This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism and prestige, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also have a more descriptive approach, however, while maintaining and promoting (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate and codify the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors (see also: pluricentric language).
Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere, outside of private productions such as the Oxford Dictionary.
|Amis||Republic of China||Council of Indigenous Peoples|
|Afrikaans|| South Africa |
|Akan||Ghana||Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)|
|Albanian|| Albania |
|Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana|
|Arab League|| Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية)|
Arabic Language International Council
|Algeria||Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria|
|Egypt||Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo|
|Iraq||Iraqi Academy of Sciences|
|Jordan||Jordan Academy of Arabic|
|Libya||Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya|
|Morocco||Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco|
|Saudi Arabia||Academy of the Arabic Language in Riyadh|
|Somalia||Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu|
|Sudan||Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum|
|Syria||Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus|
|Tunisia||Beit Al-Hikma Foundation|
| Israel |
|Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel (مجمع اللغة العربية)|
|Aragonese||Aragon||Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spain|
|Armenian||Armenia||Armenian National Academy of Sciences (Հայաստան)|
|Assamese||Assam||Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)|
|Asturian||Asturias||Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)|
|Azerbaijani|| Azerbaijan |
|Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences|
|Basque|| Basque Country |
French Basque Country
|Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language|
|Belarusian||Belarus||The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus|
|Bengali (Bangla)||Bangladesh||Bangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি)|
|West Bengal||Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)|
|Berber||Morocco||Royal Institute of Amazight Culture|
|Algeria||Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité|
|Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language|
|Central Bikol||Philippines||Academia Bicolana defunct|
|Bosnian|| Bosnia and Herzegovina |
|University of Sarajevo|
|Bulgarian||Bulgaria||Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences|
|Burmese||Myanmar||Myanmar Language Commission|
|Catalan||Catalonia||Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)|
|Valencian Community||Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)|
|Cebuano||Philippines||Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)|
|Cherokee||Cherokee Nation||Council of the Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ)|
|Standard Chinese||China||State Language Work Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)|
|Republic of China||National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)|
|Singapore||Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)|
|Malaysia||Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)|
|Cornish||Cornwall||Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)|
|Croatian||Croatia||Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Czech||Czech Republic||Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky))|
|Danish||Denmark||Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)|
|Dalecarlian||Dalarna County||Ulum Dalska|
|Dutch|| Netherlands |
|Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)|
|Dzongkha||Bhutan||Dzongkha Development Commission (རྫོང་ཁ་གོང་འཕེལ་ལྷན་ཚོགས)|
|Estonian||Estonia||Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)|
|Faroese||Faroe Islands||Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)|
|Filipino||Philippines||Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)|
|Finnish||Finland||Institute for the Languages of Finland|
|French||France||Académie française (French Academy)|
|Belgium||Académie royale de langue et de littérature françaises de Belgique (Royal Academy of French Language and Literature of Belgium)|
|Quebec||Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)|
|Galician||Galicia||Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega)|
|German|| Germany |
|Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)|
|Greenlandic||Greenland||The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)|
|Greek|| Greece |
|Center for the Greek Language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)|
|Guarani||Paraguay||Guarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe’ ẽ Rerekuapavẽ)|
|Gujarati||India||Gujarat Sahitya Akademi regulatory body established by the Government of Gujarat and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad|
|Hakka||Republic of China||Hakka Affairs Council (客家委員會)|
|Haitian Creole||Haiti||Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen (Haitian Creole Academy)|
|Hebrew||Israel||Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)|
|Hindi||India||Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)|
|Tulu||India||Karnataka Tulu Sahitya Academy regulatory body for Tulu established by Government of Karnataka & Kerala Tulu Academy by Government of Kerala|
|Hmar||India||Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[ citation needed ]|
|Hungarian||Hungary||Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)|
