|President||Sergei Stanishev (BG)|
|Secretary-General||Achim Post (DE)|
9–10 November 1992 (Party)
|Headquarters||Rue Guimard 10, 1040 Brussels, Belgium|
|Think tank||Foundation for European Progressive Studies|
|Youth wing||Young European Socialists|
|Women's wing||PES Women|
|Ideology|| Social democracy |
|International affiliation|| Progressive Alliance |
|European Parliament group||Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats|
191 / 751
5 / 28
8 / 28
|European Lower Houses|
2,327 / 9,874
|European Upper Houses|
645 / 2,714
The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a social-democratic European political party.
Social democracy is a political, social, and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy; measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest; and welfare state provisions. Social democracy thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic, egalitarian and solidaristic outcomes. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties and their influence on socioeconomic policy development in the Nordic countries, in policy circles social democracy has become associated with the Nordic model in the latter part of the 20th century.
A European political party is a type of political party organisation operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union. They are regulated and funded by the European Union and are usually made up of national parties, not individuals. Europarties have the exclusive right to campaign during the European elections and express themselves within the European Parliament by their affiliated political groups and their MEPs. Europarties, through coordination meetings with their affiliated heads of state and government, influence the decision-making process of the European Council. Europarties also work closely and co-ordinate with their affiliated members of the European Commission and, according to the Lisbon Treaty the Europarty that wins the European elections has the right to nominate to the European Council its candidate for President of the European Commission.
The PES comprises national-level political parties from all member states of the European Union (EU) plus Norway. This includes major parties such as the Italian Democratic Party, the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party, Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. Parties from a number of other European countries are also admitted to the PES as associate or observer parties.Most member, associate and observer parties are members of the wider Progressive Alliance or Socialist International.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states. Each member state is party to the founding treaties of the union and thereby subject to the privileges and obligations of membership. Unlike members of most international organisations, the member states of the EU are subjected to binding laws in exchange for representation within the common legislative and judicial institutions. Member states must agree unanimously for the EU to adopt policies concerning defence and foreign policy. Subsidiarity is a founding principle of the EU.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.
The Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
The PES is currently led by its president Sergei Stanishev, a former Prime Minister of Bulgaria. Its political group in the European Parliament is the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D). The PES also operates in the Committee of the Regions (in the PES Group in the Committee of the Regions) and the European Council.
Sergei Dmitrievich Stanishev is a Bulgarian politician who has served as President of the Party of European Socialists since November 2011 and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Bulgaria. He previously served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2005 to 2009, Leader of the Socialist Party from 2001 to 2014 and Member of the National Assembly from 1997 to 2014.
The Prime Minister of Bulgaria is the head of government of Bulgaria. He or she is the leader of a political coalition in the Bulgarian parliament – known as the National Assembly of Bulgaria – and the leader of the cabinet.
The political groups of the European Parliament are the parliamentary groups of the European Parliament. The European Parliament is unique among supranational assemblies in that its members (MEPs) organise themselves into ideological groups as in traditional national legislatures. The members of other supranational assemblies form national groups. The political groups of the European Parliament are sometimes the formal representation of a European political party in the Parliament. In other cases, they are political coalitions of a number of European parties, national parties, and independent politicians.
The party's English name is "Party of European Socialists". In addition, the following names are used in other languages:
Albanian is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch. It is an official language in Albania, Kosovo, and the Republic of North Macedonia. It also has an official minority status in Italy, Romania, Montenegro, Serbia, and others. The language has an official status in Ulcinj, southern Montenegro. Albanian is also spoken by large Albanian communities elsewhere in Europe, the Americas and Australia.
The Bosnian language is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks. Bosnian is one of three such varieties considered official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with Croatian and Serbian, and also an officially recognized minority or regional language in Serbia, Montenegro, and the Republic of Kosovo.
Bulgarian, is an Indo-European language and a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family.
In March 2014 following the congress in Rome, the PES added the tagline "Socialists and Democrats" to its name following the admission of Italy's Democratic Party into the organisation.
In entertainment, a tagline is a short text which serves to clarify a thought for, or is designed with a form of, dramatic effect. Many tagline slogans are reiterated phrases associated with an individual, social group, or product. As a variant of a branding slogan, taglines can be used in marketing materials and advertising.
