|Vice President||Diosdado Cabello|
|Founded||24 March 2007|
|Preceded by||Fifth Republic Movement|
|Youth wing||United Socialist Party of Venezuela Youth|
|Ideology|| Chavismo |
Socialism of the 21st century
|National affiliation||Great Patriotic Pole|
|Regional affiliation|| COPPPAL,|
São Paulo Forum
|Seats in the National Assembly|
52 / 167
|Seats in the Latin American Parliament|
4 / 12
19 / 23
303 / 335
|Seats in the 2017 Constituent National Assembly|
503 / 545
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Spanish : Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by President Hugo Chávez.
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be public, collective or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms.
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.
At the 2015 parliamentary election, PSUV lost its majority in the National Assembly for the first time since the unicameral legislature's creation in 2000 against the Democratic Unity Roundtable, earning 55 out of the National Assembly's 167 seats.
The National Assembly is the de jure legislature for Venezuela that was first elected in 2000. It is a unicameral body made up of a variable number of members, who were elected by a "universal, direct, personal, and secret" vote partly by direct election in state-based voting districts, and partly on a state-based party-list proportional representation system. The number of seats is constant, each state and the Capital district elected three representatives plus the result of dividing the state population by 1.1% of the total population of the country. Three seats are reserved for representatives of Venezuela's indigenous peoples and elected separately by all citizens, not just those with indigenous backgrounds. For the 2010-2015 period the number of seats was 165. All deputies serve five-year terms. The National Assembly meets in the Federal Legislative Palace in Venezuela's capital, Caracas.
The Democratic Unity Roundtable is a catch-all electoral coalition of Venezuelan political parties formed in January 2008 to unify the opposition to President Hugo Chávez's United Socialist Party of Venezuela in the Venezuelan parliamentary election, 2010. A previous opposition umbrella group, the Coordinadora Democrática, had collapsed after the failure of the Venezuelan recall referendum, 2004.
The process of merging most of the unidentified parties involved in the pro-Bolivarian Revolution coalition was initiated by Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez after he won the Venezuelan presidential election of 2006.The process was led by Chávez' own party, the Fifth Republic Movement, and was supported by a range of smaller parties such as the People's Electoral Movement (MEP), Venezuelan Popular Unity (UPV), the Tupamaro Movement, the Socialist League and others which all together added up 45.99% of the votes received by Chávez during the 2006 election. Other pro-Bolivarian parties like the Communist Party of Venezuela (Partido Comunista de Venezuela, PCV), Fatherland for All (Patria Para Todos, PPT) and For Social Democracy (PODEMOS), that cast 14.60% of the votes from that election, declined to join the new party.
The Bolivarian Revolution is a political process in Venezuela that was led by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, the founder of the Fifth Republic Movement and later the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV). The Bolivarian Revolution is named after Simón Bolívar, an early 19th-century Venezuelan and Latin American revolutionary leader, prominent in the Spanish American wars of independence in achieving the independence of most of northern South America from Spanish rule. According to Chávez and other supporters, the Bolivarian Revolution seeks to build an inter-American coalition to implement Bolivarianism, nationalism and a state-led economy.
The Fifth Republic Movement was a Socialist political party in Venezuela. It was founded in July 1997, following a national congress of the Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200, to support the candidacy of Hugo Chávez, the former President of Venezuela, in the 1998 presidential election. The "Fifth Republic" refers to the fact that in 1997 the Republic of Venezuela was the fourth in Venezuelan history, and the Movement aimed to re-found the Republic through a constitutional assembly. Following Chávez' 1998 election victory, this took place in 1999, leading to the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela.
Revolutionary Movement Tupamaro or Tupamaro is a far left Marxist political party and one of the most prominent colectivos in Venezuela. Several Tupamaros participate in peaceful movements while some believe the "idea of armed struggle as a means to gain power." The group supports the National Liberation Army (ELN) and allegedly had ties with FARC.
On 7 March 2007, Chávez presented a phased plan for founding the new party until November 2007.PODEMOS, PPT and PCV initially stated they would wait until PSUV had been founded and decide their membership in the new party based on its program. On 18 March 2007, Chávez declared on his programme Aló Presidente that he had "opened the doors for the For Social Democracy, the Fatherland for All, and the Communist Party of Venezuela if they want to go away from Chávez´s alliance, they may do so and leave us in peace". In his opinion, those parties were near to be on the opposition and they should choose wisely, between going "in silence, hugging us or throwing stones". PPT, at its 2007 congress on 10 and 11 April, decided not to join but re-affirmed its support for Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution.
