List of language regulators

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This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism and prestige, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries, [1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also have a more descriptive approach, however, while maintaining and promoting (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate and codify the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors (see also: pluricentric language).


Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere, outside of private productions such as the Oxford Dictionary.

Natural languages

Amis Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Council of Indigenous Peoples
Afrikaans Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia
Die Taalkommissie
Akan Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian Flag of Albania.svg  Albania
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo
Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana
Flag of the Arab League.svg  Arab League Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Arabic Language International Council
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Iraqi Academy of Sciences
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Jordan Academy of Arabic
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia Academy of the Arabic Language in Riyadh
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Beit Al-Hikma Foundation
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine
Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Aragonese Flag of Aragon.svg  Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spain
Armenian Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences (Հայաստան)
Assamese Flag of India.svg Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturian Flag of Asturias.svg  Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azerbaijani Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Basque Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Country
Bandera de Navarra.svg Navarre
Flag of France.svg French Basque Country
Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language
Belarusian Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature [2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Bengali (Bangla) Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh Bangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি)
Flag of India.svg West Bengal Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Berber Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité
Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language
Central Bikol Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Academia Bicolana defunct
Bosnian Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosniak National Flag in Sandzak.svg Sandžak
University of Sarajevo
Bulgarian Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Burmese Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Myanmar Language Commission
Catalan Flag of Catalonia.svg  Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
Flag of the Valencian Community (2x3).svg  Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)
Cebuano Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)
Cherokee Flag of the Cherokee Nation.svg  Cherokee Nation Council of the Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ) [3]
Standard Chinese Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China State Language Work Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish Flag of Cornwall.svg  Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky))
Danish Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian Flag of Sweden.svg Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Divehi Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives Dhivehi Academy
Dutch Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission (རྫོང་ཁ་གོང་འཕེལ་ལྷན་ཚོགས)
EnglishOxford Dictionary
Estonian Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg  Faroe Islands Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)
Filipino Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)
Finnish Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Institute for the Languages of Finland
French Flag of France.svg  France Académie française (French Academy)
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Académie royale de langue et de littérature françaises de Belgique (Royal Academy of French Language and Literature of Belgium)
Flag of Quebec.svg  Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician Flag of Galicia.svg  Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega)
German Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Flag of South Tyrol.svg  South Tyrol
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenlandic Flag of Greenland.svg  Greenland The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Greek Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus
Center for the Greek Language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Guarani Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Guarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe’ ẽ Rerekuapavẽ)
Gujarati Flag of India.svg  India Gujarat Sahitya Akademi regulatory body established by the Government of Gujarat and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad
Hakka Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Hakka Affairs Council (客家委員會)
Haitian Creole Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen (Haitian Creole Academy)
Hebrew Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi Flag of India.svg  India Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)
Tulu Flag of India.svg  India Karnataka Tulu Sahitya Academy regulatory body for Tulu established by Government of Karnataka & Kerala Tulu Academy by Government of Kerala
Hmar Flag of India.svg  India Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[ citation needed ]
Hungarian Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Language and Book Development Agency (Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan)
Irish Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge
Italian Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese Flag of Japan.svg  Japan National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (国立国語研究所)
Kannada Flag of India.svg Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Commission of the Kashubian Language
Kazakh Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Khmer Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia Royal Academy of Cambodia (រាជបណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា)
Korean Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원/國立國語院)
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science (사회과학원 어학연구소)
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China China Korean Language Regulatory Commission (중국조선어규범위원회/中国朝鲜语规范委员会)
Kven Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Kainun institutti  – kvensk institutt
Kurdish Flag of Kurdistan.svg  Kurdistan Kurdish Academy  – ئەکادیمیای کوردی
Kyrgyz Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Latin Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (ecclesiastical Latin) [4]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Luxembourgish Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Council for the Luxembourgish Language (Conseil fir d'Letzebuerger Sprooch)
Macedonian Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia Linguistics and Literary Science Department at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Malagasy Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar Foibe momba ny teny at the Akademia Malagasy ( )
Malay Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei (Language and Literature Bureau)
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (Malay Language Council, Singapore)
Maltese Flag of Malta.svg  Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (
Manx Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Māori Language Commission
Mirandese Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Khalkha Mongolian Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government. [5]
Chakhar Mongolian Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Council for Language and Literature Work
Nepali Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Language Academy of Nepal
Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål) Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Norwegian Academy
Norwegian Bokmål
Norwegian Nynorsk
Norwegian Language Council
Occitan Flag of Occitania (with star).svg  Occitania
Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language) [6]
Institut d'Estudis Aranesi (Aranese) [7]
Conselh de la Lenga Occitana
Odia Flag of India.svg  India Odisha Sahitya Akademi
Pashto Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Pashto Academy
Persian Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan
Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature
Paiwan Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Council of Indigenous Peoples
Polish Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego), of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Portuguese Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
Flag of Galicia.svg  Galicia Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Lingua Portuguesa)
Quechua Flag of Peru.svg  Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Rohingya Rohingya flag.png Arakan (Rakhine State) Rohingya Language Academy (𐴌𐴟𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴚𐴒𐴙𐴝 𐴎𐴟𐴁𐴝𐴕 𐴀𐴠𐴑𐴝𐴋𐴠𐴔𐴞)
Romanian Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Romansh Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Lia Rumantscha
Russian Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire Russian Academy (1783–1841)
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)
Scots Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language. [8] Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today. [9]
Secwepemctsín Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Secwepemc Cultural Education Society
Serbian and Montenegrin Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority
Sinhala Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia
Regional Somali Language Academy
Sorbian Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Serbski institut
Spanish Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay
Flag of Honduras (darker variant).svg  Honduras
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
Association of Spanish Language Academies (constituted by the Royal Spanish Academy plus 23 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world and an Israel-based committee for Judaeo-Spanish.)
Swahili Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Swedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil Flag of India.svg Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official Language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Department of Official Languages, Sri Lanka
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Tamil Language Council, Singapore
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Malaysia Tamil Language Standardisation Council (மலேசியத் தமிழ் மொழியின் காப்பகம்)
Taiwanese Hokkien Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Ministry of Education (Taiwan)
Tatar Flag of Tatarstan.svg  Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
Telugu Flag of India.svg Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา)
Tibetan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tibet Autonomous Region Committee for Tibetan Language Affairs
Flag of India.svg  India Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language
Turkish Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus
Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language
Urdu Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan National Language Authority, Pakistan
Flag of India.svg  India National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India
Urhobo Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria Urhobo Studies Association
Vietnamese Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam Institute of Linguistics of Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences
Võro Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Võro Institute
Waray Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Aled Roberts)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)