In 1961, the Socialists in the European Parliament attempted to produce a common 'European Socialist Programme' but this was neglected due to the applications of Britain, Denmark, Ireland and Norway to join the European Community. The Socialists' 1962 congress pushed for greater democratisation and powers for Parliament, though it was only in 1969 that this possibility was examined by the member states.
In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined the European Community, bringing in new parties from these countries. The enlarged Socialist Congress met in Bonn and inaugurated the Confederation of the Socialist Parties of the European Community. The Congress also passed a resolution on social policy, including the right to decent work, social security, democracy and equality in the European economy.In 1978, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved the first common European election Manifesto. It focused on several goals among which the most important were to ensure a right to decent work, fight pollution, end discrimination, protect the consumer and promote peace, human rights and civil liberties.
At its Luxembourg Congress in 1980, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved its first Statute. The accession of Greece to the EU in 1981, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986, brought in more parties.
In 1984, a common Socialist election manifesto proposed a socialist remedy for the economic crisis of the time by establishing a link between industrial production, protection of fundamental social benefits, and the fight for an improved quality of life.
In 1992, with the European Community becoming the European Union and with the Treaty of Maastricht establishing the framework for political parties at a European level, the Confederation of Socialist Parties voted to transform itself into the Party of European Socialists. The party's first programme concentrated on job creation, democracy, gender equality, environmental and consumer protection, peace and security, regulation of immigration, discouragement of racism and fighting organised crime.
Along with the Socialist Group in the European Parliament, the founding members of the PES were:
In 2004 Poul Nyrup Rasmussen defeated Giuliano Amato to be elected President of the PES, succeeding Robin Cook in the post. He was re-elected for a further 2.5 years at the PES Congress in Porto on 8 December 2006 and again at the Prague Congress in 2009.
In 2010, the Foundation for European Progressive Studies was founded as the political foundation (think tank) of the PES.
Mr Rasmussen stood down at the PES Progressive Convention in Brussels on 24 November 2011. He was replaced as interim president by Sergei Stanishev, chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) and former prime minister of Bulgaria.
On 28-29 September 2012, the PES Congress in BrusselsCongress elected interim president Sergei Stanishev as full President, as well as four deputies: Jean-Christophe Cambadélis (1st Vice-President – PS), Elena Valenciano (PSOE), Jan Royall (Labour) and Katarína Neveďalová (Smer-SD). The same Congress elected Achim Post (SPD) as its new secretary general, and adopted a process which it described as "democratic and transparent" for electing its next candidate for Commission President in 2014. The PES had already agreed in 2011 to use a PES presidential primary for the election.
The PES has thirty-four full member parties from each of the twenty-eight EU member states and Norway. There are a further thirteen associate and twelve observer parties from other European countries.
|Social Democratic Party of Austria||SPÖ|
5 / 18
52 / 183
20 / 62
3 / 8
23 / 63
9 / 24
|Socialist Party – Differently||sp.a|
1 / 13
13 / 87
5 / 35
|Bulgarian Socialist Party||BSP|
4 / 17
80 / 240
|Social Democratic Party of Croatia||SDP|
2 / 11
36 / 151
|Movement for Social Democracy||EDEK|
2 / 6
3 / 56
|Czech Social Democratic Party||ČSSD|
4 / 21
15 / 200
3 / 13
47 / 179
|Social Democratic Party||SDE|
1 / 6
15 / 101
|Social Democratic Party of Finland||SDP|
2 / 13
35 / 200
10 / 74
86 / 348
27 / 577
|Social Democratic Party of Germany||SPD|
27 / 96
153 / 709
