Charles Taylor (philosopher)

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Charles Taylor

Charles Taylor (2019).jpg
Taylor in 2019
Charles Margrave Taylor

(1931-11-05) November 5, 1931 (age 87)
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Alma mater
Notable work
Alba Romer Taylor
(m. 1956;died 1990)
[1] [2]
Era Contemporary philosophy
Region Western philosophy
Doctoral advisor Sir Isaiah Berlin
Doctoral students
Other notable students
Main interests
Notable ideas

Charles Margrave Taylor CC GOQ FRSC FBA (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history. This work has earned him the Kyoto Prize, the Templeton Prize, the Berggruen Prize for Philosophy, and the John W. Kluge Prize. [30]

Order of Canada order

The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, which is the personal gift of Canada's monarch.

The National Order of Quebec, termed officially in French as l'Ordre national du Québec, and in English abbreviation as the Order of Quebec, is a civilian honour for merit in the Canadian province of Quebec. Instituted in 1984 when Lieutenant Governor Jean-Pierre Côté granted Royal Assent to the Loi sur l'Ordre national du Québec, the order is administered by the Governor-in-Council and is intended to honour current or former Quebec residents for conspicuous achievements in any field, being thus described as the highest honour in Quebec.

Fellowship of the Royal Society of Canada (FRSC) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Canada judges to have "made remarkable contributions in the arts, the humanities and the sciences, as well as in Canadian public life".


In 2007, Taylor served with Gérard Bouchard on the Bouchard–Taylor Commission on reasonable accommodation with regard to cultural differences in the province of Quebec. He has also made contributions to moral philosophy, epistemology, hermeneutics, aesthetics, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of action. [31] [32]

Gérard Bouchard Canadian historian and sociologist

Gérard Bouchard is a Canadian historian and sociologist affiliated with the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. Born on 26 December 1943 in Jonquière, Quebec, he obtained his master's degree in sociology from Université Laval in 1968 and later obtained his PhD degree in history from the University of Paris in 1971. Bouchard had authored, co-authored, edited, or co-edited 26 books, and published 230 papers in scientific journals as of 2005.

A reasonable accommodation is an adjustment made in a system to accommodate or make fair the same system for an individual based on a proven need. That need can vary. Accommodations can be religious, physical, mental or emotional, academic, or employment related and are often mandated by law. Each country has its own system of reasonable accommodations. The United Nations use this term in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, saying refusal to make accommodation results in discrimination. It defines a "reasonable accommodation" as:

... necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments not imposing a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, to ensure to persons with disabilities the enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis with others of all human rights and fundamental freedoms;

Epistemology A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.


Charles Margrave Taylor was born in Montreal, Quebec, on November 5, 1931, to a francophone mother and an anglophone father by whom he was raised bilingually. [33] He attended Selwyn House School from 1941 to 1946 [34] and began his undergraduate education at McGill University where he received a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in history in 1952. [35] He continued his studies at the University of Oxford, first as a Rhodes Scholar at Balliol College, receiving a BA degree with first-class honours in philosophy, politics and economics in 1955, and then as a postgraduate student, receiving a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1961 [2] [36] under the supervision of Sir Isaiah Berlin. [37] As an undergraduate student, he started one of the first campaigns to ban thermonuclear weapons in the United Kingdom in 1956, [38] serving as the first president of the Oxford Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. [39]

Montreal City in Quebec, Canada

Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold, snowy winters.

Quebec Province of Canada

Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the US states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. It is historically and politically considered to be part of Central Canada.

Selwyn House School (SHS) is a private independent boys' school located in Westmount, Quebec. Boys can attend from Kindergarten through to Grade 11. The school was founded in 1908 by Englishman Captain Algernon Lucas. The school is named in honour of Selwyn College, University of Cambridge, which Algernon Lucas attended.

