Guy Debord

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Guy Debord
Debord.gif
Born
Guy Louis Debord

(1931-12-28)28 December 1931
Died30 November 1994(1994-11-30) (aged 62)
Alma mater University of Paris
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Continental philosophy
Western Marxism/Libertarian Marxism
Letterist International
Situationist
Main interests
Social theory
Reification
Commodity fetishism
Class struggle
Social alienation
Notable ideas
Spectacle
Détournement
Psychogeography
Dérive
Recuperation
Signature
Debord's Will.jpg

Guy Louis Debord ( /dəˈbɔːr/ ; French:  [gi dəbɔʁ] ; 28 December 1931 – 30 November 1994) was a French Marxist theorist, philosopher, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International, founder of a Letterist faction, and founding member of the Situationist International (SI). [1] He was also briefly a member of Socialisme ou Barbarie .

The Letterist International (LI) was a Paris-based collective of radical artists and theorists between 1952 and 1957. It was created by Guy Debord as a schism from Isidore Isou's Letterist group. The group went on to join others in forming the Situationist International, taking some key techniques and ideas with it.

The Situationist International (SI) was an international organization of social revolutionaries made up of avant-garde artists, intellectuals, and political theorists, prominent in Europe from its formation in 1957 to its dissolution in 1972.

Socialisme ou Barbarie French-based radical libertarian socialist group of the post-World War II period

Socialisme ou Barbarie was a French-based radical libertarian socialist group of the post-World War II period whose name comes from a phrase which was misattributed by Rosa Luxemburg in the 1916 essay The Junius Pamphlet to Friedrich Engels, but which probably was most likely first used by Karl Kautsky. It existed from 1948 until 1967. The animating personality was Cornelius Castoriadis, also known as Pierre Chaulieu or Paul Cardan. Socialisme ou Barbarie is also the name of the group's journal.

Contents

Early life

Guy Debord (also known as "Debord Guy") was born in Paris in 1931. Debord's father, Martial, was a pharmacist who died when Debord was young. Debord's mother, Paulette Rossi, sent Guy to live with his grandmother in her family villa in Italy. During World War II, the Rossis left the villa and began to travel from town to town. As a result, Debord attended high school in Cannes, where he began his interest in film and vandalism. [2] As a young man, Debord actively opposed the French war in Algeria and joined in demonstrations in Paris against it. [3] Debord studied Law at the University of Paris, but left early and did not complete his university education. After ending his stint at the University of Paris, he began his career as a writer. [4]

Vandalism Deliberate damage or defacement of an object or structure

Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property.

Algerian War war between France and the Algerian independence movement from 1954 to 1962

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.

Involvement with the Letterists

Debord joined the Letterist International when he was 19. The Letterists were led dictatorially by Isidore Isou until a widely agreed upon schism ended Isou's authority. This schism gave rise to several factions of Letterists, one of which was decidedly led by Debord upon Gil Wolman's unequivocal recommendation. [5] In the 1960s, Debord led the Situationist International group, which influenced the Paris Uprising of 1968, during which he took part in the occupation of the Sorbonne. Some consider his book The Society of the Spectacle (1967) to be a catalyst for the uprising, [6] although perhaps a more immediately significant text was Mustapha Khayati's "On the Poverty of Student Life", published in November 1966.

Lettrism is a French avant-garde movement, established in Paris in the mid-1940s by Romanian immigrant Isidore Isou. In a body of work totaling hundreds of volumes, Isou and the Lettrists have applied their theories to all areas of art and culture, most notably in poetry, film, painting and political theory. The movement has its theoretical roots in Dada and Surrealism. Isou viewed his fellow countryman Tristan Tzara as the greatest creator and rightful leader of the Dada movement, and dismissed most of the others as plagiarists and falsifiers. Among the Surrealists, André Breton was a significant influence, but Isou was dissatisfied by what he saw as the stagnation and theoretical bankruptcy of the movement as it stood in the 1940s.

Isidore Isou Romanian-born French poet, film critic and visual artist

Isidore Isou, born Isidor Goldstein, was a Romanian-born French poet, dramaturge, novelist, film director, economist, and visual artist who lived in the 20th century. He was the founder of Lettrism, an art and literary movement which owed inspiration to Dada and Surrealism.

Gil Joseph Wolman was a French artist. His work encompassed painting, poetry and film-making. He was a member of Isidore Isou's avant garde Letterist movement in the early 1950s, then becoming a central figure in the Letterist International, the group which would subsequently develop into the Situationist International.