|Panhellenic Socialist Movement||PASOK|
2 / 21
18 / 300
|Hungarian Socialist Party||MSZP|
4 / 21
28 / 199
|Hungarian Social Democratic Party||MSZDP|
0 / 21
0 / 199
0 / 11
5 / 60
7 / 158
26 / 73
54 / 315
112 / 630
|Italian Socialist Party||PSI|
0 / 73
1 / 315
1 / 630
|Social Democratic Party "Harmony"||SDPS|
0 / 8
22 / 100
|Social Democratic Party of Lithuania||LSDP|
2 / 11
17 / 141
|Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party||LSAP|
1 / 6
13 / 60
3 / 6
37 / 69
3 / 26
8 / 75
9 / 150
|Labour Party||AP||Not in EU|
49 / 169
|Democratic Left Alliance||SLD|
4 / 51
0 / 100
0 / 460
1 / 51
0 / 100
0 / 460
8 / 21
86 / 230
|Social Democratic Party||PSD|
16 / 32
67 / 168
154 / 398
|Direction – Social Democracy||Smer-SD|
4 / 13
49 / 150
1 / 8
6 / 90
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party||PSOE|
14 / 54
62 / 266
84 / 350
|Swedish Social Democratic Party||SAP|
5 / 20
100 / 349
|Labour Party||Lab (GB)|
20 / 70
202 / 793
262 / 632
|Social Democratic and Labour Party||SDLP (NI)|
0 / 3
0 / 793
0 / 18
|State||Name||abbr.||European MPs||National MPs|
|Socialist Party of Albania||PSS|
74 / 140
|Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina||SDP|
0 / 15
3 / 42
|Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats||PBS|
0 / 8
1 / 240
|Social Democratic Alliance||Samf.|
7 / 63
|Democratic Party of Moldova||PDM|
19 / 101
|Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro||DPS|
31 / 81
|Social Democratic Party of Montenegro||SDP|
6 / 81
|Social Democratic Union of Macedonia||SDSM|
49 / 120
12 / 250
|Social Democratic Party of Switzerland||SP/PS|
46 / 200
|Republican People's Party||CHP|
131 / 550
|Peoples' Democratic Party||HDP|
50 / 550
|State||Name||abbr.||European MPs||National MPs|
|Social Democratic Party||PS|
3 / 28
|Armenian Revolutionary Federation||ARF|
7 / 131
|Egyptian Social Democratic Party||ESDP|
4 / 596
115 / 150
|Israeli Labor Party||עבודה|
19 / 120
5 / 120
|Armenian Revolutionary Federation||ARF|
2 / 128
|Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party||LSDSP|
0 / 9
0 / 100
|Socialist Union of Popular Forces||USFP|
24 / 270
20 / 395
|Armenian Revolutionary Federation||ARF|
7 / 33
|Republican Turkish Party||CTP|
20 / 50
45 / 132
|Party of Socialists and Democrats||PSD|
3 / 60
|Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties||FDTL|
0 / 217
The youth organisation of the PES is the Young European Socialists. PES Women is the party's women's organisation, led by Zita Gurmai. The LGBTI campaign organisation is Rainbow Rose.
PES is an associated organisation of Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance.
The President (currently former Prime Minister of Bulgaria Sergei Stanishev) represents the party on a daily basis and chairs the Presidency, which also consists of the Secretary General, President of the S&D group in Parliament and one representative per full/associate member party and organisation. They may also be joined by the President of the European Parliament (if a PES member), a PES European Commissioner and a representative from associate parties and organisations.
The list below shows PES Presidents and the presidents of its predecessors.
|1.||Wilhelm Dröscher||Social Democratic Party of Germany||April 1974||January 1979|
|2.||Robert Pontillon||Socialist Party||January 1979||March 1980|
|3.||Joop den Uyl||Labour Party||March 1980||May 1987|
|4.||Vítor Constâncio||Socialist Party||May 1987||January 1989|
|5.||Guy Spitaels||Socialist Party||February 1989||May 1992|
|6.||Willy Claes||Socialist Party||November 1992||October 1994|
|7.||Rudolf Scharping||Social Democratic Party of Germany||March 1995||May 2001|
|8.||Robin Cook||Labour Party||May 2001||24 April 2004|
|9.||Poul Nyrup Rasmussen||Social Democrats||24 April 2004||24 November 2011|
|10.||Sergei Stanishev||Bulgarian Socialist Party||24 November 2011||–|
The parties meet at the party Congress twice every five years to decide on political orientation, such as adopting manifestos ahead of elections. Every year that the Congress does not meet, the Council (a smaller version of the Congress) shapes PES policy. The Congress also elects the party's President, Vice Presidents and the Presidency.
