Patriotism

Last updated

Allegory of Patriotism in the Monument to the Fallen for Spain in Madrid (1840), by sculptor Francisco Perez del Valle Patriotism by Francisco Perez del Valle (Madrid) 01.jpg
Allegory of Patriotism in the Monument to the Fallen for Spain in Madrid (1840), by sculptor Francisco Pérez del Valle

Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love, devotion and sense of attachment to a homeland and alliance with other citizens who share the same sentiment. This attachment can be a combination of many different feelings relating to one's own homeland, including ethnic, cultural, political or historical aspects. It encompasses a set of concepts closely related to nationalism. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

Some manifestations of patriotism emphasise the "land" element in love for one's native land and use the symbolism of agriculture and the soil [4] [5] – compare Blut und Boden .

Terminology and usage

An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called chauvinism; another related term is jingoism .

The English term patriot is first attested in the Elizabethan era; it came via Middle French from Late Latin (6th century) patriota, meaning "countryman", ultimately from Greek πατριώτης (patriōtēs), meaning 'from the same country', fromπατρίς (patris), meaning 'fatherland'. [6] The abstract noun patriotism appears in the early 18th century. [7]

History

An American poster with a patriotic theme (1917), issued by the U.S. Food Administration during World War I "Be Patriotic sign your country's pledge to save the food." - NARA - 512548.jpg
An American poster with a patriotic theme (1917), issued by the U.S. Food Administration during World War I

The general notion of civic virtue and group dedication has been attested in culture globally throughout the historical period. For the Enlightenment thinkers of 18th-century Europe, loyalty to the state was chiefly considered in contrast to loyalty to the Church. It was argued that clerics should not be allowed to teach in public schools since their patrie was heaven, so that they could not inspire love of the homeland in their students. One of the most influential proponents of this classical notion of patriotism was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. [1]

Enlightenment thinkers also criticized what they saw as the excess of patriotism. In 1774, Samuel Johnson published The Patriot, a critique of what he viewed as false patriotism. On the evening of 7 April 1775, he made the famous statement, "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel." [8] James Boswell, who reported this comment in his Life of Johnson , does not provide context for the quote, and it has therefore been argued that Johnson was in fact attacking the false use of the term "patriotism" by contemporaries such as John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (the patriot-minister) and his supporters; Johnson spoke elsewhere in favor of what he considered "true" patriotism. [9] However, there is no direct evidence to contradict the widely held belief that Johnson's famous remark was a criticism of patriotism itself.

Philosophical issues

Patriotism may be strengthened by adherence to a national religion (a civil religion or even a theocracy). This is the opposite of the separation of church and state demanded by the Enlightenment thinkers who saw patriotism and faith as similar and opposed forces. Michael Billig and Jean Bethke Elshtain have both argued that the difference between patriotism and faith is difficult to discern and relies largely on the attitude of the one doing the labelling. [10]

Christopher Heath Wellman, [11] professor of philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis, describes that a popular view of the "patriotist" position is robust obligations to compatriots and only minimal samaritan responsibilities to foreigners. [12] Wellman calls this position "patriotist" rather than "nationalist" to single out the members of territorial, political units rather than cultural groups. [12]

George Orwell, in his influential essay Notes on Nationalism distinguished patriotism from the related concept of nationalism:

"By 'patriotism' I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force upon other people. Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both militarily and culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power. The abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality." [13]

Opposition

Voltaire stated that "It is lamentable, that to be a good patriot one must become the enemy of the rest of mankind." [14] Arthur Schopenhauer wrote in his The World as Will and Representation that “The cheapest sort of pride is national pride; for if a man is proud of his own nation, it argues that he has no qualities of his own of which a person can be proud” [15]

A patriotic song singing competition at Dalian University, China Singing Red Song competition in Dalian University.jpg
A patriotic song singing competition at Dalian University, China

