, her consort, and other members of the Canadian Royal Family undertake various public and private functions across the country. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role.

Monarchies in the Americas

There are 13 monarchies in the Americas. Each is a constitutional monarchy, where in the sovereign inherits his or her office, usually keeping it until death or abdication, and is bound by laws and customs in the exercise of their powers. Ten of these monarchies are independent states, and equally share Queen Elizabeth II, who resides primarily in the United Kingdom, as their respective sovereign, making them part of a global grouping known as the Commonwealth realms, while the remaining three are dependencies of European monarchies. As such, none of the monarchies in the Americas have a permanently-residing monarch. In the case of South America, it has no monarchies at all, the only continent in the world not to have any.

1939 royal tour of Canada

The 1939 royal tour of Canada by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth was undertaken in the build-up to World War II as a way to emphasise the independence of the Dominion from Britain. The visit lasted from May 17 to June 15, covering every Canadian province, the Dominion of Newfoundland, and a few days in the United States. There had been previous royal tours of Canada, but this was unprecedented in its scope. The tour was an enormous event, attracting huge crowds at each new city.

References

  1. Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989 edition, p. 924.
  2. "Sumerian King List" (PDF). Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  3. https://web.archive.org/web/20010210220645/http://home1.gte.net/eskandar/ottohabsburg.html
  4. Otto von Habsburg "Monarchy or Republic?". ("Excerpted from The Conservative Tradition in European Thought, Copyright 1970 by Educational Resources Corporation.")
  5. Bogdanor, Vernon (6 December 2000). "The Guardian has got it wrong". The Guardian.
  6. Feeney, Matthew (July 25, 2013). "The Benefits of Monarchy". Reason magazine.
  7. C.S. Lewis (26 August 1943). "Equality". The Spectator.
  8. Marica, Irina. "How popular is the monarchy restoration idea in Romania?". www.romania-insider.com. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  9. "Albanien, 29. Juni 1997 : Staatsform -- [in German]". www.sudd.ch (in German). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  10. Sinelschikova, Yekaterina (14 April 2017). "Will Russia ever revert back to a monarchy?". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  11. Sinelschikova, Yekaterina (30 June 2018). "Queen of Hawaii demands independence from 'US occupiers". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  12. "A century after Austrian-Hungarian Empire's fall, some nostalgic for monarchy". EFE. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  13. "Restored monarchy gains young Germans' support". The Local. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  14. (PDF). BVA http://www.bva.fr/data/sondage/sondage_fiche/1897/fichier_bva_pour_lalliance_royale_-_les_francais_et_la_monarchiefe87e.pdf . Retrieved 3 December 2018.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. "Emanule Filiberto: "Politici? Sono dei parac***"". Occhio, il Savoia vuole fare il re" (in Italian). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  16. Almeida, Henrique. "Portugal royal says monarchy still tops republic". Reuters. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  17. "Το ΒΗΜΑ onLine - ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΑ" (in Greek). 25 April 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  18. (PDF) http://www.paranapesquisas.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/BROnline_Jun17-Monarquia.pdf . Retrieved 3 December 2018.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. "Průzkum ke 100 rokům od vzniku Československa: kdyby se monarchie nerozpadla, měli bychom se lépe nebo stejně". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  20. "Partido Imperialista busca convertirse en partido político". SDPnoticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  21. Coulombe, Charles A. (2016). Star-Spangled Crown: A Simple Guide to the American Monarchy. Tumblar House. ISBN   1-9443-3905-1.
  22. "Sounds of Summer: Dame Joan Sutherland". PM. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2 January 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  23. Pearlman, Johnathan (7 September 2013). "Ten things you didn't know about Tony Abbott". telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 19 Nov 2013.
  24. 1 2 Johnson, Carol; Wanna, John; Lee, Hsu-Ann (2015). Abbott's Gambit: The 2013 Australian Federal Election. ANU Press. p. 281. ISBN   1-9250-2209-9.