|Icelandic||Iceland||Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies|
|Igbo||Nigeria||Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture|
|Indonesian||Indonesia||Language and Book Development Agency (Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan)|
|Irish|| Ireland |
|Foras na Gaeilge|
|Italian|| Italy |
|Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)|
|Japanese||Japan||National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (国立国語研究所)|
|Kannada||Karnataka||Various academies and Government of Karnataka|
|Kashubian||Poland||Commission of the Kashubian Language|
|Kazakh||Kazakhstan||Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan|
|Khmer||Cambodia||Royal Academy of Cambodia (រាជបណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា)|
|Korean||South Korea||National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원/國立國語院)|
|North Korea||The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science (사회과학원 어학연구소)|
|China||China Korean Language Regulatory Commission (중국조선어규범위원회/中国朝鲜语规范委员会)|
|Kven||Norway||Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt|
|Kurdish||Kurdistan||Kurdish Academy – ئەکادیمیای کوردی|
|Kyrgyz||Kyrgyzstan||National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)|
|Latin||Holy See||Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (ecclesiastical Latin)|
|International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)|
|International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)|
|Latvian||Latvia||Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)|
|Lithuanian||Lithuania||Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)|
|Lusoga||Uganda||Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)|
|Luxembourgish||Luxembourg||Council for the Luxembourgish Language (Conseil fir d'Letzebuerger Sprooch)|
|Macedonian||North Macedonia||Linguistics and Literary Science Department at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts|
|Malagasy||Madagascar||Foibe momba ny teny at the Akademia Malagasy (http://www.tenymalagasy.gov.mg/ )|
|Malay||Malaysia||Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)|
|Brunei||Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei (Language and Literature Bureau)|
|Singapore||Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (Malay Language Council, Singapore)|
|Maltese||Malta||National Council for the Maltese Language (www.kunsilltalmalti.gov.mt)|
|Manx||Isle of Man||Coonceil ny Gaelgey|
|Māori||New Zealand||Māori Language Commission|
|Mirandese||Portugal||Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)|
|Mixtec||Mexico||Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)|
|Khalkha Mongolian||Mongolia||Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.|
|Chakhar Mongolian||China||Council for Language and Literature Work|
|Nepali||Nepal||Language Academy of Nepal|
|Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål)||Norway||Norwegian Academy|
| Norwegian Bokmål|
|Norwegian Language Council|
|Occitan|| Occitania |
|Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language) |
Institut d'Estudis Aranesi (Aranese)
Conselh de la Lenga Occitana
|Odia||India||Odisha Sahitya Akademi|
|Pashto||Afghanistan||Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan|
|Persian||Iran||Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)|
|Afghanistan||Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan|
| Tajikistan |
|Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature|
|Paiwan||Republic of China||Council of Indigenous Peoples|
|Polish||Poland||Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego), of the Polish Academy of Sciences|
|Portuguese||Portugal||Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras|
|Brazil||Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)|
|Galicia||Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Lingua Portuguesa)|
|Quechua||Peru||High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)|
|Rohingya||Arakan (Rakhine State)||Rohingya Language Academy (𐴌𐴟𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴚𐴒𐴙𐴝 𐴎𐴟𐴁𐴝𐴕 𐴀𐴠𐴑𐴝𐴋𐴠𐴔𐴞)|
|Romanian||Romania||Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)|
|Moldova||Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei|
|Russian||Russian Empire||Russian Academy (1783–1841)|
|Russia||Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)|
|Scots||Scotland||The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language. Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today.|
|Secwepemctsín||Canada||Secwepemc Cultural Education Society|
|Serbian and Montenegrin|| Serbia |
|Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language|
|Sindhi||Pakistan||Sindhi Language Authority|
|Sinhala||Sri Lanka||Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)|
|Slovak||Slovakia||Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)|
|Slovene||Slovenia||Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts|
|Somali|| Djibouti |
|Regional Somali Language Academy|
|Sorbian|| Germany |
|Spanish|| Spain |
|Association of Spanish Language Academies (constituted by the Royal Spanish Academy plus 23 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world and an Israel-based committee for Judaeo-Spanish.)|
|Swahili||Tanzania||Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa|
|Kenya||Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa|
|Swedish||Sweden|| Swedish Language Council (semi-official)|
|Finland||Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)|
|Tamil||Tamil Nadu||Thanjavur Tamil University and Official Language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu|
|Sri Lanka||Department of Official Languages, Sri Lanka|
