Slovak language

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Slovak
Slovakian
slovenčina, slovenský jazyk
Native to Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, bordering regions of western Ukraine (Zakkarpatia)
Ethnicity Slovaks
Native speakers
5.2 million (2011–2012) [1]
Latin (Slovak alphabet)
Slovak Braille
Official status
Official language in
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic [2]
Flag of Vojvodina.svg  Vojvodina [3]
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic
Language codes
ISO 639-1 sk
ISO 639-2 slo  (B)
slk  (T)
ISO 639-3 slk
Glottolog slov1269 [4]
Linguasphere 53-AAA-db < 53-AAA-b...–d
(varieties: 53-AAA-dba to 53-AAA-dbs)
Map of Slovak language.svg
The Slovak-speaking world:
  regions where Slovak is the language of the majority
  regions where Slovak is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Slovak ( /ˈslvæk, -vɑːk/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) [5] [6] ) or less frequently Slovakian [1] [7] [8] is a West Slavic language (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian). [1] It is called slovenský jazyk (pronounced  [ˈslɔʋɛnskiː ˈjazik] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) or slovenčina ( [ˈslɔʋɛntʃina] ) in the language itself.

West Slavic languages language family

The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group. They include Polish, Czech, Slovak, Silesian, Kashubian, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian. The languages are spoken across a continuous region encompassing the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland as well as the former East Germany and the westernmost regions of Ukraine and Belarus. West Slavic is usually divided into three subgroups based on similarity and degree of mutual intelligibility, Czecho-Slovak, Lechitic and Sorbian, as follows:

Czech language West Slavic language spoken in the Czech Republic

Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.

Polish language West Slavic language spoken in Poland

Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Contents

Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014). Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine, Norway and many other countries worldwide.

An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government. The term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government, as "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law".

Slovakia Republic in Central Europe

Slovakia, officially the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, and the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi) and is mostly mountainous. The population is over 5.4 million and consists mostly of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, and the second-largest city is Košice. The official language is Slovak.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Slovak should not be confused with Slovene, or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina), the main language of Slovenia.

Slovene language South Slavic language spoken primarily in Slovenia

Slovene or Slovenian belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. It is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union.

Slovenia republic in Central Europe

Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a country located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. It covers 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, and of NATO. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana.

Phonology

Orthography

Slovak uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters (a-á,ä; c-č; d-ď; dz-dž; e-é; i-í; l-ľ,ĺ; n-ň; o-ó,ô; r-ŕ; s-š; t-ť; u-ú; y-ý; z-ž)

Latin script Writing system used to write most European languages

Latin or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans.

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός, from διακρίνω. Diacritic is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters.

The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule (see below). The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are pronounced almost, but usually the same way.

A phoneme is one of the units of sound that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

Finally, the rarely applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation (e.g. pekný = nice – singular versus pekní = nice – plural).

In addition, the following rules are present:

  1. When a voiced consonant (b, d, ď, dz, dž, g, h, z, ž) is at the end of a word before a pause, it is devoiced to its voiceless counterpart (p, t, ť, c, č, k, ch, s, š, respectively). For example, pohyb is pronounced /pɔɦip/ and prípad is pronounced /pɾiːpat/.
  2. The assimilation rule: Consonant clusters containing both voiced and voiceless elements are entirely voiced if the last consonant is a voiced one, or voiceless if the last consonant is voiceless. For example, otázka is pronounced /ɔtaːska/ and vzchopiť sa is pronounced /fsxɔpitsːa/. This rule applies also over the word boundary. For example, prísť domov[pɾiːzɟ dɔmɔʊ̯] (to come home) and viac jahôd[ʋɪ̯adz jaɦʊ̯ɔt] (more strawberries). The voiced counterpart of "ch" /x/ is [ɣ], and the unvoiced counterpart of "h" /ɦ/ is /x/.

Most foreign words receive Slovak spelling immediately or after some time. For example, "weekend" is spelled víkend, "software" – softvér, "gay" – gej (both not exclusively), and "quality" is spelled kvalita. Personal and geographical names from other languages using Latin alphabets keep their original spelling unless a fully Slovak form of the name exists (e.g. Londýn for "London").

A loanword is a word adopted from one language and incorporated into another language without translation. This is in contrast to cognates, which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, and calques, which involve translation.