  25. Gordon, Brook-Shepherd (1991). The Last Empress: The Life and Times of Zita of Austria-Hungary, 1892-1989. HarperCollins. p. 289. ISBN   0-0021-5861-2.
  26. Rosenfeld, Sidney (2001). Understanding Joseph Roth. University of South Carolina Press. p. 55. ISBN   1-5700-3398-6.
  27. von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik (2001). "Monarchy and War". Journal of Libertarian Studies. 15 (1): 1–41. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  28. "Ernst Fuchs posthum als Monarchist geoutet". Kurier.at (in German). Funke Mediengruppe. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 "Danilo Gentili recebe o Príncipe Dom Bertrand no The Noite". SBT. 2017-09-22. Retrieved 2017-11-18.
  30. Letters, no. 52, to Christopher Tolkien, 29 November 1943
  31. "Joan Collins so happy with husband". Film-News.co.uk. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  32. "Sir Alan? Oh no, it'd be like wearing a suit every day". The Independent. 31 May 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  33. Expressed support for the British monarchy in the TV series Royalty A-Z (2002). Narrator of The Royal Story.
  34. Moore, J.; Sonsino, S. (2003). Leadership Unplugged. Springer. p. 71. ISBN   0-2305-9643-6.
  35. "The monarchy remains the most powerful symbol of one unified nation." (2002).
  36. "Long live the Queen?" . Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  37. "A lot of people of my generation have decided in part because of how important a unifier for the country the Queen has been that actually [the monarchy] is a better system - rationally." (2002)
  38. "The monarchy stands for everything that I love and I feel proud to be British. Yes, I am a royalist." (2007)
  39. "Happy Birthday, America. One Small Suggestion ..." Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  40. "Patrons | British Monarchist Society and Foundation". bmsf.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  41. "Tracey Emin: I'm abused by other artists for voting Tory" . Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  42. "I used to be anti monarchy – but now I’m a royalist." (2017)
  43. Referred to herself as a Monarchist on the debate show The Pledge (2016).
  44. Jones, Dylan (2010). Cameron on Cameron: Conversations with Dylan Jones. Fourth Estate. ISBN   978-0-00-728537-2.
  45. Gray, Charlotte (2016). The Promise of Canada: 150 Years--People and Ideas That Have Shaped Our Country. Simon and Schuster. ISBN   1-4767-8469-8. Back home, Cartier impressed Upper Canadians with his unabashed anglophilia: he was a passionate monarchist who named his third daughter Reine-Victoria and believed that the Conquest in 1763 had saved Lower Canada from the misery and shame of the French Revolution.
  46. 1 2 3 4 Brouillet, Eugénie; Gagnon, Alain-G.; Laforest, Guy (2018). The Quebec Conference of 1864: Understanding the Emergence of the Canadian Federation. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 121. ISBN   0-7735-5605-2.
  47. Little, John (2013). Patrician Liberal: The Public and Private Life of Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, 1829-1908. University of Toronto Press. ISBN   1-4426-6699-4. As a Canadian nationalist and constitutional monarchist, he firmly believed that the lieutenant governor was considerably more than a figurehead...
  48. Udall, Sharyn Roshlfsen (2001). Carr, O'Keeffe, Kahlo: Places of Their Own. Yale University Press. p. 30. ISBN   0-3000-9186-9.
  49. Chodos, Robert; Murphy, Rae; Hamovitch, Eric (1991). The Unmaking of Canada: The Hidden Theme in Canadian History Since 1945. James Lorimer Company. p. 20. ISBN   1-5502-8337-5.
  50. Silcox, David P.; Milne, David (1996). Painting Place: The Life and Work of David B. Milne, Volume 1. University of Toronto Press. p. 206. ISBN   0-8020-4095-0.
  51. 1 2 Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (2002). Fifty Years the Queen: A Tribute to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on Her Golden Jubilee. Dundurn. p. 12. ISBN   1-5500-2360-8.