He succeeded John Plamenatz as Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory at the University of Oxford and became a Fellow of All Souls College. [40]

John Petrov Plamenatz was a Montenegrin political philosopher, who spent most of his academic life at the University of Oxford. He is best known for his analysis of political obligation and his theory of democracy.

All Souls College, Oxford college of the University of Oxford

All Souls College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.

For many years, both before and after Oxford, he was Professor of Political Science and Philosophy at McGill University in Montreal, where he is now professor emeritus. [36] [ failed verification ] Taylor was also a Board of Trustees Professor of Law and Philosophy at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, for several years after his retirement from McGill.

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

Philosophy Study of general and fundamental questions

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will?

McGill University English-language university in Montreal, Quebec

McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV. The university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant originally from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College.

Taylor was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1986. [41] In 1991, Taylor was appointed to the Conseil de la langue française in the province of Quebec, at which point he critiqued Quebec's commercial sign laws. In 1995, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. In 2000, he was made a Grand Officer of the National Order of Quebec. In 2003, he was awarded the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council's Gold Medal for Achievement in Research, which had been the council's highest honour. [42] [43] He was awarded the 2007 Templeton Prize for progress towards research or discoveries about spiritual realities, which included a cash award of US$1.5 million.

American Academy of Arts and Sciences United States honorary society and center for independent policy research

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, and advancing the common good.

The Charter of the French Language, also known as Bill 101, is a 1977 law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the language of the majority of the population, as the official language of the provincial government. It is the central legislative piece in Quebec's language policy.

The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada is a Canadian federal research-funding agency that promotes and supports post-secondary research and training in the humanities and social sciences. It is one of three major federal granting agencies that together are referred to as "the tri-council".

In 2007 he and Gérard Bouchard were appointed to head a one-year commission of inquiry into what would constitute reasonable accommodation for minority cultures in his home province of Quebec. [44]

In June 2008, he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in the arts and philosophy category. The Kyoto Prize is sometimes referred to as the Japanese Nobel. [45] In 2015, he was awarded the John W. Kluge Prize for Achievement in the Study of Humanity, a prize he shared with philosopher Jürgen Habermas. [46] In 2016, he was awarded the inaugural $1-million Berggruen Prize for being "a thinker whose ideas are of broad significance for shaping human self-understanding and the advancement of humanity." [47]


In order to understand Taylor's views, it is helpful to understand his philosophical background, especially his writings on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Martin Heidegger, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Taylor rejects naturalism and formalist epistemology. He is part of an influential intellectual tradition of Canadian idealism that includes John Watson, Paxton Young, C. B. Macpherson, and George Grant. [48] [ dubious ]

In his essay "To Follow a Rule", Taylor explores why people can fail to follow rules, and what kind of knowledge it is that allows a person to successfully follow a rule, such as the arrow on a sign. The intellectualist tradition presupposes that to follow directions, we must know a set of propositions and premises about how to follow directions. [49]

Taylor argues that Wittgenstein's solution is that all interpretation of rules draws upon a tacit background. This background is not more rules or premises, but what Wittgenstein calls "forms of life". More specifically, Wittgenstein says in the Philosophical Investigations that "Obeying a rule is a practice." Taylor situates the interpretation of rules within the practices that are incorporated into our bodies in the form of habits, dispositions, and tendencies. [49]

Following Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Michael Polanyi, and Wittgenstein, Taylor argues that it is mistaken to presuppose that our understanding of the world is primarily mediated by representations. It is only against an unarticulated background that representations can make sense to us. On occasion we do follow rules by explicitly representing them to ourselves, but Taylor reminds us that rules do not contain the principles of their own application: application requires that we draw on an unarticulated understanding or "sense of things"—the background. [49]

Taylor's critique of naturalism

Taylor defines naturalism as a family of various, often quite diverse theories that all hold "the ambition to model the study of man on the natural sciences." [50]

Philosophically, naturalism was largely popularized and defended by the unity of science movement that was advanced by logical positivist philosophy. In many ways, Taylor's early philosophy springs from a critical reaction against the logical positivism and naturalism that was ascendant in Oxford while he was a student.