Marxists have taken various stances regarding patriotism. On one hand, Karl Marx famously stated that "The working men have no country" [16] and that "the supremacy of the proletariat will cause them [national differences] to vanish still faster." The same view is promoted by present-day Trotskyists such as Alan Woods, who is "in favour of tearing down all frontiers and creating a socialist world commonwealth." [17] On the other hand, Stalinists and Maoists are usually in favour of socialist patriotism based on the theory of socialism in one country. [18]

Region-specific issues

In the European Union, thinkers such as Jürgen Habermas have advocated a "Euro-patriotism", but patriotism in Europe is usually directed at the nation-state and more often than not coincides with "Euroscepticism".[ citation needed ]

Surveys

Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons, such as the Correlates of War project which found some correlation between war propensity and patriotism. The results from different studies are time dependent. For example, patriotism in Germany before World War I ranked at or near the top, whereas today it ranks at or near the bottom of patriotism surveys.[ citation needed ]

Since 1981, the World Values Survey explores people's national values and beliefs and refer to the average answer "for high income residents" of a country to the question "Are you proud to be [insert nationality]?". It ranges from 1 (not proud) to 4 (very proud). [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Nationalism is an ideology and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference (self-determination), that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, and that the nation is the only rightful source of political power. It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, language, religion, politics, and belief in a shared singular history—and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, therefore, seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional culture, and cultural revivals have been associated with nationalist movements. It also encourages pride in national achievements, and is closely linked to patriotism. Nationalism is often combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism or socialism for example.

A nation is a stable community of people formed on the basis of a common language, territory, history, ethnicity, or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture. A nation is more overtly political than an ethnic group; it has been described as "a fully mobilized or institutionalized ethnic group". Some nations are ethnic groups and some are not. A nation has also been defined as a cultural-political community that has become conscious of its autonomy, unity and particular interests.

Johann Georg Hamann German philosopher

Johann Georg Hamann was a German Lutheran philosopher from Königsberg known as the “the Wizard of the North” who was one of the leader figures of post Kantian philosophy. His work was used by his student J. G. Herder as the main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and is associated with the Counter-Enlightenment and Romanticism.

Johann Gottfried Herder German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic

Johann GottfriedHerder was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism.

Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all human beings are, or could or should be, members of a single community. Different views of what constitutes this community may include a focus on moral standards, economic practices, political structures, and/or cultural forms. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite.

Nicholas Wolterstorff American philosopher

Nicholas Paul Wolterstorff is an American philosopher and a liturgical theologian. He is currently Noah Porter Professor Emeritus Philosophical Theology at Yale University. A prolific writer with wide-ranging philosophical and theological interests, he has written books on aesthetics, epistemology, political philosophy, philosophy of religion, metaphysics, and philosophy of education. In Faith and Rationality, Wolterstorff, Alvin Plantinga, and William Alston developed and expanded upon a view of religious epistemology that has come to be known as Reformed epistemology. He also helped to establish the journal Faith and Philosophy and the Society of Christian Philosophers.

Canadian nationalism political ideology in Canada

Canadian nationalism seeks to promote the unity, independence, and well-being of Canada and Canadians. Canadian nationalism has been a significant political force since the 19th century and has typically manifested itself as seeking to advance Canada's independence from influence of the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Since the 1960s, most proponents of Canadian nationalism have advocated a civic nationalism due to Canada's cultural diversity that specifically has sought to equalize citizenship, especially for Québécois and French-speaking Canadians, who historically faced cultural and economic discrimination and assimilationist pressure from English Canadian-dominated governments. Canadian nationalism became an important issue during the 1988 Canadian general election that focused on the then-proposed Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement, with Canadian nationalists opposing the agreement - saying that the agreement would lead to inevitable complete assimilation and domination of Canada by the United States. During the 1995 Quebec referendum on sovereignty that sought to determine whether Quebec would become a sovereign state or whether it would remain in Canada, Canadian nationalists and federalists supported the "no" side while Quebec nationalists supported the "yes" side, resulting in a razor-thin majority in favour of the "no" side that supported Quebec remaining in Canada.