Founding of the Situationist International

In 1957, the Letterist International, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus, and the London Psychogeographical Association gathered in Cosio d'Arroscia (Cuneo), Italy, to found the Situationist International, with Debord having been the leading representative of the Letterist delegation. Initially made up of a number of well-known artists such as Asger Jorn and Pinot Gallizio, the early days of the SI were heavily focused on the formulation of a critique of art, which would serve as a foundation for the group's future entrance into further political critiques. The SI was known for a number of its interventions in the art world, which included one raid against an international art conference in Belgium during 1958 [7] that included a large pamphlet drop and significant media coverage, all of which culminated in the arrest of various situationists and sympathizers associated with the scandal. In addition to this action, the SI endeavored to formulate industrial painting, or, painting prepared en masse with the intent of defaming the original value largely associated with the art of the period. In the course of these actions, Debord was heavily involved in the planning and logistical work associated with preparing these interventions, as well as the work for Internationale Situationniste associated with theoretical defense of the Situationist International's actions. [8]

The International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus was a small European avant-garde artistic tendency that arose out of the breakup of COBRA, and was initiated by contact between former COBRA member Asger Jorn and Enrico Baj and Sergio Dangelo of the Nuclear Art Movement.

London Psychogeographical Association

The London Psychogeographical Association (LPA), sometimes referred to as the London Psychogeographical Committee, is an organisation devoted to psychogeography. The LPA is perhaps best understood in the context of psychogeographical praxis.

Asger Jorn Danish artist

Asger Oluf Jorn was a Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, and author. He was a founding member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International. He was born in Vejrum, in the northwest corner of Jutland, Denmark, and baptized Asger Oluf Jørgensen.

Political phase of the Situationist International

In the early 1960s Debord began to direct the SI toward an end of its artistic phase, eventually expelling members such as Jorn, Gallizio, Troche, and Constant—the bulk of the "artistic" wing of the SI—by 1965. Having established the situationist critique of art as a social and political critique, one not to be carried out in traditional artistic activities, the SI began, due in part to Debord's contributions, to pursue a more concise theoretical critique of capitalist society along Marxist lines.

With Debord's 1967 work, The Society of the Spectacle , and excerpts from the group's journal, Internationale Situationniste, the Situationists began to formulate their theory of the spectacle, which explained the nature of late capitalism's historical decay. In Debord's terms, situationists defined the spectacle as an assemblage of social relations transmitted via the imagery of class power, and as a period of capitalist development wherein "all that was once lived has moved into representation". [9] With this theory, Debord and the SI would go on to play an influential role in the revolts of May 1968 in France, with many of the protesters drawing their slogans from Situationist tracts penned or influenced by Debord. [10] [11]

<i>The Society of the Spectacle</i> book by Guy Debord

The Society of the Spectacle is a 1967 work of philosophy and Marxist critical theory by Guy Debord, in which the author develops and presents the concept of the Spectacle. The book is considered a seminal text for the Situationist movement. Debord published a follow-up book Comments on the Society of the Spectacle in 1988.

May 1968 events in France May 1968 civil unrest in France

The May 1968 events in France refers to the volatile, two-month period of civil unrest throughout France punctuated by demonstrations, major general strikes, and occupations of universities and factories. At its height, the events brought the economy of France almost to a halt. The protests reached such a point that political leaders feared civil war or revolution; the national government itself briefly ceased to function after President Charles de Gaulle secretly fled France for a few hours. The protests spurred an artistic movement, with songs, imaginative graffiti, posters, and slogans.

After the Situationist International

Published by Editions Gerard Lebovici (1990) In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni.JPG
Published by Éditions Gérard Lebovici (1990)

In 1972, Debord disbanded the Situationist International after its original members, including Asger Jorn and Raoul Vaneigem, quit or were expelled. (Vaneigem wrote a biting criticism of Debord and the International. [12] ) Debord then focused on filmmaking with financial backing from the movie mogul and publisher, Gérard Lebovici (éditions Champ Libre), until Lebovici's mysterious death. Debord was suspected of Lebovici's murder. Distraught by the accusations and his friend's death, Debord took his films and writings out of production until after his death. He had agreed to have his films released posthumously at the request of the American researcher, Thomas Y. Levin. [13] Debord's two most recognized films are Society of the Spectacle (1973) and "In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni  [ fr ]" (1978).

Raoul Vaneigem is a Belgian writer known for his 1967 book The Revolution of Everyday Life.