|Singapore||Tamil Language Council, Singapore|
|Malaysia||Malaysia Tamil Language Standardisation Council (மலேசியத் தமிழ் மொழியின் காப்பகம்)|
|Taiwanese Hokkien||Republic of China||Ministry of Education (Taiwan)|
|Tatar||Tatarstan||Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan|
|Telugu||Andhra Pradesh and Telangana||Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh|
|Tetum||East Timor||National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor|
|Thai||Thailand||Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา)|
|Tibetan||Tibet Autonomous Region||Committee for Tibetan Language Affairs|
|India||Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language|
|Turkish|| Turkey |
|Turkish Language Association|
|Ukrainian||Ukraine||NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language|
|Urdu||Pakistan||National Language Authority, Pakistan|
|India||National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India|
|Urhobo||Nigeria||Urhobo Studies Association|
|Vietnamese||Vietnam||Institute of Linguistics of Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences|
|Waray||Philippines||Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct|
|Welsh||Wales|| Welsh Language Commissioner (Aled Roberts)|
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)
(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)
|West Frisian||Friesland||Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)|
|Wolof||Senegal||Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)|
|Yiddish|| United States |
|YIVO (Note that YIVO does not regulate or hold any sway over the Yiddish used in Ultra-Orthodox circles where the Yiddish language is most used in current times. The orthography and pronunciation of Yiddish in the Ultra-Orthodox communities is dramatically different from the standardized version of Yiddish devised by YIVO. A prime example of this is the spelling of the name for the Yiddish language in Yiddish itself. YIVO promotes the spelling "ייִדיש", while the spelling "אידיש" is more commonly used in most Ultra-Orthodox contexts.)|
Apart from the Akademio de Esperanto, most auxiliary languages, also known as constructed languages (Conlangs) have no true linguistic regulators, language academies.
Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution.
Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.
|Esperanto||Akademio de Esperanto|
|Ido||Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido|
|Lingua Franca Nova||Asosia per Lingua Franca Nova|
|Lojban||Logical Language Group|
|Talossan||Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ|
The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua "Interlingua doesn't need its Academy".
These bodies do not attempt to regulate any language in a prescriptive manner and are primarily concerned with aiding and advising the government on policies regarding language usage.
Interlingua is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). It ranks among the top most widely used IALs, and is the most widely used naturalistic IAL – in other words, those IALs whose vocabulary, grammar and other characteristics are derived from natural languages, rather than being centrally planned. Interlingua was developed to combine a simple, mostly regular grammar with a vocabulary common to the widest possible range of western European languages, making it unusually easy to learn, at least for those whose native languages were sources of Interlingua's vocabulary and grammar. Conversely, it is used as a rapid introduction to many natural languages.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation. Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech or signing. They are distinguished from constructed and formal languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic.
Interlingue, known until 1949 as Occidental, is an international auxiliary language created by Edgar de Wahl, a Baltic German naval officer and teacher from Tallinn, Estonia, and published in 1922. The vocabulary is based on already existing words from various languages and a system of derivation using recognized prefixes and suffixes.
An international auxiliary language is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language. An auxiliary language is primarily a foreign language. It usually takes words from widely spoken languages.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to establish rules defining preferred or correct usage of language. These rules may address such linguistic aspects as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax, and semantics. Sometimes informed by linguistic purism, such normative practices may suggest that some usages are incorrect, inconsistent, illogical, lack communicative effect, or are of low aesthetic value. They may also include judgments on socially proper and politically correct language use.
Language policy is an interdisciplinary academic field. Some scholars such as Joshua A. Fishman and Ofelia Garcia consider it as part of sociolinguistics. On the other hand, other scholars such as Bernard Spolsky, Robert B. Kaplan and Joseph Lo Bianco argue that language policy is a branch of applied linguistics.
Europanto is a macaronic language concept with a fluid vocabulary from European languages of the user's choice or need. It was conceived in 1996 by Diego Marani based on the common practice of word-borrowing usage of many European languages. Marani used it in response to the perceived dominance of the English language; it is an emulation of the effect that non-native speakers struggling to learn a language typically add words and phrases from their native language to express their meanings clearly.