  52. Hubbard, R. H. (1977). Rideau Hall: An Illustrated History of the Government House, Ottawa, from Victorian Times to the Present Day. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 221. ISBN   0-7735-9452-3.
  53. Coady, Mary Frances (2011). Georges and Pauline Vanier: Portrait of a Couple. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 208. ISBN   0-7735-3883-6.
  54. Blake, Jason (2010). Canadian Hockey Literature: A Thematic Study. University of Toronto Press. p. 19. ISBN   0-8020-9713-8.
  55. Buckner, Philip (2007). Canada and the End of Empire. UBC Press. p. 67–68. ISBN   0-7748-5066-3.
  56. Forsey, Helen (2012). Eugene Forsey, Canada's Maverick Sage: Canada's Maverick Sage. Dundurn. p. 434. ISBN   1-4597-0243-3.
  57. Tombs, George (2010). Robber Baron: Lord Black of Crossharbour. ECW Press. p. 67. ISBN   1-5549-0312-2.
  58. Ross, Val (2009). Robertson Davies: A Portrait in Mosaic. McClelland & Stewart. p. 96. ISBN   1-5519-9211-6.
  59. Harrison, Trevor W.; Friesen, John W. (2015). Canadian Society in the Twenty-First Century, 3e: An Historical Sociological Approach. Canadian Scholars' Press. p. 208. ISBN   1-5513-0735-9.
  60. Hutchison, Bruce (1985). The unfinished country: to Canada with love and some misgivings. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 40. ISBN   0-8889-4481-0.
  61. "Nancy Bell, 65 independent voice in Senate", Toronto Star, December 1, 1989
  62. 1 2 Jackson, D. Michael (2013). The Crown and Canadian Federalism. Dundurn. ISBN   1-4597-0990-X. [s]ome people think the NDP may want to get rid of the monarchy but I can assure you that's absolutely not the case. My Dad was a big time monarchist and so am I.
  63. Clarkson, Michael (2010). The Secret Life of Glenn Gould: A Genius in Love. ECW Press. ISBN   1-5549-0681-4. Glenn was a right winger and a monarchist, said pianist Anton Kuerti, who was friends with Gould and taught Gaylord.
  64. Chrétien, Jean (2018). My Stories, My Times. Random House of Canada. ISBN   0-7352-7735-4. Seeing me, she exclaimed, "You again!" I instantly replied, "I am the monarchist from Quebec."
  65. O'Connor, Joe (2 March 2012). "Don Cherry happy Canada finally coming around to his way of thinking". National Post. Postmedia Network Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  66. Atwood, Margaret [@MargaretAtwood] (20 May 2013). "Actually I'm a monarchist. Read again. Nobody's suggesting Queen Vic must go. But nice if (real) Canada honoured its treaties" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  67. Wise, Leonard (2017). Charles Pachter: Canada's Artist. Dundurn. ISBN   1-4597-3876-4. Paradox defines him... He's a monarchist who loves royalty, yet he delights in satirizing them.
  68. 1 2 Johnson, David (2018). Battle Royal: Monarchists vs. Republicans and the Crown of Canada. Dundurn. p. 160. ISBN   1-4597-4014-9.
  69. Shore, Cris; Williams, David V. (2019). The Shapeshifting Crown: Locating the State in Postcolonial New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the UK. Cambridge University Press. p. 156. ISBN   1-1084-9646-6.
  70. Smith, Jordan Michael (March 2012). "Reinventing Canada: Stephen Harper's Conservative Revolution". World Affairs Journal. World Affairs Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  71. Cosh, Colby (23 July 2013). "God save the constitutional Monarchy: Colby Cosh on why he will take his chances with the Royal Baby as head of state". Maclean's. Rogers Digital Media. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  72. "Meet Ray Novak, the PM's new chief of staff". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 May 2013.
