Slovak language

Last updated

slovenčina, slovenský jazyk
Pronunciation [ˈslɔʋentʂina] , [ˈslɔʋenskiːˈjazik]
Native to Slovakia, Hungary, Carpathian Ruthenia and Vojvodina [1]
Ethnicity Slovaks
SpeakersNative: 5 million (2011–2021) [2]
L2: 2 million [2]
Latin (Slovak alphabet)
Slovak Braille
Official status
Official language in
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia (in Vojvodina) [3]
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic
Language codes
ISO 639-1 sk
ISO 639-2 slo  (B)
slk  (T)
ISO 639-3 slk
Glottolog slov1269
Linguasphere 53-AAA-db < 53-AAA-b...–d
(varieties: 53-AAA-dba to 53-AAA-dbs)
Idioma eslovaco.PNG
The Slovak-speaking world:
  regions where Slovak is the language of the majority
  regions where Slovak is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Slovak ( /ˈslvæk,-vɑːk/ SLOH-va(h)k; [6] [7] endonym: slovenčina [ˈslɔʋentʂina] or slovenský jazyk [ˈslɔʋenskiːˈjazik]) is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group, written in Latin script. [8] It is part of the Indo-European language family, and is one of the Slavic languages, which are part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. Spoken by approximately 5 million people as a native language, primarily ethnic Slovaks, it serves as the official language of Slovakia and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.


Slovak is closely related to Czech, to the point of very high mutual intelligibility, [9] as well as Polish. [10] Like other Slavic languages, Slovak is a fusional language with a complex system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin [11] and German [12] and other Slavic languages.

The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic in the high medieval period, and the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period. In the later mid-19th century, the modern Slovak alphabet and written standard became codified by Ľudovít Štúr and reformed by Martin Hattala. The Moravian dialects spoken in the western part of the country along the border with the Czech Republic are also sometimes classified as Slovak, although some of their western variants are closer to Czech; they nonetheless form the bridge dialects between the two languages.

Slovak speakers are also found in the Slovak diaspora in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine, Norway, and other countries to a lesser extent.


Slovak contains 15 vowel phonemes (11 monophthongs and four diphthongs) and 29 consonants.

Slovak vowel phonemes
Front Back
Close i u
Mid e ɔ ( ɔː )
Open (æ) a
Diphthongs (ɪu) ɪe ɪɐ ʊɔ

The phoneme /æ/ is marginal and often merges with /e/; the two are normally only distinguished in higher registers. [13]

Vowel length is phonemic in Slovak and both short and long vowels have the same quality. [14] In addition, Slovak employs a "rhythmic law" which forbids two long vowels from following one another. In such cases the second vowel is shortened. For example, adding the locative plural ending -ách to the root vín- creates vínach, not *vínách. [15]

Slovak consonant phonemes [16]
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive voiceless p t c [17] k
voiced b d ɟ [17] ɡ
Affricate voiceless ts
voiced dz
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ x
voiced z ʐ ɦ
Approximant plain v j
lateral short l ʎ
Trill short r

Slovak has final devoicing; when a voiced consonant (b, d, ď, g, dz, dž, z, ž, h) is at the end of a word before a pause, it is devoiced to its voiceless counterpart (p, t, ť, k, c, č, s, š, ch, respectively). For example, pohyb is pronounced /pɔɦip/ and prípad is pronounced /priːpat/.

Consonant clusters containing both voiced and voiceless elements are entirely voiced if the last consonant is a voiced one, or voiceless if the last consonant is voiceless. For example, otázka is pronounced /ɔtaːska/ and vzchopiť sa is pronounced /fsxɔpitsːa/. This rule applies also over the word boundary. For example, prísť domov [priːzɟdɔmɔw] (to come home) and viac jahôd [ʋɪɐdzjaɦʊɔt] (more strawberries). The voiced counterpart of "ch" /x/ is [ɣ], and the unvoiced counterpart of "h" /ɦ/ is /x/.