(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)

West Frisian Frisian flag.svg  Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
YIVO [10] (Note that YIVO does not regulate or hold any sway over the Yiddish used in Ultra-Orthodox circles where the Yiddish language is most used in current times. The orthography and pronunciation of Yiddish in the Ultra-Orthodox communities is dramatically different from the standardized version of Yiddish devised by YIVO. A prime example of this is the spelling of the name for the Yiddish language in Yiddish itself. YIVO promotes the spelling "ייִדיש", while the spelling "אידיש" is more commonly used in most Ultra-Orthodox contexts.)
Yoruba Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria Yoruba Academy

Auxiliary languages


Apart from the Akademio de Esperanto, most auxiliary languages, also known as constructed languages (Conlangs) have no true linguistic regulators, language academies. [11]

Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution.

Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.

Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto
Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Lingua Franca Nova Asosia per Lingua Franca Nova
Lojban Logical Language Group
Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

Other constructed languages

Klingon Marc Okrand
Talossan Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ


The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua "Interlingua doesn't need its Academy". [11]

Other bodies

These bodies do not attempt to regulate any language in a prescriptive manner and are primarily concerned with aiding and advising the government on policies regarding language usage.

See also

Related Research Articles

Interlingua International auxiliary language created by IALA

Interlingua is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). It ranks among the top most widely used IALs, and is the most widely used naturalistic IAL – in other words, those IALs whose vocabulary, grammar and other characteristics are derived from natural languages, rather than being centrally planned. Interlingua was developed to combine a simple, mostly regular grammar with a vocabulary common to the widest possible range of western European languages, making it unusually easy to learn, at least for those whose native languages were sources of Interlingua's vocabulary and grammar. Conversely, it is used as a rapid introduction to many natural languages.

In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation. Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech or signing. They are distinguished from constructed and formal languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic.

Interlingue International auxiliary language created 1922

Interlingue, known until 1949 as Occidental, is an international auxiliary language created by Edgar de Wahl, a Baltic German naval officer and teacher from Tallinn, Estonia, and published in 1922. The vocabulary is based on already existing words from various languages and a system of derivation using recognized prefixes and suffixes.

An international auxiliary language is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language. An auxiliary language is primarily a foreign language. It usually takes words from widely spoken languages.

Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to establish rules defining preferred or correct usage of language. These rules may address such linguistic aspects as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax, and semantics. Sometimes informed by linguistic purism, such normative practices may suggest that some usages are incorrect, inconsistent, illogical, lack communicative effect, or are of low aesthetic value. They may also include judgments on socially proper and politically correct language use.

Language policy is an interdisciplinary academic field. Some scholars such as Joshua A. Fishman and Ofelia Garcia consider it as part of sociolinguistics. On the other hand, other scholars such as Bernard Spolsky, Robert B. Kaplan and Joseph Lo Bianco argue that language policy is a branch of applied linguistics.