American nationalism Nationalism in support of the collective identity of the United States

American nationalism, or United States nationalism, is a form of civic nationalism, cultural nationalism or ethnic nationalism found in the United States. Essentially, it indicates the aspects that characterize and distinguish the United States as an autonomous political community. The term often serves to explain efforts to reinforce its national identity and self-determination within their national and international affairs.

National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. It is the sense of "a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, and language." National identity may refer to the subjective feeling one shares with a group of people about a nation, regardless of one's legal citizenship status. National identity is viewed in psychological terms as "an awareness of difference", a "feeling and recognition of 'we' and 'they'".

Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in an inclusive form of nationalism that adheres to traditional liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.

Anti-patriotism

Anti-patriotism is the ideology that opposes patriotism; it usually refers to those with cosmopolitan views and is usually of an internationalist and anti-nationalist nature as well. Normally, anti-patriotism stems from the belief that patriotism is wrong since people born in a country, whether they like it or not and regardless of their individuality, are encouraged to love the country or sacrifice themselves for it; consequently, people who oppose patriotism may oppose its perceived authoritarianism, while others may believe that patriotism may lead to war because of geopolitical disputes. Usually, this term is used in a pejorative way by those who defend patriotism or nationalism, and terms such as cosmopolitanism or world citizenship may be used to avoid the bias that comes from the typical usage of the words anti-patriot or anti-patriotism. Sometimes anti patriotical groups and individuals are often used as a form of Active measures against own country by other country or some third side, especially during Cold war. The idea of multiple cultures intertwined has also been questioned as anti-patriotic, but mainly in smaller social communities: colleges, universities, etc. The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 were pieces of legislation in the United States that were passed after it entered World War I, to incriminate individuals who attempted to impede the war effort. Those who did so were punished and believed to be performing acts of anti-patriotism.

Left-wing nationalism or leftist nationalism, also known as social nationalism and referred to as Nationalist Socialism or socialist nationalism, is a form of nationalism based upon social equality, popular sovereignty and national self-determination. Left-wing nationalism can also include anti-imperialism and national liberation movements.

Postnationalism or non-nationalism is the process or trend by which nation states and national identities lose their importance relative to cross-nation and self-organized or supranational and global entities as well as local entities. Although postnationalism is not strictly considered the antonym of nationalism, the two terms and their associated assumptions are antithetic as postnationalism is an internationalistic process. There are several factors that contribute to aspects of postnationalism, including economic, political, and cultural elements. Increasing globalization of economic factors have shifted emphasis from national economies to global ones.

Samuel Johnson, the celebrated British man of letters, wrote dozens of essays that defined his views on the politics of his time.

Notes on Nationalism is an essay completed in May 1945 by George Orwell and published in the first issue of the British "Magazine of Philosophy, Psychology, and Aesthetics" Polemic, in October 1945.

Reactionary modernism Political ideology characterized by embrace of technology and anti-Enlightenment thought

Reactionary modernism is a term first coined by Jeffrey Herf in his 1984 book, Reactionary Modernism: Technology, Culture and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich, to describe the mixture of "great enthusiasm for modern technology with a rejection of the Enlightenment and the values and institutions of liberal democracy" which was characteristic of the German Conservative Revolutionary movement and Nazism. In turn, this ideology of reactionary modernism was closely linked to the original, positive view of the Sonderweg, which saw Germany as the great Central European power neither of the West nor of the East.

Socialist patriotism is a form of patriotism promoted by Marxist–Leninist movements. Socialist patriotism promotes people living within Marxist-Leninist countries to adopt a "boundless love for the socialist homeland, a commitment to the revolutionary transformation of society [and] the cause of communism". Marxist-Leninists claim that socialist patriotism is not connected with nationalism, as Marxists and Marxist-Leninists denounce nationalism as a bourgeois ideology developed under capitalism that sets workers against each other. Socialist patriotism is commonly advocated directly alongside proletarian internationalism, with communist parties regarding the two concepts as compatible with each other. The concept has been attributed by Soviet writers to Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.