Slovak uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters (a-á,ä; c-č; d-ď; dz-dž; e-é; i-í; l-ľ,ĺ; n-ň; o-ó,ô; r-ŕ; s-š; t-ť; u-ú; y-ý; z-ž)

The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule (see below). The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are usually pronounced the same way.

Finally, the rarely applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation (e.g. pekný = nice – singular versus pekní = nice – plural). Such spellings are most often remnants of differences in pronunciation that were present in Proto-Slavic (in Polish, where the vowel merger did not occur, piękny and piękni and in Czech pěkný and pěkní are pronounced differently).

Most loanwords from foreign languages are respelt using Slovak principles either immediately or later. For example, "weekend" is spelled víkend, "software" – softvér, "gay" – gej (both not exclusively)[ clarification needed ], and "quality" is spelled kvalita. Personal and geographical names from other languages using Latin alphabets keep their original spelling unless a fully Slovak form of the name exists (e.g. Londýn for "London").

Slovak features some heterophonic homographs (words with identical spelling but different pronunciation and meaning), the most common examples being krásne/ˈkraːsnɛ/ (beautiful) versus krásne/ˈkraːsɲɛ/ (beautifully).


The main features of Slovak syntax are as follows:

Some examples include the following:

Speváčka spieva. (The+singer+feminine suffix čka is+singing.)
(Speváčk-a spieva-∅, where -∅ is (the empty) third-person-singular ending)
Speváčky spievajú. (Singer+feminine suffix čka+plural suffix y are+singing.)
(Speváčk-y spieva-j-ú; is a third-person-plural ending, and /j/ is a hiatus sound)
My speváčky spievame. (We the+singer+feminine suffix čka+plural suffix y are+singing.)
(My speváčk-y spieva-me, where -me is the first-person-plural ending)
and so forth.

Word order in Slovak is relatively free, since strong inflection enables the identification of grammatical roles (subject, object, predicate, etc.) regardless of word placement. This relatively free word order allows the use of word order to convey topic and emphasis.

Some examples are as follows:

Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod. = That big man opens a store there today. (ten = that; veľký = big; muž = man; tam = there; dnes = today; otvára = opens; obchod = store) – The word order does not emphasize any specific detail, just general information.
Ten veľký muž dnes otvára obchod tam. = That big man is today opening a store there. – This word order emphasizes the place (tam = there).
Dnes tam otvára obchod ten veľký muž. = Today over there a store is being opened by that big man. – This word order focuses on the person who is opening the store (ten = that; veľký = big; muž = man).
Obchod tam dnes otvára ten veľký muž. = The store over there is today being opened by that big man. – Depending on the intonation the focus can be either on the store itself or on the person.

The unmarked order is subject–verb–object. Variation in word order is generally possible, but word order is not completely free. In the above example, the noun phrase ten veľký muž cannot be split up, so that the following combinations are not possible:

Ten otvára veľký muž tam dnes obchod.
Obchod muž tam ten veľký dnes otvára. ...

And the following sentence is stylistically infelicitous:

Obchod ten veľký muž dnes tam otvára. (Only possible in a poem or other forms of artistic style.)

The regular variants are as follows:

Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod.
Ten veľký muž tam otvára dnes obchod.
Obchod tam dnes otvára ten veľký muž.
Obchod tam otvára dnes ten veľký muž.
Dnes tam obchod otvára ten veľký muž.
Dnes tam ten veľký muž otvára obchod.



Slovak, like every major Slavic language other than Bulgarian and Macedonian, does not have articles. The demonstrative pronoun ten (fem: , neuter: to) may be used in front of the noun in situations where definiteness must be made explicit.

Nouns, adjectives, pronouns

Slovak nouns are inflected for case and number. There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, and instrumental. The vocative is purely optional and most of the time unmarked. It is used mainly in spoken language and in some fixed expressions: mama mum (nominative) vs. mami mum! (vocative), tato, oco dad (N) vs. tati, oci dad! (V), pán Mr., sir vs. pane sir (when addressing someone e.g. in the street). There are two numbers: singular and plural. Nouns have inherent gender. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives and pronouns must agree with nouns in case, number, and gender.