  73. de Laubier, Charles (29 July 2017). "Quand de Gaulle faisait discrètement allégeance à la noblesse français". L'Express (in French). Groupe L'Express. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  74. "Charles Maurras on the French Revolution · Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  75. Nagy, Zsuzsa L. (1983). The liberal opposition in Hungary, 1919-1945. Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 51. ISBN   9-6305-2998-X.
  76. Balogh, Margit (2013). "Two Visits — Two Eras: The Canadian Tours of Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty, 1947 and 1973". Hungarian Studies Review. 40 (2): 125.
  77. Bauer, Yehuda (1989). Remembering for the Future: Jews and Christians during and after the Holocaust. 1. Pergamon Press. p. 207. ISBN   0-0803-6754-2.
  78. Nakata, Hiroko (8 May 2007). "Sakurai weighs in on patriotism". The Japan Times. News2u Holdings, Inc. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  79. Clurman, Harold (1998). "The Life and Death of Yukio Mishima". The New York Times. The New York Times Company.
  80. "Ćwiakowski Aleksy 1895-1953". Parlamentarzyści (in Polish). Sejm. 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  81. Adekoya, Remi; Smith, Helena; Davies, Lizzy; Penketh, Anne; Oltermann, Philip (26 May 2014). "Meet the new faces ready to sweep into the European parliament". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  82. Bennett, Asa; Simons, Ned (20 October 2014). "Ukip's New EU Ally Joked About Wife Beating And Defended Hitler". The Huffington Post UK. Oath Inc.
  83. Powers, Williams F. (13 December 1994). "American Success Tory". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  84. "Uneasy riders". The Economist. The Economist Group. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  85. Wheeler, Douglas L. (1998). Republican Portugal: A Political History, 1910-1926. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 39. ISBN   0-2990-7454-4.
  86. Brooker, Peter; Bru, Sascha; Thacker, Andrew (2013). The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines. Oxford University Press. p. 427. ISBN   0-1996-5958-3.
  87. Dix, Steffan (2017). Portuguese Modernisms: Multiple Perspectives in Literature and the Visual Arts. Routledge. p. 162. ISBN   1-3515-5360-7.
  88. Williams, Frederick G. (2006). Poets of Portugal: a bilingual selection of poems from the thirteenth through twentieth centuries. Luso-Brazilian Books. p. 59. ISBN   0-8505-1703-6.
  89. Raby, D. L. (1988). Fascism and Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals and Military Dissidents in the Opposition to Salazar, 1941-1974. Machester University Press. p. 203. ISBN   0-7190-2797-7.
  90. Morgan, Roger; Claire, Tame (2016). Parliaments and Parties: The European Parliament in the Political Life of Europe. Springer. p. 307. ISBN   1-3492-4387-6.
  91. 1 2 3 Yasmann, Victor (2 October 2006). "Russia: Monarchist Nostalgia Remains Powerful". Radio Free Europe. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  92. "Russian Monarchist Withdraws Presidential Bid After Founding 'Romanov Empire' in Africa". The Moscow Times. MoscowTimes LLC. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  93. Carroll, Oliver (3 November 2017). "Inside Russia's secretive cult of Tsar worship: How royalism is thriving 100 years after murder of Nicholas II". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  94. Balmforth, Tom (6 March 2018). "Claim That Nicholas II Is Weeping Holy Tears In Crimea Prompts Laughter". Radio Free Europe. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  95. Sokirianskaia, Ekaterina (22 March 2017). "Vladimir Putin has one reliable set of allies: Russia's iron ladies". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  96. Haynes, Rebecca; Rady, Martyn (2011). In the Shadow of Hitler: Personalities of the Right in Central and Eastern Europe. I.B.Tauris. p. 296. ISBN   1-8451-1697-6.
  97. Case Studies on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Volume One: A World Survey. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 1975. p. 91. ISBN   9-0247-1780-9.