Initially, much of Taylor's philosophical work consisted of careful conceptual critiques of various naturalist research programs. This began with his 1964 dissertation The Explanation of Behaviour, which was a detailed and systematic criticism of the behaviourist psychology of B. F. Skinner [51] that was highly influential at mid-century.

From there, Taylor also spread his critique to other disciplines. The essay "Interpretation and the Sciences of Man" was published in 1972 as a critique of the political science of the behavioural revolution advanced by giants of the field like David Easton, Robert Dahl, Gabriel Almond, and Sydney Verba. [52] In an essay entitled "The Significance of Significance: The Case for Cognitive Psychology", Taylor criticized the naturalism he saw distorting the major research program that had replaced B. F. Skinner's behaviourism. [53]

But Taylor also detected naturalism in fields where it was not immediately apparent. For example, in 1978's "Language and Human Nature", he found naturalist distortions in various modern "designative" theories of language, [54] while in Sources of the Self (1989) he found both naturalist error and the deep moral, motivational sources for this outlook in various individualist and utilitarian conceptions of selfhood.

Taylor and hermeneutics

Taylor in 2012 Charles Taylor.jpg
Taylor in 2012

Concurrent to Taylor's critique of naturalism was his development of an alternative. Indeed, Taylor's mature philosophy begins when as a doctoral student at Oxford he turned away, disappointed, from analytic philosophy in search of other philosophical resources which he found in French and German modern hermeneutics and phenomenology. [55]

The hermeneutic tradition develops a view of human understanding and cognition as centred on the decipherment of meanings (as opposed to, say, foundational theories of brute verification or an apodictic rationalism). Taylor's own philosophical outlook can broadly and fairly be characterized as hermeneutic and has been called engaged hermeneutics. [12] This is clear in his championing of the works of major figures within the hermeneutic tradition such as Wilhelm Dilthey, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Gadamer. [56] It is also evident in his own original contributions to hermeneutic and interpretive theory. [56]

Communitarian critique of liberalism

Taylor (as well as Alasdair MacIntyre, Michael Walzer, and Michael Sandel) is associated with a communitarian critique of liberal theory's understanding of the "self". Communitarians emphasize the importance of social institutions in the development of individual meaning and identity.

In his 1991 Massey Lecture The Malaise of Modernity, Taylor argued that political theorists—from John Locke and Thomas Hobbes to John Rawls and Ronald Dworkin—have neglected the way in which individuals arise within the context supplied by societies. A more realistic understanding of the "self" recognizes the social background against which life choices gain importance and meaning.

Philosophy and sociology of religion

Taylor's later work has turned to the philosophy of religion, as evident in several pieces, including the lecture "A Catholic Modernity" and the short monograph "Varieties of Religion Today: William James Revisited". [57]

Taylor's most significant contribution in this field to date is his book A Secular Age which argues against the secularization thesis of Max Weber, Steve Bruce, and others. [58] In rough form, the secularization thesis holds that as modernity (a bundle of phenomena including science, technology, and rational forms of authority) progresses, religion gradually diminishes in influence. Taylor begins from the fact that the modern world has not seen the disappearance of religion but rather its diversification and in many places its growth. [59] He then develops a complex alternative notion of what secularization actually means given that the secularization thesis has not been borne out. In the process, Taylor also greatly deepens his account of moral, political, and spiritual modernity that he had begun in Sources of the Self.


Taylor was a candidate for the social democratic New Democratic Party (NDP) in Mount Royal on three occasions in the 1960s, beginning with the 1962 federal election when he came in third behind Liberal Alan MacNaughton. He improved his standing in 1963, coming in second. Most famously, he also lost in the 1965 election to newcomer and future prime minister, Pierre Trudeau. This campaign garnered national attention. Taylor's fourth and final attempt to enter the House of Commons of Canada was in the 1968 federal election, when he came in second as an NDP candidate in the riding of Dollard. In 1994 he coedited a paper on human rights with Vitit Muntarbhorn in Thailand. [60] In 2008, he endorsed the NDP candidate in Westmount—Ville-Marie, Anne Lagacé Dowson. He was also a professor to Canadian politician and former leader of the New Democratic Party Jack Layton.

