List of ruling political parties by country

Last updated

This is a list of ruling political parties by country, in the form of a table with a link to an overview of political parties in each country and showing which party system is dominant in each country. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. Individual parties are properly listed in separate articles under each nation.

Contents

The ruling party in a parliamentary system is the political party or coalition of the majority in parliament. It generally forms the central government.

Table

A

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of the Taliban.svg  Afghanistan One-party [lower-alpha 1] Taliban
No parliamentary opposition
None; see 2021 takeover
Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg  Abkhazia Multi-party Independents, Amtsakhara
Aitaira
2022 (parliament)
Flag of Aland.svg  Åland Multi-party Centre, Moderate Coalition, ObS, Sustainable Initiative
Liberals, Social Democrats, Future of Åland, Ålandic Democracy [3]
2019 (legislative)
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Multi-party Socialist Party of Albania , PSD
PD – Alliance for Change (PD, PR, PDIU, PAA, PLL, LZHK, PBDNJ), PL
2021 (parliament)
Flag of Alderney.svg  Alderney Non-partisan Independents
No parliamentary opposition
2022 (general)
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Multi-party National Liberation Front, RND , Future Front, El-Bina
MSP, LP, FBG, FDJ, EFED, PLJ, Jil Jadid, FAN, El Karama, FNA, FFS
2021 (legislative)
2019 (presidential)
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra Multi-party Democrats for Andorra, Committed Citizens , Action for Andorra
Concord, Social Democratic PartyProgressives, Andorra Forward
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola Dominant-party People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola
UNITA, PRS, FNLA, PHA
2022 (general)
Flag of Anguilla.svg  Anguilla Two-party Anguilla Progressive Movement
Anguilla United Front
2020 (general)
Dominant-party Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party
United Progressive Party, Barbuda People's Movement
2023 (general)
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Multi-party Frente de Todos (PJ, FR, Federal Commitment), SER, MPN
JxC (PRO, UCR), Federal Peronists (CF, VcV, PDC, PS, 3P), FIT-U (PO, PTS), AL-LA
2023 (general)
2021 (legislative)
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Multi-party Civil Contract , United Labour Party
HD (ARF, Reborn Armenia, One Armenia), I Have Honor Alliance (RPA, Homeland)
2021 (parliament)
Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba Multi-party People's Electoral Movement, RAIZ
AVP, Aruban Sovereignty Movement, RED, Accion 21
2021 (general)
Flag of Ascension Island.svg  Ascension Non-partisan Independents
No parliamentary opposition
2022 (general)
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Multi-party Labor Party
Coalition (LP, NP) (opposition), Greens, Centre Alliance, KAP, One Nation, JLN
2022 (federal)
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Multi-party Austrian People's Party, The Greens
Social Democratic Party, Freedom Party, NEOS
2019 (legislative)
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Dominant-party New Azerbaijan Party , VHP, ADMP, VBP, AVP, BQP, Unity Party, MCP
DİP, REAL, BACXP
2024 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)

B

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas Two-party Progressive Liberal Party
Free National Movement
2021 (general)
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain Dominant-party Pro-monarchy independents, Al Rabitah, Gathering of National Unity
Progressive Democratic Tribune
2022 (general)
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh Dominant-party Awami League , Workers Party, JASAD
Jatiya Party (Ershad), Bangladesh Kalyan Party
2024 (general)
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados Two-party Barbados Labour Party
Democratic Labour Party
2022 (general)
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Dominant-party Belaya Rus, Independents, Communist Party, RPTS
LDPB [lower-alpha 2]
2019 (parliament)
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Multi-party PS, MR, Ecolo, CD&V, Open Vld, Groen, Vooruit
N-VA, Vlaams Belang, PTB/PVDA, Les Engagés, DéFI
2019 (general)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Flanders.svg  Flanders Multi-party N-VA, CD&V, Open Vld
Vooruit, Groen, Vlaams Belang, PTB/PVDA
2019 (parliament)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Wallonia.svg  Wallonia Multi-party PS, MR, Ecolo
PTB/PVDA, Les Engagés
2019 (parliament)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of the Brussels-Capital Region.svg  Brussels Multi-party PS, Ecolo, DéFI, Groen, Open Vld, Vooruit
MR, PTB/PVDA, LE, DierAnimal, N-VA, VB, CD&V, Agora
2019 (parliament)
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize Two-party People's United Party
United Democratic Party
2020 (general)
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin Multi-party Progressive Union for Renewal, Republican Bloc
The Democrats
2021 (presidential)
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda Two-party Progressive Labour Party
One Bermuda Alliance
2020 (general)
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan Two-party People's Democratic Party
Bhutan Tendrel Party
2023–24 (legislative)
Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg  Bolivia Multi-party Movement for Socialism
Civic Community (FRI), Creemos (PDC, UCS)
2020 (general)
Flag of Bonaire.svg  Bonaire Multi-party Bonaire People's Movement
Bonaire Democratic Party, Bonaire Patriotic Union
2019 (general)
Multi-party SNSD, HDZ BiH, NiP, SDP BiH, DNS, NS , ZNG, DEMOS, US, BHI KF
SDA, DF-Civic Alliance, SDS, PDP, NES, ZPR
2022 (general)
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Dominant-party Botswana Democratic Party
UDC (opposition), Botswana Patriotic Front, Alliance for Progressives
2019 (general)
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Multi-party FE Brasil (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, PDT, PSOL REDE Fdr. (PSOL, REDE), Avante, Solidariedade
PL, PSDB, NOVO
2022 (general)
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei One-party Independents
No parliamentary opposition
No elections
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Multi-party GERB–SDS, PP–DB
Revival, DPS, BSP for Bulgaria, ITN
2021 (general)
2023 (legislative)
Military junta MPSR (civilian government suspended) 2022 coups d'état
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi Dominant-party National Council for the Defense of Democracy
National Congress for Liberty, Union for National Progress
2020 (general)