Gérard Lebovici was a French film producer, editor and impresario.

Champ Libre

Champ Libre is a French publisher founded in 1969 by Gérard Lebovici in Paris. The name is taken from a phrase which means "free field".

After dissolving the Situationist International, Debord spent his time reading, and occasionally writing, in relative isolation in a cottage at Champot with Alice Becker-Ho, his second wife. He continued to correspond on political and other issues, notably with Lebovici and the Italian situationist Gianfranco Sanguinetti. [14] He focused on reading material relating to war strategies, e.g. Clausewitz and Sun Tzu, and he designed a war game with Alice Becker-Ho. [15]

Debord married twice, first to Michèle Bernstein and then Alice Becker-Ho. Debord had affairs with other women, including Michèle Mochot-Bréhat. Bernstein wrote a vaguely fictional but detailed account of the open relationships Mochot and she had with Debord in her novel All The King's Horses.

Death

Just before Debord's death, he filmed (although did not publish) a documentary, Son art et son temps (His Art and His Times), an autobiography of sorts that focused primarily on social issues in Paris in the 1990s. It has been suggested that his dark depiction of this period was a suicide note of sorts. Both Debord's depression and alcohol consumption had become problematic, resulting in a form of polyneuritis. Perhaps in order to end the suffering caused by these conditions, Debord committed suicide by shooting himself in the head (or possibly heart) on 30 November 1994. This was not the first time he attempted to end his life. [16]

Debord's suicide is as controversial as it is unclear. [17] Some assert it was a revolutionary act related to his career. Due to his involvement with the radical Situationist International (SI), as well as his sadness at 'the society as a spectacle' being considered a cliché in later life, many think that Debord felt hopeless about the very society he was trying to shed light on. Debord was said to be "victim of the Spectacle he fought". [18] Among the many commentaries on Debord's demise, one scholar noted: "Guy Debord did not kill himself. He was murdered by the thoughtlessness and selfishness of so-called scholars (primarily trendy lit-criters) who colonized his brilliant ideas and transformed his radical politics into an academic status symbol not worth the pulp it's printed on…" [19]

Legacy

On 29 January 2009, fifteen years after his death, Christine Albanel, Minister of Culture, classified the archive of his works as a "national treasure" in response to a sale request by Yale University. [20] [21] The Ministry declared that "he has been one of the most important contemporary thinkers, with a capital place in history of ideas from the second half of the twentieth century." [22] Similarly, Debord once called his book, The Society of the Spectacle, "the most important book of the twentieth century".[ citation needed ] He continues to be a canonical and controversial figure particularly among European scholars of radical politics and modern art.[ citation needed ]

Written works

Guy Debord's best known works are his theoretical books, The Society of the Spectacle [11] and Comments on the Society of the Spectacle . In addition to these he wrote a number of autobiographical books including Mémoires, Panégyrique, Cette Mauvaise Réputation..., and Considérations sur l'assassinat de Gérard Lebovici . He was also the author of numerous short pieces, sometimes anonymous, for the journals Potlatch, Les Lèvres Nues, Les Chats Sont Verts, and Internationale Situationniste. The Society of the spectacle was written in an "interesting prose", unlike most writings in that time or of that nature. For Debord, the Spectacle is viewed as false representations in our real lives. The Spectacle is a materialized worldview. The spectacle 'subjects human beings to itself'. [23]

Debord was deeply distressed by the hegemony of governments and media over everyday life through mass production and consumption. He criticized both the capitalism of the West and the dictatorial communism of the Eastern bloc for the lack of autonomy allowed to individuals by both types of governmental structure. Debord postulated that Alienation had gained a new relevance through the invasive forces of the 'spectacle' - "a social relation between people that is mediated by images" consisting of mass media, advertisement, and popular culture. [4] The spectacle is a self-fulfilling control mechanism for society. Debord's analysis developed the notions of "reification" and "fetishism of the commodity" pioneered by Karl Marx and Georg Lukács. Semiotics was also a major influence, particularly the work of his contemporary, Roland Barthes, who was the first to envisage bourgeois society as a spectacle, and to study in detail the political function of fashion within that spectacle. [24] Debord's analysis of "the spectaclist society" probed the historical, economic, and psychological roots of the media and popular culture. [11] Central to this school of thought was the claim that alienation is more than an emotive description or an aspect of individual psychology: rather, it is a consequence of the mercantile form of social organization that has reached its climax in capitalism, as theorized by Herbert Marcuse of the Frankfurt School.