Ian Henderson Angus is an interdisciplinary philosopher and social critic who writes on continental philosophy, Canadian studies, communication theory, social movements, ecological thought, and the university.

Critical theory Philosophy that sociological understandings primary use should be social reform

Critical theory is the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities to reveal and challenge power structures. It argues that social problems are influenced and created more by societal structures and cultural assumptions than by individual and psychological factors. Critical theory has origins in sociology and also in literary criticism. The sociologist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them".

Australian nationalism

Australian nationalism asserts that the Australians are a nation and promotes the national and cultural unity of Australia. Australian nationalism has a history dating back to the late 19th century as Australia gradually developed a distinct culture and identity from that of Britain, beginning to view itself as a unique and separate entity and not simply an extension or a derivation of British culture and identity.

References

  1. 1 2 Harvey Chisick (2005-02-10). Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment. ISBN   9780810865488 . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  2. "Nationalism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  3. "Patriotism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  4. "Organic gardening and farming". Organic Gardening and Farming. Rodale Press. 13: 109. 1966. Retrieved 2018-04-28. A country begins with its soil. A country must stand on its soil. Its people must love its soil. The soil is its basic capital. Patriotism means a love of one's soil [...].
  5. Bašić, Ferdo (2013). The Soils of Croatia. World Soils Book Series. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16–17. ISBN   9789400758155 . Retrieved 2018-04-28. Soil is the Base of Croatian Natural Beauty and an Emotional Foundation of Patriotism! [...] Landscape is the 'emotional foundation' of patriotism and the feeling that man belongs to an area. A key function in its formation and maintenance is soil, because it determines landscape features and the benefits of options for possible forms of land use. Man has left 'impressions,' i.e., 'messages,' on the landscape. Changing the natural vegetation and entering into the space created by agriculture is the 'cultural landscape' created through natural conditions, which enriches this space [...]. [...] Fighting for survival, our hard-working ancestors, without any mechanization, prepared a 'flowing anthroscape' as a mute witness of past living conditions on Croatian islands [...].
  6. "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, πατρι–ώτης". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  7. "patriotism". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. Boswell, James (1986), Hibbert, Christopher (ed.), The Life of Samuel Johnson, New York: Penguin Classics, ISBN   978-0-14-043116-2
  9. Griffin, Dustin (2005), Patriotism and Poetry in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN   978-0-521-00959-1
  10. Billig, Michael. Banal Nationalism. London: Sage Publishers, 1995, pp. 56–58.
  11. Christopher Wellman, Professor of Philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis, and Professorial Research Fellow at Charles Sturt University in the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics.
  12. 1 2 Wellman, Christopher Heath (2014). Liberal Rights and Responsibilities: Essays on Citizenship and Sovereignty. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 32, 50. ISBN   9780199982189.
  13. Orwell, George Essays, John Carey, Ed., Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2002
  14. "Maddenation: Voltaire on patriotism".
  15. Sulzbach, Walter (1943). National Consciousness. American Council on Publ. Affairs. p. 84.
  16. "Communist Manifesto (Chapter 2)". Marxists.org. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  17. Archived December 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  18. Motyl, Alexander J. (2001). Encyclopedia of Nationalism, Volume II. Academic Press. ISBN   978-0-12-227230-1.
  19. Morse, Adair (2011). "Patriotism in Your Portfolio" (PDF). Journal of Financial Markets. 14 (2): 411–40. doi:10.1016/j.finmar.2010.10.006. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 25, 2011.

Further reading

  1. May, Stephen; Modood, Tariq; Squires, Judith, eds. (2004). 11 – Is it time to be postnational? – University Publishing Online. Ebooks.cambridge.org. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511489235. ISBN   9780511489235 . Retrieved 2013-11-03.
  2. "George Orwell: Notes on Nationalism" (in Russian). Orwell.ru. Retrieved 2013-11-03.