C

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia Dominant-party Cambodian People's Party
FUNCINPEC
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon Dominant-party Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
UNDP, SDF, CPNR, Cameroon Democratic Union, FNSC, MDR, USM
2020 (parliament)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Multi-party Liberal Party (minority), New Democratic Party
Conservative Party (main opposition), Bloc Québécois, Green Party
2021 (federal)
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde Multi-party Movement for Democracy
PAICV (president's party), UCID
2021 (presidential)
2021 (parliament)
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands Two-party Independents
People's Progressive Movement
2021 (general)
Multi-party United Hearts Movement
Kwa Na Kwa, URCA, MLPC, MOUNI, RDC and others
2020-21 (general)
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad Military junta National Transitional Council (no parliamentary opposition) 2021 coup d'état
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Multi-party AD (PC, CS, RD, Comunes, AH, FREVS), SD (PS, PPD, PL, PR)
Chile Vamos (RN, UDI, Evópoli), PLR, PSC, PDC, PDG, AxCh, Democrats
2021 (general)
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China (PRC) One-party Chinese Communist Party , minor parties (JS, CAPD, CDL, CNDCA, CPWDP, RCCK, CZGP, TDSL) 2023 (congressional)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong Dominant-party Pro-Beijing camp (DAB, FTU, BPA, NPP, LP, FEW, FLU, Roundtable, PP, KWND, NP, NCF)
Third Side, Pro-democracy camp
2021 (legislative)
2019 (local)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Macau.svg  Macau Dominant-party Pro-Beijing camp (ACUM, UPD, UMG, UPP, ABL)
Pro-democracy camp (NE), Synergy Power
2021 (legislative)
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  China (Taiwan) [lower-alpha 3] Multi-party Democratic Progressive Party
Kuomintang, Taiwan People's Party
2024 (presidential)
2024 (legislative)
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Multi-party PHxC, PLC, AV, Colombia Reborn, ASI, Citizen Force, Commons
CD, CR, LIGA, PVO, MIRA, PCC, PSUN, MSN, CJL
2022 (legislative)
2022 (presidential)
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros Dominant-party Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros
Orange Party
2020 (legislative)
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo Dominant-party Congolese Party of Labour , MAR, RDPS
UPADS, UDH-Yuki, MAR, PRL, Club 2002, DRD, RDPS, APC, MUST, MDC, CPR, URDP, RC, MCDDI
2021 (presidential)
2022 (parliament)
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  DR Congo Multi-party President: UDPS; Parliament: Common Front for Congo
Parliamentary opposition: Lamuka, Heading for Change
2018 (general)
2019 (senate)
Multi-party Cook Islands Party, Pro-government independents
Democratic Party, Cook Islands United Party, One Cook Islands Movement
2022 (general)
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica Multi-party Social Democratic Progress Party (minority)
PLN, PUSC, PNR, PLP, Broad Front
2022 (general)
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Multi-party Croatian Democratic Union (incl. HDS), SDSS , HSLS, HNS-LD, HSU
Social Democrats, SDP, Most, DP (incl. BLOK), Green–Left (We can!, NL), HS, CentreGlas, HSS-RF, IDS-DDI, Focus (incl. NS-R)
2020 (parliament)
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba One-party Communist Party of Cuba 2023 (parliament)
Flag of Curacao.svg  Curaçao Multi-party MFK, National People's Party
PAR, Partido MAN, Kòrsou Esun Miho, Work for Curaçao
2021 (general)
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Multi-party Democratic Party, Democratic Alignment, EDEK
Democratic Rally, AKEL, ELAM, KOSP
2023 (presidential)
2021 (legislative)
Multi-party Spolu (ODS, KDU-ČSL, TOP 09), PaS (STAN, Pirates)
ANO 2011, Freedom and Direct Democracy
2021 (legislative)
2023 (presidential)

D

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Multi-party Social Democrats, Venstre, Moderates , Union Party, JF, Siumut, IA
Green Left, DD, Liberals, DKF, EL, RV, ALT, NB, DF
2022 (general)
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti Dominant-party Union for the Presidential Majority ( RPP , FRUD, PND, PSD, UPR)
UDJ
2021 (presidential)
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica Dominant-party Dominica Labour Party
No parliamentary opposition, Team Unity Dominica, United Workers' Party
2022 (general)
Multi-party PRM , FA, APD, DxC, PHD, BIS, PRSD, PQDC, PCR
Dominican Liberation Party, FP, PRSC, PRD, ALPAÍS, PLR
2020 (general)

E

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor Multi-party National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction, Democratic Party
FRETILIN, KHUNTO, People's Liberation Party
2023 (parliament)
2022 (presidential)
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador Multi-party CREO, PSE, MC, MEU, Avanza, PSP, MDS, UE, MC25, Pachakutik, ID
Union for Hope (Citizen Revolution, CD), Social Christian Party
2021 (general)
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt Dominant-party Independents, Nation's Future Party , RPP, New Wafd, HDP, MEP, SDP
CDM (RDP, ESDP, Justice) Tagammu, Conference, EFP, Al-Nour, EPM, EGP
2023 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador Multi-party Nuevas Ideas, GANA, PCN, PDC
ARENA, FMLN, Nuestro Tiempo, Vamos
2024 (presidential)
2024 (legislative)
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea Dominant-party Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea
No parliamentary opposition, Convergence for Social Democracy
2022 (general)
Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea One-party People's Front for Democracy and Justice Elections postponed
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Multi-party Reform Party, Estonia 200, Social Democratic Party
Conservative People's Party, Centre Party, Isamaa
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2018 (general)
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia Dominant-party Prosperity Party
NaMA, EZEMA, Gedeo People's Democratic Organization
2021 (general)
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union Multi-party EPP, PES, ALDE
ECR, ID, EGP, EFA, PEL, EDP, ECPM
2019 (parliament)

F

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg  Falkland Islands Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2021 (general)
Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg  Faroe Islands Multi-party Social Democratic Party, Republic, Progress
Union Party, People's Party, Centre Party
2022 (general)
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji Multi-party People's Alliance, National Federation Party, SODELPA
FijiFirst
2022 (general)
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Multi-party National Coalition, Finns Party, Christian Democrats, Swedish People's Party
SDP, Centre Party, The Greens, Left Alliance, Movement Now
2023 (parliament)
2024 (presidential)
Flag of France.svg  France Multi-party RE, MoDem, HOR, MR (minority)
RN (main opposition), LFI, LR, PS, EELV, PCF, DLF, REC
2022 (presidential)
2022 (legislative)
Flag of France.svg  French Guiana Multi-party DVG, Péyi Guyane, La France Insoumise, MDES, Socialist Party
DVC, Guiana Rally, The Republicans
2021 (regional)
Flag of French Polynesia.svg  French Polynesia Multi-party Tāvini Huiraʻatira
Tapura Huiraatira, A here ia Porinetia, ʻĀmuitahiraʻa
2023 (legislative)