The Leader's Conference brings together Prime Ministers and Party Leaders from PES parties three to four times a year to agree strategies and resolutions.
In December 2009, the PES decided to put forward a candidate for Commission President at all subsequent elections.On 1 March 2014, the PES organised for the first time a European election Congress where a Common Manifesto was adopted and the Common Candidate designate for the post of Commission President, Martin Schulz, was elected by over a thousand participants in Rome, Italy. PES member parties across Europe joined forces to campaign for the European elections, and a mass grassroots movement sprang up in support of Martin Schulz, aiming to ‘knock the vote’ in support of his candidacy.
|Organisation||Institution||Number of seats|
191 / 751
|Committee of the Regions|
131 / 350
8 / 28
| European Council |
(Heads of Government)
5 / 28
| Council of the European Union |
(Participation in Government)
12 / 28
69 / 318
European Commissioners are meant to remain independent, however there has been an increasing degree of politicisation within the Commission.In the current European Commission, eight of the Commissioners belong to the PES family.
|High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy||Federica Mogherini|
|Regional Policy||Corina Crețu|
|Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs||Pierre Moscovici|
|Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries||Karmenu Vella|
|International Cooperation and Development||Neven Mimica|
|Health and Food Safety||Vytenis Andriukaitis|
Of the 28 heads of state and government that are members of the European Council, five are from the PES, and therefore regularly attend PES summits to prepare for European Council meetings.
|Member State||Representative||Title||Political party||Member of the Council since||Photo|
|Joseph Muscat||Prime Minister||Labour Party||22 March 2018|
|António Costa||Prime Minister||Socialist Party||26 November 2015|
|Peter Pellegrini||Prime Minister||Direction – Social Democracy||22 March 2018|
|Pedro Sánchez||Prime Minister||Spanish Socialist Workers' Party||2 June 2018|
|Stefan Löfven||Prime Minister||Social Democratic Party||3 October 2014|
Although the prime minister of Romania, Mihai Tudose, is also a member of the PES (and his Social Democratic Party is a PES member party), Romania instead sends its president to the European Council.
Party-alignment at the European Council is often loose, but has been the basis of some intergovernmental cooperation. At present five countries are led by a PES-affiliated leader, who represents that state at the European Council: Spain (Pedro Sánchez), Portugal (Antonio Costa), Malta (Joseph Muscat), Slovakia (Peter Pellegrini), and Sweden (Stefan Löfven).
The makeup of national delegations to the Council of Ministers is at some times subject to coalitions: for the above governments led by a PES party, that party may not be present in all Council configurations; in other governments led by non-PES parties a PES minister may be its representative for certain portfolios. PES is in coalition in a further seven countries: Estonia, France, Germany, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Romania and Slovenia.
|State||Governing parties||Affiliated EU party||Population||Votes|
| Christian Democratic Union |
Social Democratic Party
Christian Social Union
| EPP |
| La République En Marche! |
Radical Party of the Left
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party||PES||46,354,321||27|
| Social Democratic Party |
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
| Swedish Social Democratic Party |
|Direction – Social Democracy||PES||5,404,300||7|
| Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union |
Social Democratic Party of Lithuania
| Positive Slovenia |
Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia
| Estonian Centre Party |
Social Democratic Party
Pro Patria and Res Publica Union
| ALDE Party |
| Democratic Party |
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
| ALDE |
PES has 122 members in the Committee of the Regions as of 2014.
The Labour Party is a social democratic political party in the Netherlands.
The Labour Party is a social-democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland. Founded in 1912 in Clonmel, County Tipperary, by James Larkin, James Connolly, and William X. O'Brien as the political wing of the Irish Trades Union Congress, it describes itself as a "democratic socialist party" in its constitution. Labour continues to be the political arm of the Irish trade union and labour movement and seeks to represent workers interests in the Dáil and on a local level.
Poul Oluf Nyrup Rasmussen, was Prime Minister of Denmark from 25 January 1993 to 27 November 2001 and President of the Party of European Socialists (PES) from 2004 to 2011. He was the leader of the governing Social Democrats from 1992 to 2002. He was a member of the European Parliament from 2004 to 2009.
Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov is a Bulgarian historian and politician who was President of Bulgaria from 2002 to 2012. He was elected after defeating incumbent Petar Stoyanov in the second round of the November 2001 presidential election. He took office on 22 January 2002. He was reelected in a landslide victory in 2006, becoming the first Bulgarian president to serve two terms. Parvanov supported of Bulgaria's entry into NATO and the European Union.
The Bulgarian Socialist Party, known as the Centenarian, is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party. It is a member of the Party of European Socialists with a pro-EU stance, although it has taken some euroskeptic positions and called for an end to EU sanctions against Russia. BSP is also a member of the Socialist International. It is Bulgaria's largest political party by membership.
The Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina, also simply known as the Social Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The European People's Party (EPP) is a conservative and Christian democratic European political party. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties, not individuals. Founded by primarily Christian democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives.
Young European Socialists (YES), formerly the European Community Organisation of Socialist Youth (ECOSY), is an association of social-democratic youth organisations in Europe and the European Union.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on June 25, 2005, for the 240 members of the National Assembly. According to exit polls, the Socialists had a lead with around 31%, but without a majority, necessitating the creation of a coalition. The National Movement for Simeon II, in power before the election, was in second place, with around 21%. Following the election, Socialist Party leader Sergei Stanishev became Prime Minister.
Marita Helena Ulvskog is a Swedish politician and Member of the European Parliament from Sweden. She is a member of the Social Democrats, part of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats.
The Social Democratic Party of Serbia is a social democratic political party in Serbia.
Provincial elections were held for the unicameral Assembly of Serbia's northern Autonomous Province of Vojvodina on 11 May 2008, with a second round to be held on 25 May 2008. They were scheduled by the Speaker of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia Oliver Dulić on 29 December 2007, as required per the Constitutional Law adopted by the National Assembly of Serbia on 30 September 2006 that proclaimed the new Constitution.
From 22 to 25 May 2014, elections to the European Parliament were held in the European Union.
The Social Democratic Party "Harmony", also commonly referred to as Harmony (Saskaņa), is a social-democratic political party in Latvia. It is the main catch-all party of the centre-left in Latvian politics. The party was founded in 2010 as the merger of the National Harmony Party (TSP) with New Centre (JC) and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a breakaway from the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party (LSDSP). At that time, all three were members of the former electoral alliance Harmony Centre. The alliance also included the communist Socialist Party of Latvia. The Daugavpils City Party merged into the party in 2011.
The Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties, also referred to as Ettakatol or by its French acronym FDTL, is a social democratic political party in Tunisia. It was founded on 9 April 1994 and officially recognized on 25 October 2002. Its founder and Secretary-General is the radiologist Mustapha Ben Jafar.
Parliamentary elections were held in Serbia on 6 May 2012 to elect members of the National Assembly, and were held simultaneously with provincial, local, and presidential elections.
The 2014 Party of European Socialists presidential primaries is the selection process by which the members of the Party of European Socialists (PES) and will choose the PES candidate for President of the European Commission ahead of the 2014 European elections.
The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists (PES). The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was officially founded as a Socialist Group on 29 June 1953 which makes it the second oldest political group in the European Parliament after ALDE. It adopted its present-day name on 23 June 2009. Centre-left in orientation, the group mostly comprises social-democratic parties and is affiliated with the Progressive Alliance.
Mihail Raykov Mikov is a Bulgarian politician who was Chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) from 2014 to 2016. He is a parliamentarian with six consecutive terms as a deputy in the National Assembly. His career in the legislature culminated in his election as Chairman of the 42nd National Assembly on May 21, 2013. Mikov was Minister of Interior from 24 April 2008 to 29 July 2009 in Sergei Stanishev's government. Currently he is the leader of the Parliamentary Group of BSP Left Bulgaria in the 43rd National Assembly, the coalition led by the socialist party. Mihail Mikov was elected as Chairman of the BSP on 27 July 2014, succeeding Sergei Stanishev. He won a run-off against outgoing Economy and Energy Minister Dragomir Stoynev with a final tally of 377-333.
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