Slovak features some heterophonic homographs (words with identical spelling but different pronunciation and meaning), the most common examples being krásne/ˈkɾaːsnɛ/ (beautiful) versus krásne/ˈkɾaːsɲɛ/ (beautifully).

Syntax

The main features of Slovak syntax are as follows:

Some examples include the following:

Speváčka spieva. (The+woman+singer is+singing.)
(Speváčk-a spieva-∅, where -∅ is (the empty) third-person-singular ending)
Speváčky spievajú. (Woman+singers are+singing.)
(Speváčk-y spieva-j-ú; -ú is a third-person-plural ending, and /j/ is a hiatus sound)
My speváčky spievame. (We the+woman+singers are+singing.)
(My speváčk-y spieva-me, where -me is the first-person-plural ending)
and so forth.

Word order in Slovak is relatively free, since strong inflection enables the identification of grammatical roles (subject, object, predicate, etc.) regardless of word placement. This relatively free word order allows the use of word order to convey topic and emphasis.

Some examples are as follows:

Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod. = That big man opens a store there today. (ten = that; veľký = big; muž = man; tam = there; dnes = today; otvára = opens; obchod = store) – The word order does not emphasize any specific detail, just general information.
Ten veľký muž dnes otvára obchod tam. = That big man is today opening a store there. – This word order emphasizes the place (tam = there).
Dnes tam otvára obchod ten veľký muž. = Today over there a store is being opened by that big man. – This word order focuses on the person who is opening the store (ten = that; veľký = big; muž = man).
Obchod tam dnes otvára ten veľký muž. = The store over there is today being opened by that big man. – Depending on the intonation the focus can be either on the store itself or on the person.

The unmarked order is subject–verb–object. Variation in word order is generally possible, but word order is not completely free. In the above example, the noun phrase ten veľký muž cannot be split up, so that the following combinations are not possible:

Ten otvára veľký muž tam dnes obchod.
Obchod muž tam ten veľký dnes otvára. ...

And the following is stylistically not correct:

Obchod ten veľký muž dnes tam otvára. (Only possible in a poem or a similar style.)
This is correct:
Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod
Ten veľký muž tam otvára dnes obchod
Otvára tam dnes ten veľký muž obchod?

Morphology

Articles

Slovak does not have articles. The demonstrative pronoun ten (fem: , neuter: to) may be used in front of the noun in situations where definiteness must be made explicit.

Nouns, adjectives, pronouns

Slovak nouns are inflected for case and number. There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, and instrumental. The vocative is no longer morphologically marked. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Nouns have inherent gender. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives and pronouns must agree with nouns in case, number, and gender.

Numerals

The numerals 0–10 have unique forms, with numerals 1–4 requiring specific gendered representations. Numerals 11–19 are formed by adding násť to the end of each numeral. The suffix dsať is used to create numerals 20, 30 and 40; for numerals 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, desiat is used. Compound numerals (21, 1054) are combinations of these words formed in the same order as their mathematical symbol is written (e.g. 21 = dvadsaťjeden, literally "twenty-one").

The numerals are as follows:

1-1011-2010-100
1jeden (number, masculine), jedno (neuter), jedna (feminine)11jedenásť10desať
2dva (number, masculine), dve (neuter, feminine), dvaja (special masculine)12dvanásť20dvadsať
3tri (number, neuter, masculine, feminine), traja (special masculine)13trinásť30tridsať
4štyri (number, neuter, masculine, feminine), štyria (special masculine)14štrnásť40štyridsať
5päť15pätnásť50päťdesiat
6šesť16šestnásť60šesťdesiat
7sedem17sedemnásť70sedemdesiat
8osem18osemnásť80osemdesiat
9deväť19devätnásť90deväťdesiat
10desať20dvadsať100sto

Some higher numbers: (200) dvesto,... (300) tristo,... (900) deväťsto,... (1,000) tisíc,... (1,100) tisícsto,... (2,000) dvetisíc,... (100,000) stotisíc,... (200,000) dvestotisíc,... (1,000,000) milión,... (1,000,000,000) miliarda,...

Counted nouns have two forms. The most common form is the plural genitive (e.g. päť domov = five houses or stodva žien = one hundred two women), while the plural form of the noun when counting the amounts of 2-4, etc., is usually the nominative form without counting (e.g. dva domy = two houses or dve ženy = two women) but gender rules do apply in many cases.