Taylor served as a vice president of the federal NDP (beginning c.1965) [39] and was president of its Quebec section. [61]

In 2010, Taylor said multiculturalism was a work in progress that faced challenges. He identified tackling Islamophobia in Canada as the next challenge. [62]


Selected works by Taylor

Book chapters

See also


  1. Palma 2014, pp. 10, 13.
  2. 1 2 "Fact Sheet – Charles Taylor". Templeton Prize. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: John Templeton Foundation. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  3. Bjorn Ramberg; Kristin Gjesdal. "Hermeneutics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  4. Berlin 1994, p. 1.
  5. A. E. H. Campbell 2017, p. 14.
  6. Abbey, Ruth (2016). "Curriculum Vitae". Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  7. Beiser 2005, p. xii.
  8. "Michael Rosen". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  9. "Michael Sandel and AC Grayling in Conversation". Prospect. London. May 10, 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  10. "Mette Hjort: CV". Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  11. "Guy Laforest". ResearchGate. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  12. 1 2 Van Aarde 2009.
  13. Birnbaum 2004, pp. 263–264; Redhead 2004.
  14. C. G. Campbell 2014, p. 58; Redhead 2004.
  15. Redhead 2004; J. K. A. Smith 2014, p. 18.
  16. Taylor 1992, p. 14.
  17. Lehman 2015.
  18. Busacchi 2015, p. 1.
  19. Grene 1976, p. 37; Redhead 2004; J. K. A. Smith 2014, p. 18.
  20. Meijer 2017, p. 267; Meszaros 2016, p. 14; Redhead 2004.
  21. Apczynski 2014, p. 22.
  22. Grene 1976, p. 37.
  23. Abbey 2000, p. 222.
  24. Rodowick 2015, p. ix.
  25. Calhoun 2012, pp. 66, 69.
  26. C. G. Campbell 2014, p. 58.
  27. Laforest 2009, p. 251.
  28. "Christian Smith". Science of Generosity. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  29. Marty, Martin E. (November 12, 2018). "James K.A. Smith's 'Cultural Liturgies'". Sightings. Chicago: University of Chicago. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  30. Rothman, Joshua (2016-11-11). "How to Restore Your Faith in Democracy". ISSN   0028-792X . Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  31. Abbey 2000.
  32. "Charles Taylor". Montreal: McGill University. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  33. Abbey 2016, p. 958; Abbey 2017; N. H. Smith 2002, p. 7.
  34. "Charles Taylor '46 Receives World's Largest Cash Award". Westmount, Quebec: Selwyn House School. March 15, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  35. Abbey 2016, p. 958.
  36. 1 2 Mason 1996.
  37. Ancelovici & Dupuis-Déri 2001, p. 260.
  38. N. H. Smith 2002, p. 7.
  39. 1 2 Palma 2014, p. 11.
  40. Abbey 2016, p. 958; Miller 2014, p. 165.
  41. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, p. 536.
  42. "Prizes". Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  43. "Prizes: Previous Winners". Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  44. "Home". Montreal: Consultation Commission on Accommodation Practices Related to Cultural Differences. Archived from the original on July 1, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  45. "Dr. Charles Taylor to Receive Inamori Foundation's 24th Annual Kyoto Prize for Lifetime Achievement in 'Arts and Philosophy'" (Press release). Kyoto, Japan: Inamori Foundation. June 20, 2008. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  46. "Philosophers Habermas and Taylor to Share $1.5 Million Kluge Prize" (Press release). Washington: Library of Congress. August 11, 2015. ISSN   0731-3527 . Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  47. Schuessler, Jennifer (October 4, 2016). "Canadian Philosopher Wins $1 Million Prize". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 4, 2016.
  48. Meynell 2011.
  49. 1 2 3 Taylor 1995.
  50. Taylor 1985a, p. 1.
  51. Taylor 1964.
  52. Taylor 1985b.
  53. Taylor 1983.
  54. Taylor 1985c.
  55. "Interview with Charles Taylor: The Malaise of Modernity" by David Cayley:
  56. 1 2 Taylor 1985d.
  57. A Catholic Modernity?: Charles Taylor's Marianist Award Lecture, ed. James Heft (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999); Varieties of Religion Today (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002).
  58. Taylor 2007.
  59. Taylor 2007, pp. 1–22.
  60. Muntarbhorn & Taylor 1994.
  61. Abbey 2000, p. 6; Anctil 2011, p. 119.
  62. "Part 5: 10 Leaders on How to Change Multiculturalism". Our Time to Lead. The Globe and Mail. June 21, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2016.