Aló Presidente was a largely unscripted talk show that was hosted by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez. It was broadcast on Venezuelan state television and radio stations every Sunday at 11:00 AM. The program did not have a fixed ending time, but usually ended by 5:00 PM, or as the program dynamics permitted. The show promoted the "Bolivarian Revolution" and blamed Venezuelan economic problems on its northern neighbor, the United States. Many Venezuelans tuned in because Chávez was known for unveiling new financial assistance packages every weekend. Beginning in 1999, Chávez spent an average of 40 hours a week on television promoting his "Bolivarian Revolution" policies.
PODEMOS is a political party in Venezuela. In the 2005 legislative elections the party won 15 out of 165 seats in the National Assembly.
Fatherland for All is a leftist political party in Venezuela. It was founded on September 27, 1997 by members of The Radical Cause party led by Pablo Medina, Aristóbulo Istúriz and Alí Rodríguez Araque. In 1998 the PPT supported the first presidential candidacy of Hugo Chávez. It is currently led by Rafael Uzcátegui.
|Parties joining PSUV||Parties not joining PSUV|
|Fifth Republic Movement (MVR)||For Social Democracy (PODEMOS)|
|People's Electoral Movement (MEP)||Fatherland for All (PPT)|
|Everybody Wins Independent Movement (MIGATO)||Communist Party of Venezuela (PCV)|
|Venezuelan Popular Unity (UPV)||Revolutionary Middle Class (CMR)|
|Revolutionary Movement Tupamaro (MRT)||Emergent People (GE)|
|Socialist League (LS)||Action Networks of Communitary Change (REDES)|
|Movement for Direct Democracy (MDD)||Communitary Patriotic Unity (UPC)|
|Union Party||New People Concentration Movement (MCGN)|
|Militant Civic Movement (MCM)||Active Democracy National Organization (ONDA)|
|Action Force of Base Coordination (FACOBA)||National Independent Movement (MNI)|
|Independents for the National Community (IPCN)||Labor Power (PL)|
|Venezuelan Revolutionary Currents (CRV)|
The party held its founding congress in early 2008,from 12 January to 2 March, with 1681 delegates participating. Chávez was proclaimed President of the new party on 14 March.
As of 2014, the party has been described as "fracturing" and "weakening" due to the loss of Hugo Chávez, the poor state of Venezuela's economy and falling oil prices.Internal issues also appeared in the party, with an email address and telephone hotline created to report "internal enemies". In 23 November PSUV elections, it was reported by party dissidents that very few individuals participated, with less than 10% of the supposedly 7.6 million members casting a vote.
Chávez said that "[i]t's a very young party" with an average age of 35 among members. Analysts agreed, saying: "The assumption is that the younger people are going to be Chavistas (in support of Chávez), they are going to be the ones whose families have benefited from Chávez's social programs."
With the creation of PSUV, relationships greatly soured with former coalition parties that chose not to join. By the 2008 regional election campaign in October, Chávez declared that "Patria Para Todos and the Communist Party of Venezuela will disappear from the political map because they are liars and manipulators."
In April 2010, an Extraordinary Congress of the PSUV resulted in the endorsement of a range of "general principles", including among others socialism, Marxism, and Bolivarianism; humanism, internationalism, and patriotism; and the defense of participatory democracy and use of internal party democracy. It also defined the party as the "political vanguard of the revolutionary process".
The party held its 3rd Congress in 2014, which elected Nicolás Maduro as the 2nd party president and honored Hugo Chávez posthumously as the party's eternal president and founder, and party policies were updated. It was followed by the 4th Party Congress in 2018.
Party builds on cult of personality of the Hugo Chávez, with revolutionary symbols like Chávez eyes sometimes along with the party symbols.
The party is headed at the national level by the Eternal President Hugo Chávez (a posthumous title), the president (currently Nicolas Maduro), vice-president (Jorge Arreaza), and a 29-member national board of directors:
The Units of Battle Hugo Chávez (UBCh) is a collection of organizations with multiple members of PSUV involved that has both military and political characteristics.The UBCh originated as a group to defend the Bolivarian Revolution and support the party through electoral processes in Venezuela, and were transformed into their current name in 2013. They form the basic party unit in Venezuelan communities, and 4 or more of them form a People's Struggle Circle ( Círculo de Lucha Popular) in the community level. The Unit itself is divided into 10 Unit Patrols serving various functions for party members in various sectors.
Other assisting groups include:
|Election year||Name||First Round||Second Round|
|2012||Hugo Chávez||8,191,132||55.1 (#1)|
|Major party in the "Great Patriotic Pole".|
|2013||Nicolás Maduro||7,587,579||50.6 (#1)|
|Major party in the "Great Patriotic Pole".|
|2018||Nicolás Maduro||6,205,875||67.8% (#1)|
|Major party in the "Great Patriotic Pole".|
|Election year||# of|
overall seats won
96 / 165
55 / 167
The politics of Venezuela occurs in a framework explained in Government of Venezuela.
