Political satire

Last updated
George Cruikshank (1792-1878) was one of the first to pioneer the genre of political cartoons. In this 1823 depiction, the French monarch Louis XVIII fails to fit into Napoleon's boots as his crown falls from his head. Cruikshank - Old Bumblehead.png
George Cruikshank (1792–1878) was one of the first to pioneer the genre of political cartoons. In this 1823 depiction, the French monarch Louis XVIII fails to fit into Napoleon's boots as his crown falls from his head.

Political satire is satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics; it has also been used with subversive intent where political speech and dissent are forbidden by a regime, as a method of advancing political arguments where such arguments are expressly forbidden.


Political satire is usually distinguished from political protest or political dissent, as it does not necessarily carry an agenda nor seek to influence the political process. While occasionally it may, it more commonly aims simply to provide entertainment. By its very nature, it rarely offers a constructive view in itself; when it is used as part of protest or dissent, it tends to simply establish the error of matters rather than provide solutions.

Origins and genres

Satire can be traced back throughout history; wherever organized government, or social categories, has existed, so has satire.[ citation needed ]

The oldest example that has survived till today is Aristophanes. In his time satire targeted top politicians, like Cleon, [1] and religion, at the time headed by Zeus. "Satire and derision progressively attacked even the fundamental and most sacred facts of faith," leading to an increased doubt towards religion by the general population. [2] The Roman period, for example, gives us the satirical poems and epigrams of Martial. Cynic philosophers often engaged in political satire.

Due to lack of political freedom of speech in many ancient civilizations, covert satire is more usual than overt satire in ancient literatures of political liberalism. Historically, the public opinion in the Athenian democracy was remarkably influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theatres. [3] Watching or reading satire has since ancient time been considered one of the best ways to understand a culture and a society. [4] [5] [6]

During the 20th and 21st Centuries satire is found in an increasing number of media (in cartoons as political cartoons with heavy caricature and exaggeration, and in political magazines) and the parallel exposure of political scandals to performances (including television shows). Examples include musicians such as Tom Lehrer, live performance groups like the Capitol Steps and the Montana Logging and Ballet Co., and public television and live performer Mark Russell. Additional subgenres include such literary classics as Gulliver's Travels and Animal Farm , and more recently, internet Ezine and website sources such as The Onion .

Well-known examples of political satire

An early and well-known piece of political satire is a poem by Dante Alighieri called Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1320). In this piece, Dante suggests that politicians of that time in Florence should travel to hell. Another well-known form of political satire through theater is William Shakespeare's play Richard II , which criticized politics and authority figures of the time.

19th and 20th centuries


One example is Maurice Joly's 1864 pamphlet entitled The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu (Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu), which attacks the political ambitions of Napoleon III. It was first published in Brussels in 1864. The piece used the literary device of a dialogue between two diabolical plotters in Hell, the historical characters of Machiavelli and Montesquieu, to cover up a direct, and illegal, attack on Napoleon's rule. The noble baron Montesquieu made the case for liberalism; the Florentine political writer Machiavelli presented the case for cynical despotism. In this manner, Joly communicated the secret ways in which liberalism might spawn a despot like Napoleon III.


According to Santayana, Nietzsche was actually "a keen satirist". [7] "Nietzsche's satire" was aimed at Lutheranism. [8]

United Kingdom

The UK has a long tradition of political satire, dating from the early years of English literature. In some readings, a number of William Shakespeare's plays can be seen – or at least performed – as satire, including Richard III and The Merchant of Venice . Later examples such as Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal are more outright in their satirical nature.

Through the 18th and 19th centuries editorial cartoons developed as graphic form of satire, with dedicated satirical magazines of the like of Punch appearing in the first half of the 19th century.

In recent decades, political satire in the United Kingdom includes pamphlets and newspaper articles, such as Private Eye , topical television panel shows such as Have I Got News for You and Mock the Week , and television series such as Ballot Monkeys , The Mash Report and Spitting Image .