G

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other Parties
Last election
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon Military junta CTRI (civilian government suspended) 2023 coup d'état
Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia Multi-party National People's Party, National Reconciliation Party, APRC
United Democratic Party, PDOIS
2021 (presidential)
2022 (parliament)
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Multi-party Georgian Dream , People's Power
Strength Is in Unity (UNM, PdT), For Georgia, Girchi, ES, Strategy Builder, Lelo, Citizens, SRP, KdS, SK, EDP
2020 (parliament)
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Multi-party Social Democratic Party, A90/Greens, Free Democratic Party
Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU/CSU), AfD, The Left
2021 (federal)
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana Two-party New Patriotic Party
National Democratic Congress
2020 (general)
Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar Multi-party GSLP–Liberal Alliance (GSLP, LPG)
Gibraltar Social Democrats, Together Gibraltar
2023 (general)
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Multi-party New Democracy
Syriza, PASOK-KINAL (PASOK, KIDISO), KKE, Greek Solution, Spartans, Victory, Course of Freedom
2023 (legislative)
Flag of Greenland.svg  Greenland Multi-party Inuit Ataqatigiit, Naleraq , Atassut
Siumut, Democrats
2021 (general)
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada Two-party National Democratic Congress
New National Party
2022 (general)
Flag of France.svg  Guadeloupe Multi-party GUSR, DVC
Plural Left
2021 (regional)
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala Multi-party Semilla , TBD
Vamos, UNE, Cabal, ViVa, Valor, VOS, Todos, Winaq-URNG, PPN, BIEN, Victoria, PA, CE, CREO, Cambio
2023 (general)
Flag of Guernsey.svg  Guernsey Multi-party Independents
Future Guernsey, Guernsey Party
2020 (general)
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea Military junta CNRD (civilian government suspended) 2021 coup d'état
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau Multi-party PAI–Terra Ranka ( PAIGC and others), PRS, PTG
Madem G15 (president's party), Assembly of the People United
2019 (presidential)
2023 (legislative)
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana Multi-party People's Progressive Party
People's National Congress (APNU, AFC) (official opposition), LJPANUGTNM
2020 (legislative)

H

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Multi-party Non-partisan acting government
Parliament dissolved; PHTK, Inite, Haiti in Action, OPL, RDNP, FL, Renmen, PPD, UNCRH, PFSDH
2016–17 (senate)
2016 (presidential)
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras Multi-party Libre, Savior Party of Honduras, PINU , Christian Democratic Party
National Party, Liberal Party, Anti-Corruption Party
2021 (general)
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Dominant-party Fidesz–KDNP (Fidesz, KDNP), LdU
United for Hungary (DK, Momentum, MSZP, Jobbik, Dialogue, LMP, MMM), MHM
2022 (parliament)

I

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Multi-party Independence Party, Progressive Party, Left-Green Movement
Samfylkingin, People's Party, Pirate Party, Liberal Reform Party, Centre Party
2021 (parliament)
2020 (presidential)
Flag of India.svg  India Multi-party NDA ( BJP , SHS, RJLP, AD(S), AJSU, NDPP, NPP, NPF, MNF, SKM, JD(S), AGP)
INDIA (INC, DMK, AITC, AAP, JDU, CPI(M), SS(UBT), NCP (SP), RJD, JKNC, IUML, JMM, SP, CPI, RSP, VCK, KC(M))
Others (YSRCP, BJD, BSP, BRS, TDP, SAD, AIMIM, AIUDF, RLP, AIADMK)
2019 (general)
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Multi-party KIM ( PDI-P, Golkar, Gerindra, NasDem, PKB, PAN, PPP, Demokrat )
PKS
2024 (general)
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Dominant-party [lower-alpha 4] Principlists (SHANA, Stability Front, Jusice Seekers)
Reformists (MDP, ECP), independents
2021 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Multi-party Takadum, State of Law, PDK, Fatah, PUK, Azem, Victory Alliance, Babylon Movement
Emtidad, Naway Nwe, Tasmim, National Contract, Ishraq Kanoon, NPI, MDR, others
2021 (parliament)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Kurdistan.svg  Kurdistan Multi-party Kurdistan Democratic Party , Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Gorran, Naway Nwe, Kurdistan Justice Group, Yekgirtû
2018 (parliament)
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Multi-party Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael, Green Party
Sinn Féin, Labour Party, Social Democrats, PBP–S, Aontú, Right to Change
2020 (general)
Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man Multi-party Independents
Labour Party, Liberal Vannin Party
2021 (general)
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Multi-party Likud, National Unity (Resilience, New Hope), Shas, UTJ, Mafdal, Otzma, Noam
Yesh Atid, Yisrael Beiteinu, Ra'am, Hadash, Labor, Ta'al
2022 (legislative)
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Multi-party Brothers of Italy, League, Forza Italia , Us Moderates, MAIE
PD–IDP (PD, Art. 1, DemoS, CD), MS5, A–IV, AVS, +E, SVP, UV
2022 (general)
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast Dominant-party Rally of Houphouëtists for Democracy and Peace (RDR)
PDCI-RDA, Together for Democracy and Sovereignty, UDPCI, FPI
2021 (parliament)

J

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica Two-party Jamaica Labour Party
People's National Party
2020 (general)
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Dominant-party Liberal Democratic Party, Komeito
Constitutional Democratic Party, Ishin, DPP, Communist Party, Reiwa, SDP, Sanseitō, NHK Party
2021 (general)
2022 (Sangiin)
Flag of Jersey.svg  Jersey Multi-party [lower-alpha 5] Independents
Reform Jersey, Jersey Liberal Conservatives, Progress Party
2022 (general)
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Dominant-party [lower-alpha 6] Pro-monarchy independents, Jordanian United Front Party, National Loyalty Party
Islamic Action Front, Islamic Centre Party
2020 (general)