The numerals 0–10 have unique forms, with numerals 1–4 requiring specific gendered representations. Numerals 11–19 are formed by adding násť to the end of each numeral. The suffix dsať is used to create numerals 20, 30 and 40; for numerals 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, desiat is used. Compound numerals (21, 1054) are combinations of these words formed in the same order as their mathematical symbol is written (e.g. 21 = dvadsaťjeden, literally "twenty-one").

The numerals are as follows:

1jeden (number, masculine), jedno (neuter), jedna (feminine)11jedenásť10desať
2dva (number, masculine inanimate), dve (neuter, feminine), dvaja (masculine animate)12dvanásť20dvadsať
3tri (number, neuter, masculine inanimate, feminine), traja (masculine animate)13trinásť30tridsať
4štyri (number, neuter, masculine inanimate, feminine), štyria (masculine animate)14štrnásť40štyridsať

Some higher numbers: (200) dvesto, (300) tristo, (900) deväťsto, (1,000) tisíc, (1,100) tisícsto, (2,000) dvetisíc, (100,000) stotisíc, (200,000) dvestotisíc, (1,000,000) milión, (1,000,000,000) miliarda.

Counted nouns have two forms. The most common form is the plural genitive (e.g. päť domov = five houses or stodva žien = one hundred two women), while the plural form of the noun when counting the amounts of 2–4, etc., is usually the nominative form without counting (e.g. dva domy = two houses or dve ženy = two women) but gender rules do apply in many cases.


Verbs have three major conjugations. Three persons and two numbers (singular and plural) are distinguished. Subject personal pronouns are omitted unless they are emphatic.

skryť: skryl som (I hid / I have hidden); bol som skryl (I had hidden)
skrývať: skrýval som; bol som skrýval.
skryť: skryjem
skrývať: budem skrývať
skryť: skryl by som (I would hide), bol by som skryl (I would have hidden)
skrývať: skrýval by som; bol by som skrýval
skryť: je skrytý; sa skryje
skrývať: je skrývaný; sa skrýva
skryť: skrytý
skrývať: skrývaný
skryť: skryjúci
skrývať: skrývajúci
skryť: skryjúc (by hiding (perfective))
skrývať: skrývajúc ((while/during) hiding)
skryť: skrytie
skrývať: skrývanie


Several conjugation paradigms exist as follows: [18]

á-type verbs (Class I)
volať, to callSingularPluralPast tense (masculine – feminine – neuter)
1st personvolámvolámevolalvolalavolalo
2nd personvolášvoláte
3rd personvolávolajú
á-type verbs (Class I) + rhythmical rule
bývať, to live, dwell, but not existSingularPluralPast tense
1st personbývambývamebývalbývalabývalo
2nd personbývašbývate
3rd personbývabývajú
á-type verbs (Class I) (soft stem)
vracať, to return or (mostly in slang) to vomitSingularPluralPast tense
1st personvraciamvraciamevracalvracalavracalo
2nd personvraciašvraciate
3rd personvraciavracajú
í-type verbs (Class V)
robiť, to do, workSingularPluralPast tense
1st personrobímrobímerobilrobilarobilo
2nd personrobíšrobíte
3rd personrobírobia
í-type verbs (Class V) + rhythmical rule
vrátiť, to returnSingularPluralPast tense
1st personvrátimvrátimevrátilvrátilavrátilo
2nd personvrátišvrátite
3rd personvrátivrátia
e-type verbs (Class IV) (-ovať)
kupovať, to buySingularPluralPast tense
1st personkupujemkupujemekupovalkupovalakupovalo
2nd personkupuješkupujete
3rd personkupujekupujú
e-type verbs (Class IV) (-nuť, typically preceded by a consonant)
zabudnúť, to forgetSingularPluralPast tense
1st personzabudnemzabudnemezabudolzabudlazabudlo
2nd personzabudnešzabudnete
3rd personzabudnezabudnú
ie-type verbs (Class V)
vidieť, to seeSingularPluralPast tense
1st personvidímvidímevidelvidelavidelo
2nd personvidíšvidíte
3rd personvidívidia
ie-type verbs (Class III) (-nuť, typically preceded by a vowel)
minúť, to spend, missSingularPluralPast tense
1st personminiemminiememinulminulaminulo
2nd personminiešminiete
3rd personminieminú
ie-type verbs (Class III) (-, -, -)
niesť, to carrySingularPluralPast tense
1st personnesiemnesiemeniesolnieslanieslo
2nd personnesiešnesiete
3rd personnesienesú
ie-type verbs (Class II) (-nieť)
stučnieť, to carry (be fat)SingularPluralPast tense
1st personstučniemstučniemestučnelstučnelastučnelo
2nd personstučniešstučniete
3rd personstučniestučnejú
Irregular verbs
byť, to bejesť, to eatvedieť, to know
1st singularsomjemviem
2nd singularsiješvieš
3rd singularjejevie
1st pluralsmejemevieme
2nd pluralstejeteviete
3rd pluraljediavedia
Past tensebol, bola, bolojedol, jedla, jedlovedel, vedela, vedelo