In 2021, political cartoons when successful play a role in the political discourse of a society that provides for freedom of speech and for the press (Thomas Knieper 2007 SOURCE?). Key political cartoonists in the United Kingdom include people such as Peter Brookes who has been a political cartoonist for The Times since 1992 and Nicola Jennings who features regularly in The Guardian.

Street art as political satire

Street artists like Banksy have used dark political humor and witty political and social commentaries, primarily through graffiti, to comment on various themes such as capitalism, imperialism and war.

United States

Satire became more visible on American television during the 1960s. Some of the early shows that used political satire include the British and American versions of the program That Was the Week That Was (airing on the American Broadcasting Company, or ABC, in the U.S.), CBS's The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour , and NBC's Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In . During the months leading up to the 1968 presidential election, Richard Nixon appeared on Laugh-In and repeated the program's catch-phrase "Sock it to me." [9] Other forms of satire of the 1960s and early 1970s typically used the sitcom format, such as the show All in the Family .

When Saturday Night Live debuted in 1975, the show began to change the way that comedians would depict the president on television. Chevy Chase opened the fourth episode of the show with his impersonation of a bumbling Gerald Ford. [10] Chase did not change his appearance to look like President Ford, and he portrayed the president by repeatedly falling down on the stage. Some of the other famous presidential impersonations on Saturday Night Live include Dan Aykroyd's Richard Nixon and Jimmy Carter caricatures, Dana Carvey as George H. W. Bush, Darrell Hammond and Phil Hartman as Bill Clinton, Will Ferrell as George W. Bush, Jay Pharoah and Fred Armisen as Barack Obama. Hartman was the first in a long string of cast members to impersonate Donald Trump, who was most famously impersonated by Darrell Hammond and Alec Baldwin, and currently James Austin Johnson impersonates him. Johnson also impersonates Joe Biden, who was also impersonated by Jason Sudeikis and Jim Carrey.

During the 2008 presidential campaign, Saturday Night Live gained wide attention because former cast member Tina Fey returned to the show to satirize Republican Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin. In addition to Fey's striking physical resemblance to Palin, the impersonation of the vice presidential candidate was also noteworthy because of Fey's humorous use of some of exactly the same words Palin used in media interviews and campaign speeches as a way to perform political satire. [11]

Saturday Night Live also uses political satire throughout its Weekend Update sketch. Weekend Update is a fake news segment on the show that satirizes politics and current events. It has been a part of SNL since the first episode of the show on October 11, 1975.

The Daily Show and The Colbert Report use stylistic formats that are similar to Weekend Update. On The Daily Show, host Jon Stewart used footage from news programs to satirize politics and the news media. Stephen Colbert performed in character on The Colbert Report as a right-wing news pundit. Both hosts' television programs were broadcast on Comedy Central, while The Daily Show continues to run featuring Trevor Noah as a new host. Colbert became the host of The Late Show , succeeding David Letterman. With their shows, Stewart and Colbert helped increase public and academic discussion of the significance of political satire. Real Time with Bill Maher and Full Frontal with Samantha Bee are also examples of political commentary.

During the 2020 presidential campaign, perennial candidate Vermin Supreme was recruited by members of the Libertarian Party to run a serious presidential campaign (Vermin Supreme 2020 presidential campaign) which utilizes his satirical character to promote libertarianism. [12]

The Middle East

As early as the Ottoman Empire, political satire was used to express political dissent and mobilize public opinion through shadow puppet shows, improvised folk theater and cartoons. [13] [14] The Ottoman Empire's first satirical magazine was called Karagöz, which translates to "Black eye." [13]

20th and 21st Century

Turkey is home to the political satire magazine known as LeMan, which published its 1000th issue in 2010. [15] LeMan is known for its political cartoons highlighting corruption, lampooning and shedding light on serious situations using humor.

One of the most-widely read satirists is Egyptian writer Lenin El-Ramly, who is credited with over 30 scripts for films and television series and 12 plays. Another notable Egyptian satirist is Bassem Youssef.