K

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Dominant-party Amanat
Auyl, Respublica, Aq Jol, People's Party, JSDP
2022 (presidential)
2023 (legislative)
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Multi-party Kenya Kwanza (UDA, ANC, UDM, FORD–K, PAA, MCC, UPIA, TSP, CCK, DP, MDG, GDDP, NAP, NOPEU)
Azimio (ODM, Jubilee, WDM-K, DAP-K, KANU, KUP, UPA, UDP)
2022 (general)
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati Two-party Tobwaan Kiribati Party
Boutokaan Kiribati Moa Party
2020 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
Flag of North Korea.svg  Korea (DPRK) One-party Workers' Party of Korea , other DFRK members (KSDP, Chondoist Chongu Party, Chongryon) 2019 (parliament)
Flag of South Korea.svg  Korea (ROK) Multi-party People Power Party
Democratic Party, Justice Party, Basic Income Party, Transition Korea
2022 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2022 (general)
Flag of Kyrgyzstan (2023).svg  Kyrgyzstan Multi-party Mekenchil , Ata-Jurt Kyrgyzstan, Ishenim, Yntymak
Eldik, Alliance, United Kyrgyzstan, Light of Faith, SDK, Afghans' Party
2021 (presidential)
2021 (parliament)
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo Multi-party LVV, Guxo, KDTP, NDS, IRDK, Vakat, LPRK, SDU , PAI
PDK, LDK, Serb List, AAK, JGP, RI
2021 (parliament)

L

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos One-party Lao People's Revolutionary Party 2021 (parliament)
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Multi-party New Unity ( Unity ), United List ( LRA, LZP , LP), NA
ZZS (LZS, LSDSP, LuV), For Stability!, The Progressives, LPV
2022 (parliament)
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Multi-party Acting gov't: FPM, Amal, Hezbollah, PSP, Marada, ARF, Al-Ahbash, Ba'ath, UP, JI
LF, Kataeb, Taqaddom, Al Haraka, Tahalof Watani, ReLebanon, Khatt Ahmar, Lana, Osos, NDP, PNO
2022 (general)
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho Multi-party Revolution for Prosperity, Alliance of Democrats, MEC
DC, ABC, BAP, LCD, SR, BNP, PFD, BCM, MPS, NIP, HOPE
2022 (general)
Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia Two-party Coalition for Democratic Change (CDC, NPP)
UP (main opposition), LP, ANC, PUP, ALP, MEE, MDR, LTP, UPP, VCP, LPP, LINU
2023 (general)
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya Non-partisan Government of National Unity, Government of National Stability
Independents
2014 (parliament)
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein Multi-party Patriotic Union, Progressive Citizens' Party
Free List, Democrats for Liechtenstein
2021 (general)
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Multi-party Homeland Union, Liberal Movement, Freedom Party
LVŽS, DSVL, LSDP, DP, LLRA–KŠS, LRP, NA, LKDP
2020 (parliament)
2019 (presidential)
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Multi-party CSV, Democratic Party
LSAP, ADR,The Greens, Pirate Party, The Left
2023 (general)

M

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar Multi-party Young Malagasies Determined , Freedom, ADN
Tiako I Madagasikara, independents, RPSD-Vaovao, MTS, GJPS, MDM, MATITA, Malagasy Miara Miainga
2023 (presidential)
2019 (parliament)
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi Multi-party Malawi Congress Party, UTM, independents
DPP, UDF, People's Party, Alliance for Democracy
2020 (presidential)
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Multi-party PH (PKR, DAP, Amanah, UPKO), BN (UMNO, MCA, MIC, PBRS), GPS (PBB, PRS, PDP, SUPP), GRS (PBS, STAR), Warisan, KDM, PBM
PN (PAS, BERSATU, GERAKAN), MUDA
2022 (general)
Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives Multi-party Progressive Congress Coalition (PPM, PNC)
MDP, AP, JP, MDA, MTD, MRM, MNP, TD
2023 (presidential)

2024 (parliament)

Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Military junta Malian Armed Forces (civilian government suspended) 2021 coup d'état
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Two-party Labour Party
Nationalist Party
2022 (general)
Two-party Independents (Aelon̄ Kein Ad, United Democratic Party) 2023 (general)
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania Multi-party Equity Party, UDP , Trust (Islah, Karama, HATEM, Vadila, PMM), Justice (AND, NW), HIWAR
Tewassoul, Hope Mauritania, SawabRAG, AJD/MR, State of Justice
2019 (presidential)
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Multi-party MSM , ML, OPR, MAG, Plateforme Militante
MMM, PMSD, Labour Party
2019 (general)
Flag of France.svg  Mayotte Multi-party The Republicans, NÉMA, DVD
MDM, Renaissance, DVC
2021 (legislative)
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Multi-party Morena, Green Party, Labor Party
PAN, PRI, Citizens' Movement, PRD
2018 (general)
2021 (legislative)
Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2023 (parliament)
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Multi-party Party of Action and Solidarity
Bloc of Communists and Socialists (PSRM, PCRM), ȘOR bloc (de facto), Revival, MAN
2021 (parliament)
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco Multi-party UNM (Priorité Monaco, Horizon Monaco, Union Monégasque)
No parliamentary opposition; New Ideas for Monaco
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Multi-party Mongolian People's Party
Democratic Party, Right Person Electorate Coalition
2021 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro Multi-party PES!, DCG, SNP, Civis, ASh, FORCA , ZBCG (NSD, DNP), UCG
Together! (DPS, SD, UDSh), BS, URA, HGI
2023 (legislative)
Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat Two-party Movement for Change and Prosperity
People's Democratic Movement
2019 (general)
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Multi-party National Rally of Independents, Istiqlal Party, Authenticity and Modernity Party
USFP, Popular Movement, PPS, Constitutional Union, PJD, MDS, FFD, AFG, PSU
2021 (general)
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique Dominant-party FRELIMO Party
RENAMO, Democratic Movement
2019 (general)
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Military junta State Administration Council (civilian government suspended) 2021 coup d'état