Verbs

Verbs have three major conjugations. Three persons and two numbers (singular and plural) are distinguished. Several conjugation paradigms exist as follows:

volať, to callSingularPluralPast participle (masculine – feminine – neuter)
1st personvolámvolámevolal – volala – volalo
2nd personvolášvoláte
3rd personvolávolajú
bývať, to liveSingularPluralPast participle
1st personbývambývamebýval – bývala – bývalo
2nd personbývašbývate
3rd personbývabývajú
vracať, to return or (mostly in slang) to vomitSingularPluralPast participle
1st personvraciamvraciamevracal – vracala – vracalo
2nd personvraciašvraciate
3rd personvraciavracajú
robiť, to do, workSingularPluralPast participle
1st personrobímrobímerobil – robila – robilo
2nd personrobíšrobíte
3rd personrobírobia
vrátiť, to returnSingularPluralPast participle
1st personvrátimvrátimevrátil – vrátila – vrátilo
2nd personvrátišvrátite
3rd personvrátivrátia
vidieť, to seeSingularPluralPast participle
1st personvidímvidímevidel – videla – videlo
2nd personvidíšvidíte
3rd personvidívidia
kupovať, to buySingularPluralPast participle
1st personkupujemkupujemekupoval – kupovala – kupovalo
2nd personkupuješkupujete
3rd personkupujekupujú
zabudnúť, to forgetSingularPluralPast participle
1st personzabudnemzabudnemezabudol – zabudla – zabudlo
2nd personzabudnešzabudnete
3rd personzabudnezabudnú
minúť, to spend, missSingularPluralPast participle
1st personminiemminiememinul – minula – minulo
2nd personminiešminiete
3rd personminieminú
niesť, to carrySingularPluralPast participle
1st personnesiemnesiemeniesol – niesla – nieslo
2nd personnesiešnesiete
3rd personnesienesú
stučnieť, to carry (be fat)SingularPluralPast participle
1st personstučniemstučniemestučnel – stučnela – stučnelo
2nd personstučniešstučniete
3rd personstučniestučnejú
byť, to bejesť, to eatvedieť, to know
1st singularsomjemviem
2nd singularsiješvieš
3rd singularjejevie
1st pluralsmejemevieme
2nd pluralstejeteviete
3rd pluraljediavedia
Past participlebol, bola, bolojedol, jedla, jedlovedel, vedela, vedelo
skryť: skryl som (I hid / I have hidden); bol som skryl (I had hidden)
skrývať: skrýval som; bol som skrýval.
skryť: skryjem
skrývať: budem skrývať
skryť: skryl by som (I would hide), bol by som skryl (I would have hidden)
skrývať: skrýval by som; bol by som skrýval
skryť: je skrytý; sa skryje
skrývať: je skrývaný; sa skrýva
skryť: skryjúci
skrývať: skrývajúci
skryť: skryjúc (by hiding (perfective))
skrývať: skrývajúc ((while/during) hiding)
skryť: skrytý
skrývať: skrývaný
skryť: skrytie
skrývať: skrývanie

Adverbs

Adverbs are formed by replacing the adjectival ending with the ending -o or -e / -y. Sometimes both -o and -e are possible. Examples include the following:

vysoký (high) – vysoko (highly)
pekný (nice) – pekne (nicely)
priateľský (friendly) – priateľsky (in a friendly manner)
rýchly (fast) – rýchlo (quickly)

The comparative/superlative of adverbs is formed by replacing the adjectival ending with a comparative/superlative ending -(ej)ší or -(ej)šie. Examples include the following:

rýchly (fast) – rýchlejší (faster) – najrýchlejší (fastest): rýchlo (quickly) – rýchlejšie (more quickly) – najrýchlejšie (most quickly)

Prepositions

Each preposition is associated with one or more grammatical cases. The noun governed by a preposition must appear in the case required by the preposition in the given context (e.g. from friends = od priateľov). Priateľov is the genitive case of priatelia. It must appear in this case because the preposition od (= from) always calls for its objects to be in the genitive.

around the square = po námestí (locative case)
past the square = po námestie (accusative case)

Po has a different meaning depending on the case of its governed noun.

History

Relationships to other languages

The Slovak language is a descendant of Proto-Slavic, itself a descendant of Proto-Indo-European. It is closely related to the other West Slavic languages, primarily to Czech and Polish. Czech also influenced the language in its later development. The highest number of borrowings in the old Slovak vocabulary come from Latin, German, Czech, Hungarian, Polish and Greek (in that order). [9] Recently, it is also influenced by English.