In Syria, in the year 2001 a satirical newspaper known as the Lamplighter was first published and resonated with the public as it sold out immediately.[ citation needed ] It was the first independent paper in the country since 1965 and was created by cartoonist and satirist Ali Farzat.


A 2002 example of censorship resulted in satirist Ali Farzat having to remove two articles and a cartoon about the Prime Minister from a magazine, which was deemed insulting. Farzat's newspaper was subsequently shut down and his printing license was revoked.[ citation needed ]

Influence in politics


According to the findings of the 2004 Pew Survey, both younger and older audiences are turning to late-night comedy shows as not only a source of entertainment, but also for an opportunity to gain political awareness. [16] For this reason, Geoffrey Baym suggests that shows that make use of political satire, such as The Daily Show , should be considered as a form of alternative journalism. [16] Utilizing satire has shown to be an attractive feature in news programming, drawing in the audiences of less politically engaged demographic cohorts. Moreover, satire news programming can be considered alternative because satire plays an important role in dissecting and critiquing power. [16]

In his article The Daily Show: Discursive Integration and the Reinvention of Political Journalism, Baym detailed how The Daily Show , then hosted by Jon Stewart, presented news stories. For the satire news show, presenting information in a comprehensive manner was used to give viewers a greater perspective of a situation. [16] Often, Stewart studded his segments with additional background information, or reminders of relevant and past details. [16] For example, The Daily Show displayed the full video of Bush's comments regarding Tenet's resignation in 2004. [16] This was a deliberate choice by the show in attempt to give a more sincere representation of the event. [16] Moreover, it can be seen as a challenge and critique of what more traditional news shows failed to include. [16] In this way, satire news can be seen as more informative than other news sources. Notably, research findings released by National Annenberg Election Survey (NAES) concede that followers of satire news are more knowledgeable and consume more news than the general population. [16]

Meanwhile, Joseph Faina has considered the satire used in news shows as a facilitator in developing a public journalism practice. [17] Faina explains in his article that the nature of satire encourages viewers to become politically engaged, and a civic participant, in which the humor exercised by hosts elicit responses in viewers. [17] However, Faina has acknowledged that this model is somewhat idealistic. [17] Nevertheless, Faina argues that the potential still exists. [17] Not to mention, with the rise in technology and the growing ubiquity of cellular phones, it can be argued that civic participation is all the more easy to accomplish. [18]

Effects on political participation

Modern studies of the effects of political satire have shown that political satire has an influence on political participation, [19] in fact research has shown that an exposure to satire of a political nature evokes negative emotions which consequently mobilises political participation. [20] It is documented that watching late-night comedy shows increases political participation due to the interpersonal discussions and online interaction that follows as a result of political satire. [21]

On the other hand, some scholars have expressed concern over the influence of political comedy shows, it is argued that rather than increase political participation it has the adverse effect. Rather than mobilise participation it can actually demobilise participation due to the negative analysis of political figures, leading to cynicism towards the government and electoral system. [22]


Though satire in news is celebrated as a vehicle toward a more informed public, such view is not universally shared among scholars. [23] Critics have expressed their hesitancy toward the infiltration of lighthearted practices to cover more dire topics like political affair. [23] Potentially off-color remarks, or vulgar comments made by the likes of Stephen Colbert of The Late Show with Stephen Colbert , or Samantha Bee, host of Full Frontal with Samantha Bee , can be used as examples of what critics are concerned about. Here, satire is believed to diminish the gravity of a topic. [17]

Baym proposes that as these shows are alternative, they have no obligation to "abide by standard practices". [16] Unlike traditional news sources, which may be required to adhere to certain agendas, like political affiliation or advertising restrictions, hosts of satire news shows are free and zealous to showcase personal contributions through their mentions of disdain, qualms, and excitement. Critics of satire in news shows thus believe that the showcasing of an overly and openly frustrated host will induce or perpetuate "cynicism in viewers". [23] [17]

The Financial Times argues that political satire can contribute to "media led populism", [24] this is argued to be due to the mockery of politicians and public officials that is required to be accountable only to "audience maximisation", [24] it is argued that this form of media led populism is more prevalent in the United States than the United Kingdom, as commentators who are both Liberal and Conservative are being used more often as the "main way" in which young viewers learn about current affairs. This is particularly troublesome when commentators use polemic and sarcasm in their satire as opposed to witty humour or impersonations.