Elections in Venezuela are held at a national level for the President of Venezuela as head of state and head of government, and for a unicameral legislature. The President of Venezuela is elected for a six-year term by direct election plurality voting, and is eligible for re-election. The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) has 165 members (diputados), elected for five-year terms using a mixed member majoritarian system. Elections also take place at state level and local level.
Adán Chávez Frías is Venezuelan politician who was Governor of Barinas state from 2008 to 2017. Previously he was Ambassador to Cuba and then Minister of Education from 2007 to 2008. He is the elder brother of Hugo Chávez, who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013, and of the Mayor of Sabaneta, Barinas, Anibal José Chávez Frías.
Francisco Javier Arias Cárdenas is a Venezuelan politician and career military officer, and was the governor of Zulia state. He participated in Hugo Chávez's unsuccessful February 1992 coup attempt, being pardoned in 1994 by Rafael Caldera, along with the other conspirators. He was elected Governor of Zulia state in 1995 for the Radical Cause, and challenged Hugo Chávez for the presidency in 2000. He subsequently served as Venezuelan Ambassador to the UN, and deputy to the National Assembly after the 2010 parliamentary elections.
The President of Venezuela, officially known as the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the head of state and head of government in Venezuela. The president leads the National Executive of the Venezuelan government and is the commander-in-chief of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces. Presidential terms were set at six years with the adoption of the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela, and presidential term limits were removed in 2009.
The Bolivarian Forces of Liberation is a communist guerrilla organization operating in Venezuela. The group claims to fight for Bolivarianism, a left-wing, South American ideology. The group was formerly known as the Bolivarian Forces of Liberation – Liberation Army, but they have not attached the suffix to their name in recent years.
Chavismo, also known as Chavism and Chavezism, is a left-wing political ideology based on the ideas, programs and government style associated with the former Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez that combines elements of socialism, left-wing populism, patriotism, internationalism, Bolivarianism, feminism, green politics and Caribbean and Latin American integration.
Jorge Jesús Rodríguez Gómez is a Venezuelan politician and psychiatrist who was Vice President of Venezuela from January 2007 to January 2008, and served as Mayor of the Libertador Bolivarian Municipality from 2008-2017. He is the brother of Delcy Rodríguez, the current Vice President.
Cilia Adela Gavidia Flores de Maduro is a Venezuelan lawyer and politician. She is married to the President of Venezuela Nicolás Maduro, making her the First Lady of the country. Since 2015, she is also a deputy in the National Assembly of Venezuela for her home state of Cojedes. In 2017 Constituent National Assembly was founded where she is member of the Presidential Commission. Her nephews, Efraín Antonio Campo Flores and Francisco Flores de Freitas, were arrested on November 2015 by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after attempting to transport 800 kilograms of cocaine into the United States.
Henri Falcón Fuentes is a Venezuelan politician. He was mayor for two consecutive terms of Barquisimeto, Iribarren Municipality (2000–2008) and governor of Lara State (2008–2017). He was a candidate in the Venezuelan presidential election, 2018.
The Venezuelan presidential election of 2012 was held on 7 October 2012 to choose a president for the six-year term beginning February 2013.
Bolivarian propaganda is a form of nationalist propaganda, especially in Venezuela, that utilizes the ideals espoused by Simón Bolívar, who helped lead Venezuela and other Latin American countries to independence from Spain, to exploit populist sentiments in support of local leaders. This type of propaganda has been particularly associated with Hugo Chávez's Bolivarian Revolution, which used emotional arguments to gain attention, exploit the fears of the population, create external enemies for scapegoat purposes, and produce nationalism within the population, causing feelings of betrayal for support of the opposition. The World Politics Review stated that as Chávez began "transforming Venezuela into a socialist state" that propaganda was "an important role in maintaining and mobilizing government supporters". The image of Chávez is seen on sides of buildings, on T-shirts, on ambulances, on official Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) billboards, and as action figures throughout Venezuela. A 2011 article by The New York Times says Venezuela has an "expanding state propaganda complex" while The Boston Globe described Chávez as "a media savvy, forward-thinking propagandist" and that he had "the oil wealth to influence public opinion".
The Simón Bolívar Great Patriotic Pole is a left-wing socialist electoral alliance of Venezuelan political parties created in 2012 to support the re-election of Hugo Chávez in the 2012 presidential election.
The National Commission of Propaganda, Agitation and Communication is a Venezuelan propaganda organization belonging to PSUV, the ruling party of the Government of Venezuela.
The Units of Battle Hugo Chávez (UBCh) is a collection of organizations with multiple members of PSUV involved that has both military and political characteristics.
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela Youth is the youth wing of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, which constitutes the initial scope of action of young people within the militant activity and under the party's guidelines.
North Korea–Venezuela relations are relations between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Venezuela is one of the five countries in Latin America that has an embassy of North Korea along with Peru, Cuba, Brazil and Mexico.