Adverbs are formed by replacing the adjectival ending with the ending -o or -e / -y. Sometimes both -o and -e are possible. Examples include the following:

vysoký (high) – vysoko (highly)
pekný (nice) – pekne (nicely)
priateľský (friendly) – priateľsky (in a friendly manner)
rýchly (fast) – rýchlo (quickly)

The comparative of adverbs is formed by replacing the adjectival ending with a comparative/superlative ending -(ej)ší or -(ej)šie, whence the superlative is formed with the prefix naj-. Examples include the following:

rýchly (fast) – rýchlejší (faster) – najrýchlejší (fastest): rýchlo (quickly) – rýchlejšie (more quickly) – najrýchlejšie (most quickly)


Each preposition is associated with one or more grammatical cases. The noun governed by a preposition must agree with the preposition in the given context. The preposition od always calls for the genitive case, but some prepositions such as po can call for different cases depending on the intended sense of the preposition.

from friends = od priateľov (genitive case of priatelia)
around the square = po námestí (locative case of námestie)
up to the square = po námestie (accusative case of námestie)


Relationships to other languages

Slovak is a descendant of Proto-Slavic, itself a descendant of Proto-Indo-European. It is closely related to the other West Slavic languages, primarily to Czech and Polish. Czech also influenced the language in its later development. The highest number of borrowings in the old Slovak vocabulary come from Latin, German, Czech, Hungarian, Polish and Greek (in that order). [19] Recently, it is also influenced by English.


Although most dialects of Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible (see Comparison of Slovak and Czech), eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech and closer to Polish and East Slavic, and contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.

Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia it has been permitted to use Czech in TV broadcasting and during court proceedings (Administration Procedure Act 99/1963 Zb.). From 1999 to August 2009, the Minority Language Act 184/1999 Z.z., in its section (§) 6, contained the variously interpreted unclear provision saying that "When applying this act, it holds that the use of the Czech language fulfills the requirement of fundamental intelligibility with the state language"; the state language is Slovak and the Minority Language Act basically refers to municipalities with more than 20% ethnic minority population (no such Czech municipalities are found in Slovakia). Since 1 September 2009 (due to an amendment to the State Language Act 270/1995 Z.z.) a language "fundamentally intelligible with the state language" (i.e. the Czech language) may be used in contact with state offices and bodies by its native speakers, and documents written in it and issued by bodies in the Czech Republic are officially accepted. Regardless of its official status, Czech is used commonly both in Slovak mass media and in daily communication by Czech natives as an equal language.

Czech and Slovak have a long history of interaction and mutual influence well before the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, a state which existed until 1993. Literary Slovak shares significant orthographic features with Czech, as well as technical and professional terminology dating from the Czechoslovak period, but phonetic, grammatical, and vocabulary differences do exist.

Other Slavic languages

Slavic language varieties are relatively closely related, and have had a large degree of mutual influence, due to the complicated ethnopolitical history of their historic ranges. This is reflected in the many features Slovak shares with neighboring language varieties. Standard Slovak shares high degrees of mutual intelligibility with many Slavic varieties. Despite this closeness to other Slavic varieties, significant variation exists among Slovak dialects. In particular, eastern varieties differ significantly from the standard language, which is based on central and western varieties.

Eastern Slovak dialects have the greatest degree of mutual intelligibility with Polish of all the Slovak dialects, followed by Rusyn, but both Eastern Slovak and Rusyn lack familiar technical terminology and upper register expressions. Polish and Sorbian also differ quite considerably from Czech and Slovak in upper registers, but non-technical and lower register speech is readily intelligible. Some mutual intelligibility occurs with spoken Rusyn, Ukrainian, and even Russian (in this order), although their orthographies are based on the Cyrillic script.

to buykupovaťkupovatkupowaćкуповати (kupovaty)купувати (kupuvaty)купляць (kuplać)kupovatiкупува (kupuva)kupovati
WelcomeVitajteVítejteWitajcieВітайте (vitajte)Вітаю (vitaju)Вітаю (vitaju)Dobrodošliдобре дошли (dobre došli)Dobrodošli
morningránoráno/jitrorano/ranekрано (rano)рано/ранок (rano/ranok)рана/ранак (rana/ranak)jutroутро (utro)jutro
Thank youĎakujemDěkujiDziękujęДякую (diakuju)Дякую (diakuju)Дзякуй (dziakuj)Hvalaблагодаря (blagodarja)Hvala
How are you?Ako sa máš?Jak se máš?Jak się masz?
(colloquially "jak leci?")
Як ся маєш/маш?
(jak sia maješ/maš?)
Як справи? (jak spravy?)Як справы? (jak spravy?)Kako si?Как си? (Kak si?)Kako se imaš?/Kako si?
Як ся маєш?
(jak sia maješ?)
Як маесься?
(jak majeśsia?)











Servus is commonly used as a greeting or upon parting in Slovak-speaking regions and some German-speaking regions, particularly Austria. Papa is also commonly used upon parting in these regions. Both servus and papa are used in colloquial, informal conversation.


Hungarians and Slovaks have had language interaction ever since the settlement of Hungarians in the Carpathian area. Hungarians also adopted many words from various Slavic languages related to agriculture and administration, and a number of Hungarian loanwords are found in Slovak. Some examples are as follows:


Slovak dialects Slovak Dialects EN.jpg
Slovak dialects

There are many Slovak dialects, which are divided into the following four basic groups:

The fourth group of dialects is often not considered a separate group, but a subgroup of Central and Western Slovak dialects (see e.g. Štolc, 1968), but it is currently undergoing changes due to contact with surrounding languages (Serbo-Croatian, Romanian, and Hungarian) and long-time geographical separation from Slovakia (see the studies in Zborník Spolku vojvodinských slovakistov, e.g. Dudok, 1993).

The dialect groups differ mostly in phonology, vocabulary, and tonal inflection. Syntactic differences are minor. Central Slovak forms the basis of the present-day standard language. Not all dialects are fully mutually intelligible. It may be difficult for an inhabitant of the western Slovakia to understand a dialect from eastern Slovakia and the other way around.

Official usage of Slovak in Vojvodina, Serbia Vojvodina slovak map.png
Official usage of Slovak in Vojvodina, Serbia

The dialects are fragmented geographically, separated by numerous mountain ranges. The first three groups already existed in the 10th century. All of them are spoken by the Slovaks outside Slovakia, and central and western dialects form the basis of the lowland dialects (see above).

The western dialects contain features common with the Moravian dialects in the Czech Republic, the southern central dialects contain a few features common with South Slavic languages, and the eastern dialects a few features common with Polish and the East Slavonic languages (cf. Štolc, 1994). Lowland dialects share some words and areal features with the languages surrounding them (Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian, and Romanian).