N

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia Dominant-party SWAPO Party of Namibia
PDM, LPM, NUDO, APP, UDF, Republican Party, NEFF, IPC, RDP, CDV, SWANU
2019 (general)
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru Multi-party Independents, Nauru First
Opposition independents
2022 (parliament)
2022 (presidential)
Flag of Nepal.svg  Nepal Multi-party NC, Socialist Front (CPN (MC), CPN (US), PSP-N), Janamat, NUP, LSP-N, NSP , RJM
CPN (UML), RSP, RPP, NWPP
2022 (general)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Multi-party VVD, CDA, D66, Christian Union
PVV, PvdA, GL, SP, PvdD, FvD, 50PLUS, SGP, Volt, JA21, DENK, BVNL, BBB, BIJ1
2023 (general)
Multi-party Caledonian Union, FLNKS, L'EO, UNI, LKS, Labour Party
Future with Confidence, Caledonia Together, Generations NC
2019 (legislative)
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Multi-party National Party , ACT New Zealand , New Zealand First
Labour Party (official opposition), Greens, Te Pāti Māori
2023 (general)
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua Dominant-party Sandinista National Liberation Front , YATAMA
Constitutionalist Liberal Party, ALN, PLI, APRE, CCN
2021 (general)
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger Military junta CSNP (civilian government suspended) 2023 coup d'état
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria Multi-party All Progressives Congress
Peoples Democratic Party (official opposition), YPP, APGA, ADC, PRP
2023 (general)
Flag of Niue.svg  Niue Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2020 (general)
Multi-party We Can ( SDSM , NSDP, VMRO–NP, TDP, PDT, POPGM, SSM), DUI, AA, LDP , DPA, DOM
Renewal (VMRO-DPMNE, SPM, DPSM, GROM, ROM), Alternativa, Levica, Besa, DS
2019 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
Multi-party National Unity Party, Democratic Party, Rebirth Party
Republican Turkish Party, People's Party
2022 (parliament)
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Multi-party Labour Party, Centre Party
Conservative Party, FrP, SV, Liberal Party, Red Party, KrF, Green Party, Patient Focus
2021 (parliament)

O

Country Party system Ruling party or coalitionLast election
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman Non-partisan Independents
No political parties
2019 (general)

P

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Multi-party PML-N, PPP, MQM-P
SIC, PML-Q, JUI-F, NP, PkMAP, BNP, BAP, IPP
2024 (general)
Flag of Palau.svg  Palau Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2020 (general)
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine Multi-party PLO ( Fatah , PFLP, DFLP, PPP), National Initiative, Third Way
Hamas (de facto control of the Gaza Strip)
2006 (legislative)
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama Multi-party Democratic Revolutionary Party, MOLIRENA
Democratic Change, Panameñista Party
2019 (general)
Multi-party Pangu , URP, NA, People's, SDP, PFP, PNGP, ULP, Advance, National, AP, Green, Liberal, MAP, NGP, ODP, PLP, PMC, PPP, PRP, Destiny, THE
People's National Congress Party
2022 (general)
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Multi-party Colorado Party
PLRA, Guasú Front, PPQ, PDP, UNACE, GANAR, Hagamos Party, PEN, MCN
2023 (general)
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru Multi-party Non-partisan government; FP, AP, RP, AvP, APP, PDSP
Free Peru, Magisterial Bloc, Bicentennial Peru, PD, JP, PP
2021 (general)
2022 crisis
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Multi-party UniTeam (PFP, Lakas), Nacionalista, NPC, LDP, PDP–Laban, UNA, PMP, NUP, others
TRoPa (Liberal Party, Akbayan), PDSP, Makabayan, PDR, Aksyon, others
2022 (general)
Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2021 (general)
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Multi-party KO (PO, .N, IPL, PZ, T!DPL, AU), TD (KP, PL2050), The Left (NL), The Left (Razem)
United Right (PiS, SP, Republicans, OdNowa RP), Kukiz'15, Confederation (NN, RN, KKP)
2020 (presidential)
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Multi-party Socialist Party
Social Democratic Party, Chega, IL, PCP, Left Bloc, PAN, LIVRE
2022 (parliament)
2021 (presidential)
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico Two-party Popular Democratic Party
New Progressive Party (governor's party), MVC, PIP, PD
2020 (general)

Q

Country Party system Ruling party or coalitionLast election
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2021 (general)

R

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Multi-party National Coalition for Romania ( PSD, PNL ), Ethnic minority parties
USR, AUR, UDMR/RMDSZ, FD, REPER, AD, NR, ROASIT
2019 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Dominant-party United Russia , LDPR, A Just Russia – For Truth, Rodina, Civic Platform
Communist Party, New People, Party of Growth
2018 (presidential)
2021 (legislative)
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda Dominant-party Rwandan Patriotic Front
Social Democratic Party, PS-Imberakuri, PL, Democratic Greens
2017 (presidential)
2018 (parliament)