The Situationist International (SI), a political/artistic movement organized by Debord and his colleagues and represented by a journal of the same name, attempted to create a series of strategies for engaging in class struggle by reclaiming individual autonomy from the spectacle. These strategies, including "dérive" and "détournement," drew on the traditions of Lettrism. As founder of the SI, it has been suggested that Debord felt driven to generalize and define the values, ideas, and characteristics of the entire group, which may have contributed to his hand-picking and expulsion of members. The hierarchical and dictatorial nature of the SI existed, however, in the groups that birthed it, including the Letterists and the Surrealists.

Debord's first book, Mémoires , was bound with a sandpaper cover so that it would damage other books placed next to it. [25]

Debord has been the subject of numerous biographies, works of fiction, artworks, and songs, many of which are catalogued in the bibliography by Shigenobu Gonzalves, "Guy Debord ou la Beauté du Negatif."

Often, it is suggested that Debord was opposed to the creation of art, however, Debord writes in the Situationist International magazine ("Contre le Cinema") that he believes that "ordinary" (quotidian) people should make "everyday" (quotidian) art; art and creation should liberate from the spectacle, from capitalism, and from the banality of everyday life in contemporary society. In "The Society of the Spectacle," Debord argues that it is the price put on art that destroys the integrity of the art object, not the material or the creation itself. It is important to note that Debord does not equate art to "the spectacle."

Films

Debord began an interest in film early in his life when he lived in Cannes in the late 1940s. Debord recounted that, during his youth, he was allowed to do very little other than attend films. He said that he frequently would leave in the middle of a film screening to go home because films often bored him. Debord joined the Lettrists just as Isidore Isou was producing films and the Lettrists attempted to sabotage Charlie Chaplin's trip to Paris through negative criticism.

Overall, Debord challenged the conventions of filmmaking; prompting his audience to interact with the medium instead of being passive receivers of information. As a matter of fact, his film Hurlements exclusively consists of a series of black and white screens and silence with a bit of commentary dispersed throughout. [26] Debord directed his first film, Hurlements en faveur de Sade in 1952 with the voices of Michèle Bernstein and Gil Wolman. The film has no images represented; instead, it shows bright white when there is speaking and black when there is not. Long silences separate speaking parts. The film ends with 24 minutes of black silence. People were reported to have become angry and left screenings of this film. The script is composed of quotes appropriated from various sources and made into a montage with a sort of non-linear narrative.

Later, through the financial support of Michèle Bernstein and Asger Jorn, Debord produced a second film, Sur le passage de quelques personnes à travers une assez courte unité de temps, which combined scenes with his friends and scenes from mass media culture. This integration of Debord's world with mass media culture became a running motif climaxing with "The Society of the Spectacle". Debord wrote the book The Society of the Spectacle before writing the movie. When asked why he made the book into a movie, Debord said, "I don't understand why this surprised people. The book was already written like a script". Debord's last film, "Son Art et Son Temps", was not produced during his lifetime. It worked as a final statement where Debord recounted his works and a cultural documentary of "his time".

Complete Cinematic Works (AK Press, 2003, translated and edited by Ken Knabb) includes the scripts for all six of Debord's films, along with related documents and extensive annotations.

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

Psychogeography

Psychogeography is an exploration of urban environments that emphasizes playfulness and "drifting". It has links to the Situationist International. Psychogeography was defined in 1955 by Guy Debord as "the study of the precise laws and specific effects of the geographical environment, consciously organized or not, on the emotions and behavior of individuals." It has also been defined as "a total dissolution of boundaries between art and life". Another definition is "a whole toy box full of playful, inventive strategies for exploring cities... just about anything that takes pedestrians off their predictable paths and jolts them into a new awareness of the urban landscape."

Jørgen Nash was a Danish artist, writer and central proponent of Situationism.

André Frankin was a Belgian Lettrist and Situationist.

Dérive

The dérive is a revolutionary strategy originally put forward in the "Theory of the Dérive" (1956) by Guy Debord, a member at the time of the Letterist International. Debord defines the dérive as "a mode of experimental behavior linked to the conditions of urban society: a technique of rapid passage through varied ambiances." It is an unplanned journey through a landscape, usually urban, in which participants drop their everyday relations and "let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there". Though solo dérives are possible, Debord indicates

that the most fruitful numerical arrangement consists of several small groups of two or three people who have reached the same level of awareness, since cross-checking these different groups' impressions makes it possible to arrive at more objective conclusions.