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Campbell, Catherine Galko (2014). Persons, Identity, and Political Theory: A Defense of Rawlsian Political Identity. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7917-4. ISBN   978-94-007-7917-4.
Grene, Marjorie (1976). Philosophy in and out of Europe. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN   978-0-520-03121-0.
Laforest, Guy (2009). "The Internal Exile of Quebecers in the Canada of the Charter". In Kelly, James B.; Manfredi, Christopher P. (eds.). Contested Constitutionalism: Reflections on the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Vancouver: UBC Press. pp. 251–262. ISBN   978-0-7748-1676-2.
Lehman, Glen (2015). Charles Taylor's Ecological Conversations: Politics, Commonalities and the Natural Environment. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN   978-1-137-52478-2.
Mason, Richard (1996). "Taylor, Charles Margrave". In Brown, Stuart; Collinson, Diané; Wilkinson, Robert (eds.). Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers. London: Routledge. pp. 774–776. ISBN   978-0-415-06043-1.
Meijer, Michiel (2017). "Human-Related, Not Human-Controlled: Charles Taylor on Ethics and Ontology". International Philosophical Quarterly. 57 (3): 267–285. doi:10.5840/ipq20173679. ISSN   0019-0365.
Meszaros, Julia T. (2016). Selfless Love and Human Flourishing in Paul Tillich and Iris Murdoch. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198765868.001.0001. ISBN   978-0-19-876586-8.
Meynell, Robert (2011). Canadian Idealism and the Philosophy of Freedom: C.B. Macpherson, George Grant and Charles Taylor. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN   978-0-7735-3798-9.
Miller, David (2014). "Political Theory, Philosophy, and the Social Sciences: Five Chichele Professors". In Hood, Christopher; King, Desmond; Peele, Gillian (eds.). Forging a Discipline: A Critical Assessment of Oxford's Development of the Study of Politics and International Relations in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 165ff. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682218.003.0009. ISBN   978-0-19-968221-8.
Muntarbhorn, Vitit; Taylor, Charles (1994). Road to Democracy: Human Rights and Human Development in Thailand. Montreal: International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development.
Palma, Anthony Joseph (2014). Recognition of Diversity: Charles Taylor's Educational Thought (PhD thesis). Toronto: University of Toronto. hdl: 1807/65711 .
Redhead, Mark (2004). "Review of Charles Taylor, Edited by Ruth Abbey". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. ISSN   1538-1617 . Retrieved October 27, 2018.
Rodowick, D. N. (2015). Philosophy's Artful Conversation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN   978-0-674-41667-3.
Smith, James K. A. (2014). How (Not) to Be Secular: Reading Charles Taylor. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. ISBN   978-0-8028-6761-2.
Smith, Nicholas H. (2002). Charles Taylor: Meaning, Morals and Modernity. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN   978-0-7456-6859-8.
Taylor, Charles (1964). The Explanation of Behaviour. International Library of Philosophy and Scientific Method. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
 ———  (1983). "The Significance of Significance: The Case for Cognitive Psychology". In Mitchell, Sollace; Rosen, Michael (eds.). The Need for Interpretation: Contemporary Conceptions of the Philosopher's Task. New Jersey: Humanities Press. pp. 141–169. ISBN   978-0-391-02825-8.
 ———  (1985a). "Introduction". In Taylor, Charles (ed.). Human Agency and Language. Philosophical Papers. 1. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–12. ISBN   978-0-521-31750-4.
 ———  (1985b) [1972]. "Interpretation and the Sciences of Man". In Taylor, Charles (ed.). Philosophy and the Human Sciences. Philosophical Papers. 2. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–57.
 ———  (1985c) [1978]. "Language and Human Nature". In Taylor, Charles (ed.). Human Agency and Language. Philosophical Papers. 1. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 215–247. ISBN   978-0-521-31750-4.
 ———  (1985d). "Self-Interpreting Animals". In Taylor, Charles (ed.). Human Agency and Language. Philosophical Papers. 1. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–76. ISBN   978-0-521-31750-4.
 ———  (1992) [1991]. The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN   978-0-674-26863-0.
 ———  (1995). "To Follow a Rule". Philosophical Arguments. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 165–180. ISBN   978-0-674-66477-7.
 ———  (2007). A Secular Age . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN   978-0-674-02676-6.
Van Aarde, Andries G. (2009). "Postsecular Spirituality, Engaged Hermeneutics, and Charles Taylor's Notion of Hypergoods". HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. 65 (1): 209–216. doi: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.166 . ISSN   2072-8050.

