Kingdom of Iceland
|Anthem: " Ó Guð vors lands "|
("O, God of Our Land")
|Status||Personal union with Denmark|
|Common languages||Icelandic, Danish|
|Religion|| Church of Iceland |
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
• 1918–1920 (first)
• 1942–1944 (last)
|Historical era||Interwar period / WWII|
|1 December 1918|
|9 April 1940|
|10 May 1940|
|20 May 1944|
|17 June 1944|
• 1944 
|ISO 3166 code||IS|
|Monarchy of Iceland|
|First monarch||Kristján X|
|Last monarch||Kristján X|
|Formation||1 December 1918|
|Abolition||17 June 1944|
|History of Iceland|
The Kingdom of Iceland (Icelandic : Konungsríkið Ísland; Danish : Kongeriget Island) was a sovereign and independent country under a constitutional and hereditary monarchy that was established by the Act of Union with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918.  It lasted until 17 June 1944 when a national referendum established the Republic of Iceland in its place. 
Under a personal union, due to the Act of Union, the monarch was simultaneously monarch of Denmark.  The Parliament of Iceland asked that Denmark represent Iceland internationally, and day-to-day matters were delegated to a Danish plenipotentiary for Icelandic affairs based in Reykjavík, and – after the German invasion of Denmark in 1940 – a regent was appointed. 
Because of the Kalmar Union, Iceland had been under the control of the Crown of Denmark since 1380,  although formally it had been a Norwegian possession until 1814.  In 1874, one thousand years after the first acknowledged settlement, Denmark granted Iceland home rule. The constitution, written the same year, was revised in 1903 and the extent of Iceland's home rule increased in 1904. 
On 1 December 1918, the Act of Union, an agreement with Denmark, recognized Iceland as a fully sovereign state, an independent country in personal union with Denmark through a common monarch. The Kingdom of Iceland established its own flag and coat of arms and asked that Denmark represent its foreign affairs and defence interests on its behalf while retaining full control over its foreign affairs and defence. Iceland opened its first Embassy in 1920. The Act would be reviewed in 1940 and could be revoked three years later if agreement to continue it could not be reached. 
During the first year of the Second World War, Iceland strictly enforced a position of neutrality and took action against both British and German forces that violated it. The German invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940 and subsequent occupation severed communications between Iceland and Denmark.  As a result, on 10 April, the Althing passed two resolutions investing the Icelandic cabinet with the power of head of state and declaring that the Kingdom of Iceland would accept full responsibility for both foreign policy and coastal surveillance. On 10 May 1940, Operation Fork was launched by the United Kingdom when military forces sailed into Reykjavík Harbour and began an invasion of Iceland.  The Government of Iceland issued a protest against what it called a "flagrant violation" of Icelandic neutrality. On the day of the invasion, Prime Minister Hermann Jónasson read a radio announcement instructing Icelanders to treat the British troops as guests. On 15 May 1941, the Althing adopted a law creating the position of regent for Sveinn Björnsson in order to represent the monarchy. 
At its peak, Britain had approximately 25,000 troops stationed in Iceland, all but eliminating unemployment in Reykjavík and other strategically important places. In July 1941, the Althingi adopted the American–Icelandic defence agreement, passing responsibility for Iceland's defence to the United States. 
Following a constitutional referendum in May 1944, Iceland formally became a republic on 17 June 1944. King Christian X sent a message of congratulations to the Icelandic people. 
The recorded history of Iceland began with the settlement by Viking explorers and the people they enslaved from the east, particularly Norway and the British Isles, in the late ninth century. Iceland was still uninhabited long after the rest of Western Europe had been settled. Recorded settlement has conventionally been dated back to 874, although archaeological evidence indicates Gaelic monks from Ireland, known as papar according to sagas, had settled Iceland earlier.
The Alþingi is the supreme national parliament of Iceland. It is one of the oldest surviving parliaments in the world. The Althing was founded in 930 at Þingvellir, situated approximately 45 kilometres (28 mi) east of what later became the country's capital, Reykjavík. Even after Iceland's union with Norway in 1262, the Althing still held its sessions at Þingvellir until 1800, when it was discontinued. It was restored in 1844 by royal decree and moved to Reykjavík. The restored unicameral legislature first came together in 1845 and after 1874 operated in two chambers with an additional third chamber taking on a greater role as the decades passed until 1991 when Althing became once again unicameral. The present parliament building, the Alþingishús, was built in 1881, made of hewn Icelandic stone. The unicameral parliament has 63 members, and is elected every four years based on party-list proportional representation. The current speaker of the Althing is Birgir Ármannsson.