Czech

Although most dialects of Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible (see Comparison of Slovak and Czech), eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech and closer to Polish, Ruthenian and Ukrainian and contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.

Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia it has been permitted to use Czech in TV broadcasting and during court proceedings (Administration Procedure Act 99/1963 Zb.). From 1999 to August 2009, the Minority Language Act 184/1999 Z.z., in its section (§) 6, contained the variously interpreted unclear provision saying that "When applying this act, it holds that the use of the Czech language fulfills the requirement of fundamental intelligibility with the state language"; the state language is Slovak and the Minority Language Act basically refers to municipalities with more than 20% ethnic minority population (no such Czech municipalities are found in Slovakia). Since 1 September 2009 (due to an amendment to the State Language Act 270/1995 Z.z.) a language "fundamentally intelligible with the state language" (i.e. the Czech language) may be used in contact with state offices and bodies by its native speakers, and documents written in it and issued by bodies in the Czech Republic are officially accepted. Regardless of its official status, Czech is used commonly both in Slovak mass media and in daily communication by Czech natives as an equal language.

Czech and Slovak have a long history of interaction and mutual influence well before the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, a state which existed until 1993. Literary Slovak shares significant orthographic features with Czech, as well as technical and professional terminology dating from the Czechoslovak period, but phonetic, grammatical, and vocabulary differences do exist.

Other Slavic languages

Slavic language varieties are relatively closely related, and have had a large degree of mutual influence, due to the complicated ethnopolitical history of their historic ranges. This is reflected in the many features Slovak shares with neighboring language varieties. Standard Slovak shares high degrees of mutual intelligibility with many Slavic varieties. Despite this closeness to other Slavic varieties, significant variation exists among Slovak dialects. In particular, eastern varieties differ significantly from the standard language, which is based on central and western varieties.

Eastern Slovak dialects have the greatest degree of mutual intelligibility with Polish of all the Slovak dialects, followed by Rusyn, but both lack technical terminology and upper register expressions. Polish and Sorbian also differ quite considerably from Czech and Slovak in upper registers, but non-technical and lower register speech is readily intelligible. Some mutual intelligibility occurs with spoken Rusyn, Ukrainian, and even Russian (in this order), although their orthographies are based on the Cyrillic script.

EnglishSlovakCzechPolishRusynUkrainianBelarusianSerbo-CroatianBulgarianSlovenian
to buykupovaťkupovatkupowaćкуповати (kupovaty)купувати (kupuvaty)купляць (kuplać)kupovatiкупува (kupuva)kupovati
WelcomeVitajteVítejteWitajcieВітайте (vitajte)Вітаю (vitaju)Вітаю (vitaju)Dobro došliдобре дошли (dobre došli)Dobrodošli
morningránoráno/jitrorano/ranekрано (rano)рано/ранок (rano/ranok)рана/ранак (rana/ranak)jutroутро (utro)jutro
Thank youĎakujemDěkujiDziękujęДякую (diakuju)Дякую (diakuju)Дзякуй (dziakuj)Hvalaблагодаря (blagodarja)Hvala
How are you?Ako sa máš?Jak se máš?Jak się masz?
(colloquially "jak leci?")
Як ся маєш/маш?
(jak sia maješ/maš?)
Як справи? (jak spravy?)Як справы? (jak spravy?)Kako si?Как си? (Kak si?)Kako se imaš?/Kako si?
Як ся маєш?
(jak sia maješ?)
Як маесься?
(jak majeśsia?)

Latin

English

Sports:

Food:

Clothing:

Exclamations:

German

Nouns:

Verbs:

Greetings:

Servus is commonly used as a greeting or upon parting in Slovak-speaking regions and some German-speaking regions, particularly Austria. Papa is also commonly used upon parting in these regions. Both servus and papa are used in colloquial, informal conversation.

Hungarian

Hungarians and Slovaks have had a language interaction ever since the settlement of Hungarians in the Carpathian area. Hungarians also adopted many words from various Slavic languages related to agriculture and administration, and a number of Hungarian loanwords are found in Slovak. Some examples are as follows:

Dialects

Official usage of the Slovak language in Vojvodina, Serbia Vojvodina slovak map.png
Official usage of the Slovak language in Vojvodina, Serbia

There are many Slovak dialects, which are divided into the following four basic groups:

The fourth group of dialects is often not considered a separate group, but a subgroup of Central and Western Slovak dialects (see e.g. Štolc, 1968), but it is currently undergoing changes due to contact with surrounding languages (Serbo-Croatian, Romanian, and Hungarian) and long-time geographical separation from Slovakia (see the studies in Zborník Spolku vojvodinských slovakistov, e.g. Dudok, 1993).

