|King of Tonga|
| ʻAhoʻeitu Tupou VI |
since 18 March 2012
|Heir apparent||Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala|
|First monarch||George Tupou I|
|Formation||4 December 1845|
|Residence||Royal Palace, Nukuʻalofa|
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politics and government of
This is a list of monarchs of Tonga since 1845, after the constitutional role of the monarch was established. Tonga is the only sovereign indigenous monarchy in Oceania. The first monarch was George Tupou I.
Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian country and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. The total surface area is about 750 square kilometres (290 sq mi) scattered over 700,000 square kilometres (270,000 sq mi) of the southern Pacific Ocean. The sovereign state has a population of 100,651 people, of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu.
The Constitution of Tonga is supreme law under which the Government of Tonga operates. It was enacted by King George Tupou I on 4 November 1875. It stipulates the makeup of the Tongan Government and the balance between its executive, legislature, and judiciary. The anniversary of its passage is celebrated annually as Tonga's Constitution Day.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.
Three days before his coronation on 1 August 2008, then-King George Tupou V announced that he would relinquish most of his powers and be guided by his Prime Minister's recommendations on most matters.
George Tupou V was the King of Tonga from the death of his father Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV in 2006 until his own death six years later.
The prime minister of Tonga is the country's head of government. Tonga is a monarchy with the king, currently Tupou VI, as head of state.. The current prime minister is ʻAkilisi Pōhiva, in office since 30 December 2014.
The Tuʻi Tonga is a line of Tongan kings, which originated in the 10th century with the mythical ʻAhoʻeitu; withdrew from political power in the 15th century by yielding to the Tuʻi Haʻatakalaua; and died out with Laufilitonga in 1865. Today its descendants still live forth in the chiefly line of Kalaniuvalu.
The Tuʻi Haʻatakalaua is a dynasty of Tongan kings which originated in the 14th century and eclipsed the Tui Tonga taking over the power from the Tuʻi Tonga origin line. It merged power in the 18th century with the Tuʻi Kanokupolu dynasty, and became existent only esotericly by the end of the 18th century.
Tuʻi Kanokupolu (chiefs) are a junior rank of the Haʻa Tuʻi in Tonga.
|Name||Lifespan||Reign start||Reign end||Notes||Family||Image|
|George Tupou I||95)4 December 1797 – 18 February 1893 (aged||4 December 1845||18 February 1893||Son of Tupoutoʻa, 17th Tuʻi Kanokupolu||Tupou|
|George Tupou II||43)18 June 1874 – 5 April 1918 (aged||18 February 1893||5 April 1918||Double Great-grandson of George Tupou I||Tupou|
|Sālote Tupou III||65)13 March 1900 – 16 December 1965 (aged||5 April 1918||16 December 1965||Daughter of George Tupou II||Tupou|
|Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV||88)4 July 1918 – 10 September 2006 (aged||16 December 1965||10 September 2006||Son of Sālote Tupou III||Tupou|
|George Tupou V||63)4 May 1948 – 18 March 2012 (aged||11 September 2006||18 March 2012||Son of Tāufaʻahau Tupou IV||Tupou|
|ʻAhoʻeitu Tupou VI||12 July 1959||18 March 2012||Incumbent||Son of Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV||Tupou|
Tupou family tree
Politics of Tonga takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the King is the Head of State and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Tonga's Prime Minister is currently appointed by the King from among the members of Parliament after having won the support of a majority of its members. Executive power is vested in the Cabinet of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the King in Parliament, and judicial power is vested in the supreme court.
The Crown of Tonga was minted in 1873 for George Tupou I at the behest of his prime minister, The Reverend Shirley Waldemar Baker. The crown was fashioned by the jewellery firm of Hardy Brothers of Sydney, Australia. The gold crown of Tonga is reputedly the largest and heaviest crown in the world.
The order of succession to the throne of Tonga is laid down in the 1875 constitution. The crown descends according to male-preference cognatic primogeniture. Only legitimate descendants through legitimate line of King George Tupou I's son and grandson, Crown Prince Tēvita ʻUnga and Prince ʻUelingatoni Ngū, are entitled to succeed. A person loses his or her right of succession and deprives his or her descendants of their right of succession if he or she marries without the monarch's permission.
The history of Tonga is recorded since the century after 900 BC, when seafarers associated with the Lapita diaspora first settled the islands which now make up the Kingdom of Tonga. Along with Fiji and Samoa, the area served as a gateway into the rest of the Pacific region known as Polynesia. Ancient Tongan mythologies recorded by early European explorers report the islands of 'Ata and Tongatapu as the first islands having been hauled to the surface from the deep ocean by Maui.
Nukuʻalofa is the capital of Tonga. It is located on the north coast of the island of Tongatapu, in the southernmost island group of Tonga.
Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, son of Queen Sālote Tupou III and her consort Prince Viliami Tungī Mailefihi, was the king of Tonga from the death of his mother in 1965 until his own death in 2006.
Siaosi Tupou II, King of Tonga was the King of Tonga from 18 February 1893 until his death. He was officially crowned at Nukuʻalofa, on 17 March 1893. He was also the 20th Tuʻi Kanokupolu.
George Tupou I, King of Tonga was originally known as Tāufaʻāhau I, or Tupou Maeakafa Ngininginiofolanga in modern spelling. He adopted the name Siaosi, the Tongan version of George, after King George III of the United Kingdom, when he was baptized in 1831. His nickname was Lopa-ukamea, meaning iron cable.
The Tuʻi Tonga Empire, or Tongan Empire, are descriptions sometimes given to Tongan expansionism and projected hegemony in Oceania which began around 950 CE, reaching its peak during the period 1200–1500.
The coat of arms or national seal of Tonga was designed in 1875 with the creation of the constitution.
Fīnau ʻUlukālala was a dynasty of six important hereditary chiefs from Vavaʻu, currently in the kingdom of Tonga. Started somewhere in the 18th century, died out in 1960. His original estate was Tuʻanuku, and his nickname and that of the village is Tavakefaiʻana.
Viliami Tungī Mailefihi was a Tongan high chieftain and Prince Consort of Queen Sālote Tupou III. He served as Prime Minister of Tonga from 1923 until his death in 1941.
The Tuʻipelehake is the second highest ranking chiefly title in Tonga. In the absence of the ancient Tuʻi Faleua title, the Tuʻipelehake title is second in rank after the King's title, Tu'i Kanokupolu. There have been several holders of the title mainly from the ruling royal family, from princes to prime ministers. It is Tongan custom to refer to the holder by his customary title, only adding his given name if confusion may arise. For example, Tuʻi Pelehake (ʻUluvalu).
The Battle of Velata was fought at Tau'akipulu, Haʻapai, Tonga in September 1826, between Laufilitonga, monarch of the Tuʻi Tonga dynasty, and Taufa'ahau, heir apparent to the Tu'i Kanokupolu dynasty and then monarch of Tonga.
Aleamotuʻa was the 18th Tu'i Kanokupolu of Tonga, the third lineage of Tongan Kings with the political and military power who ruled in support of the Tu'i Tonga.
Fatafehi Laufilitonga was the 39th and last Tuʻi Tonga, a dynasty of kings in Tonga during the Tuʻi Tonga Empire.
Coronations in Oceania are, or were, held in the following countries:
Lavinia Veiongo Fotu was the Queen consort of Tonga from 1899 to 1902, and the first wife of George Tupou II.