Sveinn Björnsson was the first president of Iceland (1944–1952).
Jón Sigurðsson was the leader of the 19th century Icelandic independence movement.
Björn Jónsson was minister for Iceland from 31 March 1909 to 14 March 1911. He was the father of Sveinn Björnsson, the only regent of Iceland and first president of Iceland. Björn became Minister for Iceland after Hannes Hafstein and his supporters suffered losses in the elections of 1908, where the voters rejected the draft of a new constitution. Björn was forced to resign after forcing the General Director of the National Bank, Tryggvi Gunnarsson, out of that post due to heavy criticism of their supporters. Björn and other opponents of the Draft won a landslide victory in the 1908 elections. He served as speaker of the Althing in 1909.
The Constitution of Iceland is the supreme law of Iceland. It is composed of 80 articles in seven sections, and within it the leadership arrangement of the country is determined and the human rights of its citizens are preserved. The current constitution was first instituted on 17 June 1944 when Iceland became a republic; since then, it has been amended seven times.
Icelandic National Day is an annual holiday in Iceland which commemorates the foundation of The Republic of Iceland on 17 June 1944. This date also marks the end of Iceland's centuries old ties with Denmark. The date was chosen to coincide with the birthday of Jón Sigurðsson, a major figure of Icelandic culture and the leader of the 19th century Icelandic independence movement.
The anti-NATO riot in Iceland of 30 March 1949 was prompted by the decision of the Alþingi, the Icelandic parliament, to join the newly formed NATO, thereby involving Iceland directly in the Cold War, opposing the Soviet Union and re-militarizing the country.
The invasion of Iceland by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines occurred on 10 May 1940, during World War II. The invasion took place because the British government feared that Iceland would be used by the Germans, who had recently overrun Denmark, which was in personal union with Iceland and which had previously been largely responsible for Iceland's foreign policy. The Government of Iceland issued a protest, charging that its neutrality had been "flagrantly violated" and "its independence infringed".
This article is about the history of Icelandic nationality.
A constitutional referendum was held in Iceland between 20 and 23 May 1944. The 1 December 1918 Danish–Icelandic Act of Union declared Iceland to be a sovereign state separate from Denmark, but maintained the two countries in a personal union, with the King of Denmark also being the King of Iceland. In the two-part referendum, voters were asked whether the Union with Denmark should be abolished, and whether to adopt a new republican constitution. Both measures were approved, each with more than 98% in favour. Voter turnout was 98.4% overall, and 100% in two constituencies, Seyðisfirði and Vestur-Skaftafjellssýsla.
The Allied occupation of Iceland during World War II began with a British invasion intent on occupying and denying Iceland to Germany. The military operation, codenamed Operation Fork, was conducted by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. In time, some of the British garrison was replaced by Canadian and later American forces, despite the fact that the United States was not yet in the war.
At the beginning of World War II, Iceland was a sovereign kingdom in personal union with Denmark, with King Christian X as head of state. Iceland officially remained neutral throughout World War II. However, the British invaded Iceland on 10 May 1940. On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States, which was still a neutral country until five months later. On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic, which remains to this day.
Icelandic–British relations are foreign relations between Iceland and the United Kingdom.
Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir is an Icelandic politician, who served as prime minister of Iceland from 2009 to 2013. She became active in the trade union movement, serving as an officer.
Denmark–Iceland relations are the foreign relations between Denmark and Iceland. Iceland was a Norwegian dependency since the Middle Ages and thus became part of the Kalmar Union and Denmark–Norway, both entities dominated by Denmark. After the dissolution of Denmark–Norway, Iceland was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark from 1814 to 1918 and a separate kingdom in a personal union with Denmark until 1944, when Iceland declared independence.
The Icelandic Independence movement was the collective effort made by Icelanders to achieve self-determination and independence from the Kingdom of Denmark throughout the 19th and early 20th century.
Throughout the Cold War, the nation of Iceland was a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and allied with the United States, hosting a US military presence in Keflavík Air Base from 1951 to 2006.
The Danish–Icelandic Act of Union, an agreement signed by Iceland and Denmark on 1 December 1918, recognized Iceland as a fully independent and sovereign state – the Kingdom of Iceland – freely associated to Denmark in a personal union with the Danish king. Iceland established its own flag, declared its neutrality and asked Denmark to represent on its behalf foreign affairs and defence interests, while maintaining full control of them. Iceland opened its first embassy in 1920. The Act would be up for revision in 1940 and could be revoked three years later if agreement was not reached.