Europanto is a macaronic language concept with a fluid vocabulary from European languages of the user's choice or need. It was conceived in 1996 by Diego Marani based on the common practice of word-borrowing usage of many European languages. Marani used it in response to the perceived dominance of the English language; it is an emulation of the effect that non-native speakers struggling to learn a language typically add words and phrases from their native language to express their meanings clearly.

Akademio de Esperanto

The Akademio de Esperanto is an independent body of enthusiastic Esperanto speakers who steward the evolution of said language by keeping it consistent with the Fundamento de Esperanto in accordance with the Declaration of Boulogne. Modeled somewhat after the Académie française and the Real Academia Española, the Akademio was proposed by L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, at the first World Esperanto Congress, and was founded soon thereafter under the name Lingva Komitato. This Committee had a "superior commission" called the Akademio. In 1948, within the framework of a general reorganization, the Language Committee and the Academy combined to form the Akademio de Esperanto.

Interlinguistics, as the science of planned languages, has existed for more than a century as a specific branch of linguistics for the study of various aspects of linguistic communication. Interlinguistics is a discipline formalized by Otto Jespersen in 1931 as the science of interlanguages, i.e. contact languages tailored for international communication. In more recent times, the object of study of interlinguistics was put into relation with language planning, the collection of strategies to deliberately influence the structure and function of a living language. In this framework, interlanguages become a subset of planned languages, i.e. extreme cases of language planning.

Esperanto and Interlingua are two planned languages which have taken radically different approaches to the problem of providing an International auxiliary language (IAL).

Neo language Artificially constructed language

Neo is an international auxiliary language created by Arturo Alfandari, a Belgian diplomat of Italian descent. It combines features of Esperanto, Ido, Novial, and Volapük. The root base of Neo is closely related to French, with some influence from English.

Language reform is a kind of language planning by widespread change to a language. The typical methods of language reform are simplification and linguistic purism. Simplification regularises vocabulary, grammar, or spelling. Purism aligns the language with a form which is deemed 'purer'.

A language barrier is a figurative phrase used primarily to refer to linguistic barriers to communication, i.e. the difficulties in communication experienced by people or groups originally speaking different languages, or even dialects in some cases.

William Edward Collinson was an eminent British linguist and, from 1914 to 1954, Chair of German at the University of Liverpool. Like Edward Sapir and Otto Jespersen, he collaborated with Alice Vanderbilt Morris to develop the research program of the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). From 1936 to 1939, he was Research Director of IALA. Under Collinson's guidance, methods of compiling international word material were tested at Liverpool. In 1939 IALA moved from Liverpool to New York and E. Clark Stillman succeeded Collinson as Research Director. Alexander Gode, editor of the first English-Interlingua dictionary published in 1951, remained in contact with Collinson which had collected much of linguistic material in the University of Liverpool.

Novial was created by Otto Jespersen, who had also been a co-author of Ido. Both languages base their vocabularies primarily on the Germanic and Romance languages but differ grammatically in several important respects. Comparisons among Ido, Novial, and other notable international auxiliary languages have formed an important part of interlinguistic studies. For example, both Ido and Novial were among the languages investigated by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA), which developed Interlingua. This article is intended to provide an overview of the salient differences and similarities of Ido and Novial.

The history of Interlingua comprises the formation of the language itself as well as its community of speakers.

Constructed language Consciously devised language

A constructed language is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, instead of having developed naturally, are consciously devised. Constructed languages may also be referred to as artificial languages, planned languages or invented languages and in some cases, fictional languages. Planned languages are languages that have been purposefully designed. They are the result of deliberate controlling intervention, thus of a form of language planning.

Zonal constructed languages are constructed languages made to facilitate communication between speakers of a certain group of closely related languages. They form a subgroup of the international auxiliary languages, but unlike languages like Esperanto and Volapük they are not intended to serve as languages for the whole world, but merely for a limited linguistic or geographic area. While there is some overlap with the term "Euroclone", the latter usually refers to languages intended for global use but based (almost) exclusively on European material. Another related concept is known as a koiné language, a dialect which naturally emerges as a means of communication among speakers of divergent dialects of a language.

Pan-Romance language

A pan-Romance language or Romance interlanguage is a codified linguistic variety which synthesizes the variation of the Romance languages and is representative of these as a whole. It can be seen as a standard language proposal for the whole language family but is generally considered a zonal constructed language because it's the result of intense codification. Zonal constructed languages are, according to interlinguist Detlev Blanke, constructed languages which "arise by choosing or mixing linguistic elements in a language group".

Outline of Esperanto Overview of and topical guide to Esperanto

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Esperanto:


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    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian
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