|King of Tonga|
| Tupou VI |
since 18 March 2012
|Heir apparent||Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala|
|First monarch||George Tupou I|
|Formation||4 December 1845|
|Residence||Royal Palace, Nukuʻalofa|
This is a list of monarchs of Tonga since 1845, after the Constitution of Tonga established the role of the monarch. The first monarch of Tonga was George Tupou I.
Three days before his coronation on 1 August 2008, then-King George Tupou V announced that he would relinquish most of his powers and be guided by the Prime Minister of Tonga's recommendations on most matters.
Annual budget allocation to monarchy is T$ 4,894,900 (c. 2,116,799 USD).
|Name||Lifespan||Reign start||Reign end||Notes||Family||Image|
|George Tupou I||95)4 December 1797 – 18 February 1893 (aged||4 December 1845||18 February 1893||Son of Tupoutoʻa, 17th Tuʻi Kanokupolu||Tupou|
|George Tupou II||43)18 June 1874 – 5 April 1918 (aged||18 February 1893||5 April 1918||Double Great-grandson of George Tupou I||Tupou|
|Sālote Tupou III||65)13 March 1900 – 16 December 1965 (aged||5 April 1918||16 December 1965||Daughter of George Tupou II||Tupou|
|Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV||88)4 July 1918 – 10 September 2006 (aged||16 December 1965||10 September 2006||Son of Sālote Tupou III||Tupou|
|George Tupou V||63)4 May 1948 – 18 March 2012 (aged||11 September 2006||18 March 2012||Son of Tāufaʻahau Tupou IV||Tupou|
|Tupou VI||12 July 1959||18 March 2012||Incumbent||Son of Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV||Tupou|
The history of Tonga is recorded since the century after 900 BC, when seafarers associated with the Lapita diaspora first settled the islands which now make up the Kingdom of Tonga. Along with Fiji and Samoa, the area served as a gateway into the rest of the Pacific region known as Polynesia. Ancient Tongan mythologies recorded by early European explorers report the islands of 'Ata and Tongatapu as the first islands having been hauled to the surface from the deep ocean by Maui.
Politics of Tonga takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the King is the Head of State and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Tonga's Prime Minister is currently appointed by the King from among the members of Parliament after having won the support of a majority of its members. Executive power is vested in the Cabinet of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the King in Parliament, and judicial power is vested in the supreme court.
Nukuʻalofa is the capital of Tonga. It is located on the north coast of the island of Tongatapu, in the country's southernmost island group.
Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV was the King of Tonga, from the death of his mother, Queen Sālote Tupou III, in 1965 until his own death in 2006.
George Tupou II was the King of Tonga from 18 February 1893 until his death. He was officially crowned at Nukuʻalofa, on 17 March 1893. He was also the 20th Tuʻi Kanokupolu.
George Tupou I, originally known as Tāufaʻāhau I, was the first king of modern Tonga. He adopted the name Siaosi, the Tongan equivalent of George, after King George III of the United Kingdom, when he was baptized in 1831. His nickname was Lopa-ukamea, meaning iron cable.
Tuʻi Kanokupolu (chiefs) are a junior rank of the Haʻa Tuʻi in Tonga.
George Tupou V was the King of Tonga from the death of his father Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV in 2006 until his own death six years later.
The Tuʻi Tonga is a line of Tongan kings, which originated in the tenth century with the mythical ʻAhoʻeitu, and withdrew from political power in the fifteenth century by yielding to the Tuʻi Haʻatakalaua. The title ended with the death of the last Tu'i Tonga, Sanualio Fatafehi Laufilitonga, in 1865, who bequeathed the ancient title and its mana to his nephew, Fatafehi Tu'i Pelehake, who was the Tu'i Faleua, or Lord of the Second House. Tu'i Pelehake surrendered the title and its privileges to his father-in-law, King George Tupou I, who united its power and prestige with that of the Tu'i Kanokupolu, Tu'i Vava'u, and Tu'i Ha'apai titles to establish the modern-day institution of the Tongan Crown. Though the title is no longer conferred, the ancient line remains unbroken and is represented by the noble title of Kalaniuvalu.
The coat of arms or national seal of Tonga was designed in 1875 with the creation of the constitution.
The prime minister of Tonga is the country's head of government. Tonga is a monarchy with the king, currently Tupou VI, former prime minister, as head of state. The current prime minister is Pōhiva Tuʻiʻonetoa, in office since 8 October 2019 following the death of ʻAkilisi Pōhiva on 12 September 2019.
Fīnau ʻUlukālala was a dynasty of six important hereditary chiefs from Vavaʻu, currently in the kingdom of Tonga. The dynasty began sometime in the 18th century and died out in 1960. The chief's original estate was Tuʻanuku, and his nickname and that of the village is Tavakefaiʻana.
Viliami Tungī Mailefihi was a Tongan high chieftain and Prince Consort of Queen Sālote Tupou III. He served as Prime Minister of Tonga from 1923 until his death in 1941.
The Tuʻipelehake is the second highest ranking chiefly title in Tonga. In the absence of the ancient Tuʻi Faleua title, the Tuʻipelehake title is second in rank after the King's title, Tu'i Kanokupolu. There have been several holders of the title mainly from the ruling royal family, from princes to prime ministers. It is Tongan custom to refer to the holder by his customary title, only adding his given name if confusion may arise. For example, Tuʻi Pelehake (ʻUluvalu).
Roko Taliai Tupou (17??-1875) was a Fijian nobleman. He is considered to be the progenitor of the noble household Vatuwaqa in the chiefly Vuanirewa clan and as such, was the first member of this noble household to hold the title Tui Nayau. His reign marked the growth of Christianity in Lau and the slow expansion of Tongan ambitions in Fiji, led by Enele Ma'afu. As this period marked increasing contact with Europeans, records from this point forward in regard to the history of Lau are well documented.
The Battle of Velata was fought at Tau'akipulu, Haʻapai, Tonga in September 1826, between Laufilitonga, monarch of the Tuʻi Tonga dynasty, and Taufa'ahau, heir apparent to the Tu'i Kanokupolu dynasty and then monarch of Tonga.
Fatafehi Laufilitonga was the 39th and last Tuʻi Tonga, a dynasty of kings in Tonga during the Tuʻi Tonga Empire.
Coronations in Oceania are, or were, held in the following countries:
Tēvita ʻUnga was the first Crown Prince and Prime Minister of Tonga.
Lavinia Veiongo Fotu was the Queen consort of Tonga from 1899 to 1902, and the first wife of George Tupou II.