S

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Saint Helena.svg  Saint Helena Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2021 (general)
Multi-party Saint Kitts and Nevis Labour Party
Concerned Citizens' Movement, People's Labour Party, People's Action Movement
2022 (general)
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia Two-party Saint Lucia Labour Party
United Workers Party
2021 (general)
Two-party Archipelago Tomorrow (LR)
Together for the Future (PRG)
2022 (legislative)
Two-party Unity Labour Party
New Democratic Party
2020 (general)
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa Two-party Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi, Samoa National Democratic Party
Human Rights Protection Party
2021 (general)
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino Multi-party Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party, RETE Movement, DML, NplR
Libera, Future Republic
2019 (general)
Multi-party Independent Democratic Action
MLSTP/PSD, MCI/PS-PUN, Basta
2021 (presidential)
2022 (legislative)
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia One-party Council of Ministers (no parliamentary opposition)No elections
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal Dominant-party United in Hope (APR, AFP, PS), Bokk Gis Gis
Liberate the People (PASTEF, PUR, TS), Wallu Sénégal (PDS), MPR, AAR
2024 (presidential)
2022 (legislative)
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia Dominant-party AV–ZMS (SNS, PSS, SNP, PS, SPO, NSS), SPSZS, SDPS, PUPS, SPPDSHVUSS , JS, VMSZ
PE (SSP, PSG, PZP, Sloga, Fatherland), NADA (NDSS, POKS), DS, Narodna, NPSEUNLS, SSZ, Dveri, Together, ZLF
2023 (legislative)
2022 (general)
Flag of Seychelles.svg  Seychelles Two-party Linyon Demokratik Seselwa (Seychelles National Party, Seychellois Alliance, SPSJD, SUP)
United Seychelles
2020 (general)
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone Two-party Sierra Leone People's Party
All People's Congress
2023 (general)
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Dominant-party People's Action Party
Workers' Party, Progress Singapore Party
2020 (general)
Flag of Sint Maarten.svg  Sint Maarten Multi-party National Alliance, United People's Party
USP, Party for Progress, UD
2020 (general)
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Multi-party Smer–SD, Hlas–SD, Slovak National Party
Progressive Slovakia, OĽaNO and Friends, KDH, SASKA
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Multi-party Freedom Movement, Social Democrats, The Left
Slovenian Democratic Party, New Slovenia
2022 (parliament)
Multi-party Independents, Kadere Party, Democratic Alliance Party, People's Alliance Party
Democratic Party, United Democratic Party, United Party, People First Party, SIPRA
2019 (general)
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Multi-party Independents, Forum for National Parties (UPD (president's party))
Tayo
2022 (presidential)
Flag of Somaliland.svg  Somaliland Multi-party Waddani, Justice and Welfare Party
Kulmiye Peace, Unity, and Development Party (president's party)
2017 (presidential)
2021 (parliamentary)
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Dominant-party African National Congress
DA (official opposition), EFF, IFP, FF+, ACDP, UDM, ATM, Good, NFP, AIC, COPE
2019 (general)
Flag of South Ossetia.svg  South Ossetia Dominant-party Independents, Nykhaz (president's party)
United Ossetia, People's Party, Unity of the People, Communist Party
2019 (parliament)
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan Dominant-party Sudan People's Liberation Movement
SPLM-in-Opposition, South Sudan Opposition Alliance
2010 (general)
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Multi-party PSOE, Sumar (SMR, IU, Podemos, CatComú, MM, Compromís, CHA, Més), ERC, EH Bildu, EAJ/PNV, Junts, BNG, CCa
People's Party, Vox, UPN
2023 (general)
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Multi-party SLPFA ( Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna , EPDP, MEP, TMVP), UNP
Samagi Jana Balawegaya, FPA (SLFP, ULS, FPC), TNA, NPP, TNPF, TPNA
2022 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Military junta Transitional Sovereignty Council (no parliamentary opposition) Transition to democracy
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname Multi-party VHP, ABOP, National Party of Suriname, Pertjajah Luhur
National Democratic Party, Brotherhood and Unity in Politics
2020 (general)
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Multi-party Moderate Party, Christian Democrats, Liberals , Sweden Democrats
Social Democratic Party, Left Party, Centre Party, Green Party
2022 (general)
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg  Switzerland Multi-party Swiss People's Party, Social Democrats, FDP.The Liberals, The Centre
Green Party, Green Liberals, Evangelical Party, Federal Democrats, Ticino League, MCG
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Dominant-party NPF ( Ba'ath, SSNP, SUP, SCP–B , ASU, SCP–U, NCP, ADU, DSUP)
No parliamentary opposition; Syrian opposition
2020 (parliament)
2021 (presidential)

T

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan Dominant-party People's Democratic Party , Agrarian Party, Communist Party
Party of Economic Reforms, Democratic Party, Socialist Party
2020 (presidential)
2020 (parliament)
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania Dominant-party Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Chadema, Civic United Front, Alliance for Change and Transparency
2020 (general)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Zanzibar.svg  Zanzibar Dominant-party Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Alliance for Democratic Change, AFP, TADEA
2020 (general)
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Multi-party PTP, BJT, PPRP, UTN, Chart Thai Pattana, Prachachat, PTRP, Chart Pattana Kla, TLP, PSMP, Thai Counties , Democrat, NDP, New Party, TTP
Move Forward, Thai Sang Thai, Fair
2023 (general)
Flag of the Tigray Region.svg Tigray Region Dominant-party Tigray People's Liberation Front
National Congress of Great Tigray, TIP, SAWET, ADP
2020 (parliament)
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Dominant-party Union for the Republic
Union of Forces for Change, NET, MPDD, PDP, MRC
2020 (presidential)
2018 (parliament)
Flag of Tokelau.svg  Tokelau Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2020 (general)
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga Two-party Independents, Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands, Tongan nobles
Independents, Tonga People's Party
2021 (general)
Flag of Transnistria (state).svg  Transnistria Dominant-party Obnovlenie
No parliamentary opposition; Transnistrian Communist Party
2021 (presidential)
2020 (legislative)
Two-party People's National Movement
United National Congress
2020 (general)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Tobago Two-party Progressive Democratic Patriots
Tobago Council of the People's National Movement
2021 (legislative)
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Multi-party Non-partisan government; 25th of July Movement
People's Movement
2019 (president)
2022–23 (parliament)
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Multi-party Justice and Development Party , Nationalist Movement Party, Great Unity Party
CHP, HDP, İYİ Parti, TIP, Homeland Party, DP, ZP, DEVA, DBP, Saadet, YP
2023 (president)
2023 (parliament)
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Dominant-party Democratic Party of Turkmenistan , Agrarian Party, TSTP
No parliamentary opposition
2023 (parliament)
2022 (presidential)
Two-party Progressive National Party
People's Democratic Movement
2021 (general)
Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2024 (general)