For an external map of the three groups in Slovakia see here.

The dialect groups differ mostly in phonology, vocabulary, and tonal inflection. Syntactic differences are minor. Central Slovak forms the basis of the present-day standard language. Not all dialects are fully mutually intelligible. It may be difficult for an inhabitant of the western Slovakia to understand a dialect from eastern Slovakia and the other way around.

The dialects are fragmented geographically, separated by numerous mountain ranges. The first three groups already existed in the 10th century. All of them are spoken by the Slovaks outside Slovakia (USA, Canada, Croatian Slavonia, and elsewhere), and central and western dialects form the basis of the lowland dialects (see above).

The western dialects contain features common with the Moravian dialects in the Czech Republic, the southern central dialects contain a few features common with South Slavic languages, and the eastern dialects a few features common with Polish and the East Slavonic languages (cf. Štolc, 1994). Lowland dialects share some words and areal features with the languages surrounding them (Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian, and Romanian).

See also

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In morphology, inflection is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood. The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.

Sukuma is a Bantu language of Tanzania, spoken in an area southeast of Lake Victoria between Mwanza, Shinyanga, and Lake Eyasi.

Interslavic language Pan-Slavic language

Interslavic is a zonal constructed language based on the Slavic languages. Its purpose is to facilitate communication between representatives of different Slavic nations, as well as to allow people who do not know any Slavic language to communicate with Slavs. For the latter, it can fulfill an educational role as well.

Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language that has, like most other Slavic languages, an extensive system of inflection. This article describes exclusively the grammar of the Shtokavian dialect, which is a part of the South Slavic dialect continuum and the basis for the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian standard variants of Serbo-Croatian.

Kanashi is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the isolated Malana (Malani) village area in Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh, India. It is not mutually intelligible with any other Sino-Tibetan language.

Mortlockese, also known as Mortlock or Nomoi, is a language that belongs to the Chuukic group of Micronesian languages in the Federated States of Micronesia spoken primarily in the Mortlock Islands. It is nearly intelligible with Satawalese, with an 18 percent intelligibility and an 82 percent lexical similarity, and Puluwatese, with a 75 percent intelligibility and an 83 percent lexical similarity. The language today has become mutually intelligible with Chuukese, though marked with a distinct Mortlockese accent. Linguistic patterns show that Mortlockese is converging with Chuukese since Mortlockese now has an 80 to 85 percent lexical similarity.

Eastern Slovak dialects dialect

Eastern Slovak or Eastern Slovak dialects, are dialects of the Slovak language spoken natively in the historical regions of Spiš, Šariš, Zemplín and Abov, in the east of Slovakia. In contrast to other dialects of Slovak, Eastern dialects are less intelligible with Czech and more with Polish and Rusyn, as well as using a higher number of Hungarian loanwords.

Proto-Slavic proto-language

Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages. It represents Slavic speech approximately from the 5th to 9th centuries AD. As with most other proto-languages, no attested writings have been found; scholars have reconstructed the language by applying the comparative method to all the attested Slavic languages and by taking into account other Indo-European languages.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Slovak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. E.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz/app/zakony/download?idBiblio=58370&nr=500~2F2004~20Sb.&ft=pdf
  3. "Autonomous Province of Vojvodina". Government of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Slovak". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN   9781405881180
  6. Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN   9780521152532
  7. "Slovakian - Dictionary Definition". Vocabulary.com. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  8. "Slovakian definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  9. Kopecká, Martina; Laliková, Tatiana; Ondrejková, Renáta; Skladaná, Jana; Valentová, Iveta (2011). Staršia slovenská lexika v medzijazykových vzťahoch ) (PDF). Bratislava: Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra SAV. pp. 10–46. ISBN   978-80-224-1217-9.
  10. http://www.fhv.umb.sk/app/cmsFile.php?disposition=a&ID=3394 google.com
  11. Imre, Pacsai. "Magyar Nyelvőr – Pacsai Imre: Magyar–szlovák kulturális és nyelvi kapcsolat jegyei..." www.c3.hu.

Bibliography

Further reading