Gruppe SPUR German artistic group

Gruppe SPUR was an artistic collaboration formed by the German painters Heimrad Prem, Helmut Sturm and Hans-Peter Zimmer and the sculptor Lothar Fischer in 1957. They published a journal of the same name Spur.

<i>The Society of the Spectacle</i> (film) 1973 film by Guy Debord

La Société du Spectacle is a black-and-white 1973 film by the Situationist Guy Debord, based on his 1967 book of the same name. It was Debord's first feature-length film. It uses found footage and détournement in a radical Marxist critique of mass marketing and its role in the alienation of modern society.

Michèle Bernstein is a French novelist and critic, most often remembered as a member of the Situationist International from its foundation in 1957 until 1967, and as the first wife of its most prominent member, Guy Debord.

<i>Mémoires</i> book by Asger Jorn

Mémoires (Memories) is an artist's book made by the Danish artist Asger Jorn in collaboration with the French artist and theorist Guy Debord. Printed in 1959, it is the second of two collaborative books by the two men whilst they were both members of the Situationist International.

Report on the Construction of Situations is the founding Manifesto of the Situationist International revolutionary organization. The pamphlet was published by Guy Debord in June 1957, and the following month the organization was founded, at Cosio d'Arroscia, Italy.

One of the first times in which Jean-Paul Sartre discussed the concept of situation was in his 1943 Being and Nothingness, where he famously said that

there is freedom only in a situation, and there is a situation only through freedom... There can be a free for-itself only as engaged in a resisting world. Outside of this engagement the notions of freedom, of determination, of necessity lose all meaning

Doctor of Philosophy in Art History, Fabien Danesi is a lecturer in theory and practice of photography at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Picardie Jules Verne in Amiens. Former resident of the Villa Medici, French Academy in Rome in 2007–2008, he previously taught at the François Rabelais University of Tours, Paris 13 University, Pantheon-Sorbonne University and the Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University. Member of AICA-France, he regularly collaborates with the Pavilion Neuflize OBC, laboratory creation which annually hosts ten young artists and curators recruited after an international competition from over 300 applications of the Palais de Tokyo.

References

  1. "Dead Bored: Debord's Dead! Andrew Hussey on the death of a turbulent thinker". Philosophynow.org. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  2. Bourseiller, Christophe. "Vie et Mort de Guy Debord". Agora.
  3. "Pierre Guillaume Remembers Guy Debord". Notbored.org. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  4. 1 2 Jappe, A (1999). Guy Debord, Concept of the Spectacle. Berkely, CA: University of California Press.
  5. Bourseiller, ibid
  6. Andreotti, L. "Review: Leaving the twentieth century: The Situationist International." Journal of Architectural Education, 49(3), p. 197.
  7. Internationale Situationniste No. 1, June 1958, pages 29-30,
  8. Debord, Guy. Correspondence: The Founding of the Situationist International. Semiotext(e). 2008.
  9. Guy Debord (1967). "Society of the Spectacle". marxists.org.
  10. Knabb, Ken. Situationist International Anthology. Bureau of Public Secrets, 2007.
  11. 1 2 3 Debord, Guy. The Society of the Spectacle. Zone Books, 1995.
  12. "The Veritable Split in the SI", 1972
  13. Guy Debord, "Reflections of the Death of Gérard Lebovici"
  14. "Guy Debord". Notbored.org. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  15. "Le Jeu de la Guerre: Relevé des positions successives de toutes les forces au cours d'une partie - Guy Debord, Alice Becker-Ho - Livres". Amazon.fr. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  16. McDonough (2002). Guy Debord and the Situationist International.
  17. Andrew Hussey. "The suicide of Guy Debord | Books". The Guardian . Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  18. Baker (August 2001). "The Game of War: The Life and Death of Guy Debord". The Guardian . Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  19. "Transgressions: A Journal of Urban Exploration [1995-2001]". Situationnisteblog.wordpress.com. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  20. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  21. Gallix, Andrew (18 March 2009). "The resurrection of Guy Debord". The Guardian . London. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  22. Journal Officiel de la Republique Francaise du 12 fevrier 2009 (texte 120)
  23. Debord, Guy (2002). The Society of the Spectacle. Canberra : Hobgoblin Press.
  24. Philippe Sollers "L'antifascisme de Barthes", Le Monde // Hors-Série Roland Barthes, Juillet-Août, 2015
  25. "the new shelton wet/dry". Newshelton.com. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  26. "Howls for Guy Debord". Film Quarterly. 62 (4): 14–15.
  27. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 September 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

Further reading