U

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Dominant-party National Resistance Movement
NUP, FDC, Democratic Party, UPC, JEEMA, PPP
2021 (general)
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Multi-party Servant of the People , For the Future, Dovira
YeS, Batkivshchyna, Holos, PZZhM, Restoration of Ukraine
2019 (president)
2019 (parliament)
Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2019 (parliament)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Multi-party Conservative Party
Labour (opposition), Lib Dems, SNP, DUP, Sinn Féin, Plaid Cymru, SDLP, Alba, Greens, APNI, Workers, Reform
2019 (general)
Multi-party Sinn Féin , DUP, Alliance, UUP
SDLP, TUV, People Before Profit
2022 (parliament)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Scotland.svg  Scotland Multi-party Scottish National Party, Scottish Greens
Conservatives, Labour, Liberal Democrats
2021 (parliament)
Flag placeholder.svgFlag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales Multi-party Labour
Conservatives (official opposition), Plaid Cymru, Lib Dems
2021 (parliament)
Flag of the United States.svg  United States Two-party Democratic Party
Republican Party (majority in U.S. House)
2020 (general)
2022 (legislative)
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Multi-party National Party, Colorado Party, CA, PI, Partido de la Gente
Broad Front, PERI
2019 (general)
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Multi-party Liberal Democratic Party, Milliy Tiklanish
Justice Social Democratic Party, XDP, O'EP
2021 (presidential)
2019-20 (parliament)

V

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu Multi-party UMP, RMC, LPV, GJP, NUP, PPP, VNDP, Laverwo
Vanua'aku Pati, RDP, Iauko Group, Nagriamel, PUDP, VPDP, UCM, NCM
2022 (general)
Flag of the Vatican City (2023-present).svg  Vatican City Non-partisan Independents(no parliamentary opposition) 2013 (papal conclave)
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Dominant-party GPPSB ( PSUV , PPT, Tupamaro, MSV, PODEMOS, APC, MEP, ORA, UPP)
Democratic Alliance (AD, AP, El Cambio, PV, Copei), APR (PCV)
2020 (parliament)
2018 (presidential)
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam One-party Communist Party of Vietnam , Fatherland Front 2021 (parliament)
Multi-party Virgin Islands Party
NDP, Progressive Virgin Islands Movement, Progressives United
2019 (general)
Multi-party Democratic Party
Republican Party, Independent Citizens Movement
2022 (gubernatorial)

W

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of France.svg  Wallis and Futuna Non-partisan Independents(no political parties) 2022 (legislative)
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Western Sahara One-party Polisario Front 2023 (legislative)

Y

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen Dominant-party General People's Congress [lower-alpha 7]
Al-Islah, Yemeni Socialist Party, Nasserist Unionist People's Organisation, Ba'ath Party
2012 (presidential)
2003 (parliament)
See also 2014–2015 takeover

Z

Country Party system Ruling party or coalition
Other parties
Last election
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia Multi-party United Party for National Development
Patriotic Front, Party of National Unity and Progress
2021 (general)
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe Dominant-party Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front
Citizens Coalition for Change
2023 (general)

See also

Notes

  1. All political parties are banned as "un-Islamic". The Taliban is the only legal political force in the current regime. [1] [2]
  2. The Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus asserts that it is an opposition party, but supports the presidency of Alexander Lukashenko nonetheless.
  3. See also Political status of Taiwan and One China
  4. Iran's parties must adhere to a religious system of governance.
  5. Independent politicians dominate Jersey's political system.
  6. Independent pro-monarchy politicians dominate Jordan's political system.
  7. Competing factions of the General People's Congress are in charge of different parts of the country in the course of the ongoing civil war. In North Yemen, the Houthi movement-aligned faction loyal to party founder Ali Abdullah Saleh only partially shares power with the movement. [4]

Related Research Articles

The politics of Tajikistan takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the executive branch and the two chambers of parliament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taliban</span> Militant organization in control of Afghanistan

The Taliban, which also refers to itself by its state name, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is an afghan militant movement in Afghanistan with an ideology comprising elements of Pashtun nationalism and the Deobandi current of Islamic fundamentalism. It ruled approximately three-quarters of the country from 1996 to 2001, before being overthrown following the American invasion. It recaptured Kabul on 15 August 2021 following the departure of most coalition forces, after nearly 20 years of insurgency, and currently controls all of the country. Its government is not recognized by any country. The Taliban government has been internationally condemned for restricting human rights in Afghanistan, including the right of women and girls to work and to have an education.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan</span> Politics of the 2004–2021 Afghan state

The government of Afghanistan is currently disputed following the effective collapse of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan during the fall of Kabul to Taliban forces on 15 August 2021 and the subsequent re-establishment of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan which now exercises de facto control over most of the country. On 7 September 2021 the Taliban officials in de facto control of most of Afghanistan announced a new interim government headed by Mullah Mohammad Hassan Akhund as Prime Minister. The government is subject to the oversight of the Taliban's Supreme Leader, Haibatullah Akhundzada. As of 8 September 2021, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan has not yet been formally recognized as the de jure government of Afghanistan by any other country. The representatives appointed by the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan continue to represent the country at the United Nations. These representatives have refused to recognize the Taliban appointed government and have urged other countries to not recognize this government either.

Mullah Mohammad Rabbani Akhund was one of the main leaders of the Taliban movement who served as Prime Minister of Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001. He was second in power only to the supreme leader, Mullah Mohammed Omar, in the Taliban hierarchy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Islamic State of Afghanistan</span> 1992–2002 interim state in Central Asia established by the Peshawar Accords

The Islamic State of Afghanistan was established by the Peshawar Accords of 26 April 1992. Many Afghan mujahideen parties participated in its creation, after the fall of the socialist government. Its power was limited due to the country's second civil war, which was won by the Taliban, who took control of Kabul in 1996. The Islamic state then transitioned to a government in exile and led the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. It remained the internationally recognized government of Afghanistan at the United Nations until 2001, when the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan was created and an Afghan Interim Administration took control of Afghanistan with US and NATO assistance following the overthrow of the first Taliban government. The Transitional Islamic State was subsequently transformed into the Islamic Republic, which existed until the Taliban seized power again in 2021 following a prolonged insurgency.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malaysian Islamic Party</span> Islamist political party in Malaysia

The Malaysian Islamic Party, also known as the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party or its Jawi-based acronym PAS, is an Islamist political party in Malaysia. Ideologically focused on Islamic fundamentalism, PAS's electoral base is largely centered around Peninsular Malaysia's rural and eastern coasts and conservative northern, particularly in the states of Kelantan, Terengganu, Perlis, & Kedah. They also gained significant support in the rural areas of Perak and Pahang in the last 2022 general election & 2023 state elections; dubbed as the "Green Wave".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Awami National Party</span> Pakistani political party