The Akademio de Esperanto is an independent body of enthusiastic Esperanto speakers who steward the evolution of said language by keeping it consistent with the Fundamento de Esperanto in accordance with the Declaration of Boulogne. Modeled somewhat after the Académie française and the Real Academia Española, the Akademio was proposed by L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, at the first World Esperanto Congress, and was founded soon thereafter under the name Lingva Komitato. This Committee had a "superior commission" called the Akademio. In 1948, within the framework of a general reorganization, the Language Committee and the Academy combined to form the Akademio de Esperanto.
Interlinguistics, as the science of planned languages, has existed for more than a century as a specific branch of linguistics for the study of various aspects of linguistic communication. Interlinguistics is a discipline formalized by Otto Jespersen in 1931 as the science of interlanguages, i.e. contact languages tailored for international communication. In more recent times, the object of study of interlinguistics was put into relation with language planning, the collection of strategies to deliberately influence the structure and function of a living language. In this framework, interlanguages become a subset of planned languages, i.e. extreme cases of language planning.
Esperanto and Interlingua are two planned languages which have taken radically different approaches to the problem of providing an International auxiliary language (IAL).
Neo is an international auxiliary language created by Arturo Alfandari, a Belgian diplomat of Italian descent. It combines features of Esperanto, Ido, Novial, and Volapük. The root base of Neo is closely related to French, with some influence from English.
Language reform is a kind of language planning by widespread change to a language. The typical methods of language reform are simplification and linguistic purism. Simplification regularises vocabulary, grammar, or spelling. Purism aligns the language with a form which is deemed 'purer'.
A language barrier is a figurative phrase used primarily to refer to linguistic barriers to communication, i.e. the difficulties in communication experienced by people or groups originally speaking different languages, or even dialects in some cases.
William Edward Collinson was an eminent British linguist and, from 1914 to 1954, Chair of German at the University of Liverpool. Like Edward Sapir and Otto Jespersen, he collaborated with Alice Vanderbilt Morris to develop the research program of the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). From 1936 to 1939, he was Research Director of IALA. Under Collinson's guidance, methods of compiling international word material were tested at Liverpool. In 1939 IALA moved from Liverpool to New York and E. Clark Stillman succeeded Collinson as Research Director. Alexander Gode, editor of the first English-Interlingua dictionary published in 1951, remained in contact with Collinson which had collected much of linguistic material in the University of Liverpool.
Novial was created by Otto Jespersen, who had also been a co-author of Ido. Both languages base their vocabularies primarily on the Germanic and Romance languages but differ grammatically in several important respects. Comparisons among Ido, Novial, and other notable international auxiliary languages have formed an important part of interlinguistic studies. For example, both Ido and Novial were among the languages investigated by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA), which developed Interlingua. This article is intended to provide an overview of the salient differences and similarities of Ido and Novial.
The history of Interlingua comprises the formation of the language itself as well as its community of speakers.
A constructed language is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, instead of having developed naturally, are consciously devised. Constructed languages may also be referred to as artificial languages, planned languages or invented languages and in some cases, fictional languages. Planned languages are languages that have been purposefully designed. They are the result of deliberate controlling intervention, thus of a form of language planning.
Zonal constructed languages are constructed languages made to facilitate communication between speakers of a certain group of closely related languages. They form a subgroup of the international auxiliary languages, but unlike languages like Esperanto and Volapük they are not intended to serve as languages for the whole world, but merely for a limited linguistic or geographic area. While there is some overlap with the term "Euroclone", the latter usually refers to languages intended for global use but based (almost) exclusively on European material. Another related concept is known as a koiné language, a dialect which naturally emerges as a means of communication among speakers of divergent dialects of a language.
A pan-Romance language or Romance interlanguage is a codified linguistic variety which synthesizes the variation of the Romance languages and is representative of these as a whole. It can be seen as a standard language proposal for the whole language family but is generally considered a zonal constructed language because it's the result of intense codification. Zonal constructed languages are, according to interlinguist Detlev Blanke, constructed languages which "arise by choosing or mixing linguistic elements in a language group".
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Esperanto:
Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian
Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ...