In diplomacy, a persona non grata (Latin: "person not welcome", plural: personae non gratae) is a status sometimes applied by a host country to foreign diplomats to remove their protection by diplomatic immunity from arrest and other normal kinds of prosecution.
Under Article 9 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, a receiving state may "at any time and without having to explain its decision" declare any member of a diplomatic staff persona non grata.A person so declared is considered unacceptable and is usually recalled to his or her home nation. If not recalled, the receiving state "may refuse to recognize the person concerned as a member of the mission".
A person can be declared a persona non grata before that person even enters the country.
With the protection of mission staff from prosecution for violating civil and criminal laws, depending on rank, under Articles 41 and 42 of the Vienna Convention, they are bound to respect national laws and regulations. Breaches of these articles can lead to a persona non grata declaration being used to punish erring staff. It is also used to expel diplomats suspected of espionage, described as "activities incompatible with diplomatic status",or any overt criminal act such as drug trafficking. The declaration may also be a symbolic indication of displeasure.
So-called "tit for tat" exchanges have occurred (whereby countries involved in a dispute each expel the ambassador of the other country), notably during the Cold War. A notable occurrence outside of the Cold War was an exchange between the United States and Ecuador in 2011: the Ecuadorian government expelled the United States ambassador, as a result of diplomatic cables leaking (WikiLeaks); the United States responded by expelling the Ecuadorian ambassador.
People other than diplomats can be declared as persona non grata by a country.
In non-diplomatic usage, referring to someone as persona non grata is to say that the person is not popular or accepted by others.
In the Philippines, local legislatures of provinces, towns, and cities can declare certain people or groups, including non-diplomats and Filipino citizens, as persona non grata to express a negative sentiment towards the certain person through a non-binding resolution. This could be in response to the person breaking local ordinance or laws.
Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, although they may still be expelled. Modern diplomatic immunity was codified as international law in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) which has been ratified by all but a handful of nations. The concept and custom of diplomatic immunity dates back thousands of years. Many principles of diplomatic immunity are now considered to be customary law. Diplomatic immunity was developed to allow for the maintenance of government relations, including during periods of difficulties and armed conflict. When receiving diplomats, who formally represent the sovereign, the receiving head of state grants certain privileges and immunities to ensure they may effectively carry out their duties, on the understanding that these are provided on a reciprocal basis.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organization present in another state to represent the sending state or organization officially in the receiving state. In practice, the phrase diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the embassy, which is the main office of a country's diplomatic representatives to another country; this is usually, but not necessarily, in the receiving state's capital city. Consulates, on the other hand, are smaller diplomatic missions which are normally located in major cities of the receiving state. As well as being a diplomatic mission to the country in which it is situated, it may also be a non-resident permanent mission to one or more other countries. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies.
Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information or divulging of the same without the permission of the holder of the information. A person who commits espionage is called an espionage agent or spy. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage. The practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome. In some circumstances, it may be a legal tool of law enforcement and in others, it may be illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of gathering which includes information gathering from non-disclosed sources.
The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 is an international treaty that defines a framework for diplomatic relations between independent countries. It specifies the privileges of a diplomatic mission that enable diplomats to perform their function without fear of coercion or harassment by the host country. This forms the legal basis for diplomatic immunity. Its articles are considered a cornerstone of modern international relations. As of October 2018, it has been ratified by 192 states.
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is also often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions, activities and fields of endeavor such as sales.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state or an intergovernmental institution such as the United Nations or the European Union to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
Agrément, in international affairs, is the agreement by a state to receive members of a diplomatic mission from a foreign country.
In espionage, an official cover operative is one who assumes a position in an organization with diplomatic ties to the government for which the operative works such as an embassy or consulate. This provides the agent with official diplomatic immunity, thus protecting them from the steep punishments normally meted out to captured spies. Upon discovery of an official cover agent's secret hostile role, the host nation often declares the agent persona non grata and orders them to leave the country.
A resident spy in the world of espionage is an agent operating within a foreign country for extended periods of time. A base of operations within a foreign country with which a resident spy may liaise is known as a "station" in English and a rezidentura in Russian. What the U.S. would call a "station chief", the head spy, is known as a rezident (резиде́нт) in Russian.
Ladislaus Hengelmüller von Hengervár, was an Austro-Hungarian diplomat of Hungarian origin who was a long-term Ambassador at Washington D.C., throughout many Presidential administrations including those of William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft.
Konstantin (Theodor) Dumba, was an Austro-Hungarian diplomat serving as its last accredited Ambassador to the United States and famous for having been expelled during World War I following accusations of espionage.
Diplomatic law is that area of international law that governs permanent and temporary diplomatic missions. A fundamental concept of diplomatic law is that of diplomatic immunity, which derives from state immunity.
The Consulate-General of Russia in San Francisco was a diplomatic mission in the 2790 Green Street building in Pacific Heights, San Francisco. It was operated by the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The building of the former consulate remains government property of Russia.
Filip Teodorescu is a Romanian diplomat. He was the Romanian Ambassador to Moldova (2003–2009).
Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, negotiation, and other nonviolent means. Diplomacy usually refers to international relations carried out through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a variety of issues and topics.
The Nation is a newspaper based in Blantyre, Malawi, owned by Nations Publications Limited. It began distribution in 26 July 1993, and became a daily newspaper on 11 July 1994, coming out on Mondays through Fridays. Its sister newspaper Saturday Nation, now called Weekend Nation, was launched in 1995.
Fergus Cochrane-Dyet is a British diplomat who served as High Commissioner to Zambia from April 2016 until August 2019, being succeeded by Nicholas Woolley. In 2011, while serving as High Commissioner to Malawi, he was declared persona non grata and expelled from the country because of controversial comments he made in a leaked diplomatic cable.
Persona non grata, in the context of Philippine local governance, refers individuals or groups declared as unwelcomed in a particular locality.
The Soviet Foreign Ministry accused the five Americans of engaging in "actions which are incompatible with their official status"--the normal diplomatic jargon for espionage.
The Spanish foreign ministry spokesman said the two Russians had been expelled "for activities incompatible with their status as diplomats" - the diplomatic term for spying.
"Persona non grata" (PNG), is the most serious form of censure a government can take against a person with diplomatic immunity and often used by governments as symbolic expressions of displeasure.
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