The Awami National Party is a Pashtun nationalist, secular and leftist political party in Pakistan. The party was founded by Abdul Wali Khan in 1986 and its current president is Asfandyar Wali Khan, grandson of Bacha Khan, with Mian Iftikhar Hussain serving as the Secretary-General. Part of the PPP-led cabinet of the Pakistani government during 2008−13, ANP's political position is considered left-wing, advocating for secularism, public sector government, and social egalitarianism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jamiat-e Islami</span> Primarily Tajik political party in Afghanistan

Jamayat-E-Islami, sometimes shortened to Jamiat, is a predominantly Tajik political party and former paramilitary organisation in Afghanistan. It was originally formed as a student political society at Kabul University. It has a communitarian ideology based on Islamic law. During the Soviet–Afghan War and the following Afghan Civil War against the communist government, Jamiat-e Islami was one of the most powerful of the Afghan mujahideen groups. Burhanuddin Rabbani led the party from 1968 to 2011, and served as President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan from 1992 to 2001, in exile from 1996.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern Alliance</span> 1996–2001 anti-Taliban military front in Afghanistan

The Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic National Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, was a military alliance of groups that operated between early 1992 and 2001 following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. At that time, many non-Pashtun Northerners originally with the Republic of Afghanistan led by Mohammad Najibullah became disaffected with Pashtun Khalqist Afghan Army officers holding control over non-Pashtun militias in the North. Defectors such as Rashid Dostum and Abdul Momim allied with Ahmad Shah Massoud and Ali Mazari forming the Northern Alliance. The alliance's capture of Mazar-i-Sharif and more importantly the supplies kept there crippled the Afghan military and began the end of Najibullah's government. Following the collapse of Najibullah's government the Alliance would fall with a Second Civil War breaking out however following the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan's (Taliban) takeover of Kabul, The United Front was reassembled.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fazal-ur-Rehman (politician)</span> Pakistani politician

Fazal-ur-Rehman is a Pakistani politician who is the president of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F). He is also the president of the Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM), a coalition of political parties which ousted then prime minister Imran Khan through a no-confidence motion in 2022. He was a member of the National Assembly between 1988 and 2018, and the Leader of the Opposition from 2004 to 2007. He is a supporter of the Taliban government in Afghanistan and has demanded for its international recognition. In the 1980s, he was part of the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD), which was formed to end the military regime of General Zia-ul-Haq.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin</span> Primarily Pashtun Afghan political party and former militia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ahmad Zia Massoud</span> Afghan politician

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abdul Latif Pedram</span> Afghan politician

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The United National Front was a coalition of various political parties in Afghanistan. The group was a broad coalition of former and current strongmen, commanders from the anti-Soviet resistance, ex-Communist leaders, and various social and ethnic groups. Its leader was former President of Afghanistan Burhanuddin Rabbani. Many of its members were formerly part of the similarly named United Islamic Front.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hezbe Wahdat</span> Primarily Hazara political party in Afghanistan

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F)</span> Political party in Pakistan

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Pakistan also Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam or simply as Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam(F) (Urdu: جمیعت علماءِ اسلام; lit.'Assembly of Islamic Clerics'; abbr.JUI (F) is a Islamic fundamentalist political party in Pakistan. Established as the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam in 1945, it is the result of a factional split in 1988, F standing for the name of its leader, Fazal-ur-Rehman.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Afghan conflict</span> Near-continuous series of wars in Afghanistan

The Afghan conflict refers to the series of events that have kept Afghanistan in a near-continuous state of armed conflict since the 1970s. Early instability followed the collapse of the Kingdom of Afghanistan in the largely non-violent 1973 coup d'état, which deposed Afghan monarch Mohammad Zahir Shah in absentia, ending his 40-year-long reign. With the concurrent establishment of the Republic of Afghanistan, headed by Mohammad Daoud Khan, the country's relatively peaceful and stable period in modern history came to an end. However, all-out fighting did not erupt until after 1978, when the Saur Revolution violently overthrew Khan's government and established the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Subsequent unrest over the radical reforms that were being pushed by the then-ruling People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) led to unprecedented violence, prompting a large-scale pro-PDPA military intervention by the Soviet Union in 1979. In the ensuing Soviet–Afghan War, the anti-Soviet Afghan mujahideen received extensive support from Pakistan, the United States, and Saudi Arabia in a joint covert effort that was dubbed Operation Cyclone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Recognition of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan</span> International relations of Afghanistans Taliban government

The Taliban has ruled Afghanistan as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan since taking control by force in 2021, overthrowing the internationally recognized Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The takeover was widely criticized by the international community, and no countries have extended diplomatic recognition to the new regime, despite nominally maintaining relations with Afghanistan. The Taliban has campaigned for international recognition since the takeover. Several countries have vowed never to recognize the Islamic Emirate, and others have said they will do so only if human rights in the country are respected. Some countries have accredited Taliban diplomats at the chargé d'affaires level despite not recognizing the Islamic Emirate. In September 2023, China became the first country to formally name a new ambassador to the country since the takeover, and in January 2024 recognized the Taliban's envoy to China; however, China still does not formally recognize the Taliban.

The politics of Afghanistan are based on a totalitarian emirate within the Islamic theocracy in which the Taliban Movement holds a monopoly on power. Dissent is not permitted, and politics are mostly limited to internal Taliban policy debates and power struggles. As the government is provisional, there is no constitution or other basis for the rule of law. The structure is autocratic, with all power concentrated in the hands of the supreme leader and his clerical advisors. According to the V-Dem Democracy indices Afghanistan was as of 2023 the 4th least electoral democratic country in the world.

References

  1. Azadi, RFE/RL's Radio. "Taliban Bans Political Parties In Afghanistan After Declaring Them Un-Islamic". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2023-08-20.
  2. "Taliban Ban Afghan Political Parties, Citing Sharia Violations". VOA. 2023-08-16. Retrieved 2023-08-20.
  3. "Ny regering på Åland | Ålands landskapsregering". www.regeringen.ax. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  4. Tawfeek al-Ganad (20 September 2022). "Weak and Divided, the General People's Congress Turns 40". Sana'a Center For Strategic Studies. Sanaa . Retrieved 11 February 2023.