Further reading

Barrie, John A. (1996). "Probing Modernity". Quadrant. Vol. 40 no. 5. pp. 82–83. ISSN   0033-5002.
Blakely, Jason (2016). Alasdair MacIntyre, Charles Taylor, and the Demise of Naturalism: Reunifying Political Theory and Social Science. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN   978-0-268-10064-3.
Gagnon, Bernard (2002). La philosophie morale et politique de Charles Taylor[The Moral and Political Philosophy of Charles Taylor] (in French). Quebec City, Quebec: Presses de l'Université Laval. ISBN   978-2-7637-7866-2.
McKenzie, Germán (2017). Interpreting Charles Taylor's Social Theory on Religion and Secularization. Sophia Studies in Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures. 20. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47700-8. ISBN   978-3-319-47698-8. ISSN   2211-1107.
Meijer, Michiel (2018). Charles Taylor's Doctrine of Strong Evaluation: Ethics and Ontology in a Scientific Age. London: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN   978-1-78660-400-2.
Perreau-Saussine, Émile (2005). "Une spiritualité libérale? Alasdair MacIntyre et Charles Taylor en conversation" [A Liberal Spirituality? Alasdair MacIntyre and Charles Taylor in Conversation](PDF). Revue Française de Science Politique (in French). Presses de Sciences Po. 55 (2): 299–315. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
Redhead, Mark (2002). Charles Taylor: Thinking and Living Deep Diversity. Twentieth-Century Political Thinkers. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN   978-0-7425-2126-1.
Skinner, Quentin (1991). "Who Are 'We'? Ambiguities of the Modern Self". Inquiry. 34 (2): 133–153. doi:10.1080/00201749108602249.
Svetelj, Tone (2012). Rereading Modernity: Charles Taylor on Its Genesis and Prospects (PhD thesis). Chestnut Hills, Massachusetts: Boston College. hdl: 2345/3853 .
Temelini, Michael (2014). "Dialogical Approaches to Struggles over Recognition and Distribution". Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy. 17 (4): 423–447. doi:10.1080/13698230.2013.763517. ISSN   1743-8772.Smith, Nicholas H. (2002). Charles Taylor: Meaning, Morals and Modernity. London: Polity. ISBN   9780745615752.
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