Standard Slovak (spisovná slovenčina) is defined by an Act of Parliament on the State Language of the Slovak Republic (language law). According to this law, Ministry of Culture approves and publishes the codified form of Slovak based on the judgment of specialised Slovak linguistic institutes and specialists in the area of the state language. This is traditionally Ľudovit Štúr Institute of Linguistics, which is part of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. In practice, Ministry of Culture publishes a document that specifies authoritative reference books for standard Slovak usage, which is called ' kodifikačná príručka ' (codification handbook). Current regulation was published on 15 March 2021. There are four such publications: [22]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bulgarian language</span> South Slavic language

Bulgarian is an Eastern South Slavic language spoken in Southeast Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of the Bulgarians.

Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group, written in Latin script. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of high mutual intelligibility, as well as to Polish to a lesser degree. Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polish language</span> West Slavic language

Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group written in the Latin script. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being the official language of Poland, it is also used by the Polish diaspora. There are over 50 million Polish speakers around the world. It ranks as the sixth most-spoken among languages of the European Union. Polish is subdivided into regional dialects and maintains strict T–V distinction pronouns, honorifics, and various forms of formalities when addressing individuals.

In grammar, the vocative case is a grammatical case which is used for a noun that identifies a person being addressed, or occasionally for the noun modifiers of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address by which the identity of the party spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence. For example, in the sentence "I don't know, John," John is a vocative expression that indicates the party being addressed, as opposed to the sentence "I don't know John" in which "John" is the direct object of the verb "know".

In grammar, the locative case is a grammatical case which indicates a location. It corresponds vaguely to the English prepositions "in", "on", "at", and "by". The locative case belongs to the general local cases, together with the lative and separative case.

Romani is an Indo-Aryan macrolanguage of the Romani communities. According to Ethnologue, seven varieties of Romani are divergent enough to be considered languages of their own. The largest of these are Vlax Romani, Balkan Romani (600,000), and Sinte Romani (300,000). Some Romani communities speak mixed languages based on the surrounding language with retained Romani-derived vocabulary – these are known by linguists as Para-Romani varieties, rather than dialects of the Romani language itself.

Dual is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities identified by the noun or pronoun acting as a single unit or in unison. Verbs can also have dual agreement forms in these languages.

Venedic is a naturalistic constructed language, created by the Dutch translator Jan van Steenbergen. It is used in the fictional Republic of the Two Crowns, based on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the alternate timeline of Ill Bethisad. Officially, Venedic is a descendant of Vulgar Latin with a strong Slavic admixture, based on the premise that the Roman Empire incorporated the ancestors of the Poles in their territory. Less officially, it tries to show what Polish would have looked like if it had been a Romance instead of a Slavic language. On the Internet, it is well-recognized as an example of the altlang genre, much like Brithenig and Breathanach.

The Slovak language is a West Slavic language. Historically, it forms a dialect continuum with Czech. The written standard is based on the work of Ľudovít Štúr, published in the 1840s and codified in July 1843 in Hlboké.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Slavic languages</span> Language family

The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages. There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans. These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches by a belt of German, Hungarian and Romanian speakers.

Czech declension is a complex system of grammatically determined modifications of nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals in Czech, one of the Slavic languages. Czech has seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, locative and instrumental, partly inherited from Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Slavic. Some forms of words match in more than one place in each paradigm.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Czech–Slovak languages</span> Subgroup of West Slavic languages

The Czech–Slovak languages are a subgroup within the West Slavic languages comprising the Czech and Slovak languages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inflection</span> Process of word formation

In linguistic morphology, inflection is a process of word formation in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness. The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and postpositions, numerals, articles, etc., as declension.

Sukuma is a Bantu language of Tanzania, spoken in an area southeast of Lake Victoria between Mwanza, Shinyanga, and Lake Eyasi.

Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language that, like most other Slavic languages, has an extensive system of inflection. This article describes exclusively the grammar of the Shtokavian dialect, which is a part of the South Slavic dialect continuum and the basis for the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian standard variants of Serbo-Croatian. "An examination of all the major 'levels' of language shows that BCS is clearly a single language with a single grammatical system."

Kanashi is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the isolated Malana (Malani) village area in Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh, India. It is, to some extent mutually intelligible with other Sino-Tibetan language like kinnauri.

Mortlockese, also known as Mortlock or Nomoi, is a language that belongs to the Chuukic group of Micronesian languages in the Federated States of Micronesia spoken primarily in the Mortlock Islands. It is nearly intelligible with Satawalese, with an 18 percent intelligibility and an 82 percent lexical similarity, and Puluwatese, with a 75 percent intelligibility and an 83 percent lexical similarity. The language today has become mutually intelligible with Chuukese, though marked with a distinct Mortlockese accent. Linguistic patterns show that Mortlockese is converging with Chuukese since Mortlockese now has an 80 to 85 percent lexical similarity.

Eastern Slovak dialects, are dialects of the Slovak language spoken natively in the historical regions of Spiš, Šariš, Zemplín and Abov, in the east of Slovakia. In contrast to other dialects of Slovak, Eastern dialects are less intelligible with Czech and more with Polish and Rusyn.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Proto-Slavic language</span> Proto-language of all the Slavic languages

Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all Slavic languages. It represents Slavic speech approximately from the 2nd millennium BC through the 6th century AD. As with most other proto-languages, no attested writings have been found; scholars have reconstructed the language by applying the comparative method to all the attested Slavic languages and by taking into account other Indo-European languages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Interslavic</span> Pan-Slavic language

Interslavic is a pan-Slavic auxiliary language. Its purpose is to facilitate communication between speakers of various Slavic languages, as well as to allow people who do not speak a Slavic language to communicate with Slavic speakers by being mutually intelligible with most, if not all, Slavic languages. For Slavs and non-Slavs, it can fulfill an educational role as well.


  1. "Autonomous Province of Vojvodina | Покрајинска влада". Archived from the original on 20 December 2017.
  2. 1 2 Slovak at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed Access logo transparent.svg
  3. "Autonomous Province of Vojvodina". Government of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  4. Pisarek, Walery (2009). The relationship between official and minority languages in Poland (PDF). 7th Annual Conference: The Relationship between Official Languages and Regional and Minority Languages in Europe. Dublin, Ireland: European Federation of National Institutions for Language. p. 18.
  5. "Hungary needs to strengthen use of and access to minority languages". Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe. 14 December 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2020. The following languages have been given special protection under the European Charter [in Hungary]: Armenian, Beas, Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Polish, Romani, Romanian, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian and Ukrainian.
  6. Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN   9781405881180
  7. Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN   9780521152532
  8. "Czech language". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  9. Golubović, Jelena; Gooskens, Charlotte (2015). "Mutual intelligibility between West and South Slavic languages". Russian Linguistics. 39 (3): 351–373. doi: 10.1007/s11185-015-9150-9 .
  10. Swan, Oscar E. (2002). A grammar of contemporary Polish. Bloomington, Ind.: Slavica. p. 5. ISBN   0893572969. OCLC   50064627.
  11. University of Oxford
  12. Archived 2017-10-11 at the Wayback Machine . University of California, Los Angeles
  13. Kráľ (1988), p. 55.
  14. Pavlík (2004), pp. 93–95.
  15. Bethin, Christina Y. (1998). Slavic Prosody: Language Change and Phonological Theory. Cambridge University Press. p. 149. ISBN   0521591481.
  16. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  17. 1 2 Pavlík (2004), pp. 99, 106.
  18. Jozef Ružička and co.: Morfológia slovenského jazyka, 1966
  19. Kopecká, Martina; Laliková, Tatiana; Ondrejková, Renáta; Skladaná, Jana; Valentová, Iveta (2011). Staršia slovenská lexika v medzijazykových vzťahoch ) (PDF). Bratislava: Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra SAV. pp. 10–46. ISBN   978-80-224-1217-9.
  20. Jesenská, Petra (2007). "Jazyková situácia na Slovensku v kontexte EÚ, s ohľadom na anglicizmy v slovenskej dennej tlači" (in Slovak). Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  21. Imre, Pacsai. "Magyar Nyelvőr – Pacsai Imre: Magyar–szlovák kulturális és nyelvi kapcsolat jegyei..."
  22. "MK-3620/2021-110/6659" (PDF). Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic (in Slovak). Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic. 15 March 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.


Further reading