See also

Related Research Articles

Satire Literary and art genre with a style of humor based on parody

Satire is a genre of the visual, literary, and performing arts, usually in the form of fiction and less frequently non-fiction, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society.

Rory Bremner Scottish comedian

Roderick Keith Ogilvy "Rory" Bremner, is a Scottish impressionist and comedian, noted for his work in political satire and impressions of British public figures. He is also known for his work on Mock the Week as a panellist, award-winning show Rory Bremner...Who Else? and sketch comedy series Bremner, Bird and Fortune.

The Daily Show is an American late-night talk and satirical news television program. It airs each Monday through Thursday on Comedy Central. The Daily Show draws its comedy and satire form from recent news stories as well as political figures, media organizations, and often uses self-referential humor.

Stephen Colbert American comedian, writer, actor, and television host

Stephen Tyrone Colbert is an American comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host. He is best known for hosting the satirical Comedy Central program The Colbert Report from 2005 to 2014 and the CBS talk program The Late Show with Stephen Colbert beginning in September 2015.

News satire or news comedy is a type of parody presented in a format typical of mainstream journalism, and called a satire because of its content. News satire has been around almost as long as journalism itself, but it is particularly popular on the web, with websites like The Onion, where it is relatively easy to mimic a legitimate news site. News satire relies heavily on irony and deadpan humor.

<i>The Colbert Report</i> American television program

The Colbert Report is an American late-night talk and news satire television program hosted by Stephen Colbert that aired four days a week on Comedy Central from October 17, 2005, to December 18, 2014, for 1,447 episodes. The show focused on a fictional anchorman character named Stephen Colbert, played by his real-life namesake. The character, described by Colbert as a "well-intentioned, poorly informed, high-status idiot", is a caricature of televised political pundits. Furthermore, the show satirized conservative personality-driven political talk programs, particularly Fox News's The O'Reilly Factor. The Colbert Report is a spin-off of Comedy Central's The Daily Show, in which Colbert acted as a correspondent for the program for several years while developing the character.

<i>Man of the Year</i> (2006 film) 2006 American film

Man of the Year is a 2006 American political satire film directed and written by Barry Levinson, produced by James G. Robinson, and starring Robin Williams. The film also features Christopher Walken, Laura Linney, Lewis Black, and Jeff Goldblum. In the film Williams portrays Tom Dobbs, the host of a comedy/political talk show, based loosely on the real-life persona of Jon Stewart. With an offhand remark, he prompts four million people to e-mail their support; then he decides to campaign for President. The film was released theatrically on October 13, 2006, and was filmed in Toronto and Hamilton, Ontario, and in parts of Washington, D.C. Man of the Year received mostly negative reviews and earned $41.2 million on a $20 million budget.

Persian satire refers to satires in Persian literature.

The ½ Hour News Hour is an American television news satire show that aired on Fox News. The program presented news stories from a conservative perspective, using a satirical format pioneered by Saturday Night Live's Weekend Update, This Hour Has 22 Minutes, and The Daily Show.

Comedy Genre of dramatic works intended to be humorous

Comedy is a genre of fiction that consists of discourses or works intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, television, radio, books, or any other entertainment medium. The term originated in ancient Greece: in Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by political satire performed by comic poets in theaters. The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance pitting two groups, ages, genders, or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old". A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions posing obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth then becomes constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to resort to ruses which engender dramatic irony, which provokes laughter.

Australian comedy Australian television series

Australian comedy refers to the comedy and humour performed in or about Australia or by the people of Australia. Australian humour can be traced to various origins, and today is manifested in a diversity of cultural practices and pursuits. Writers like Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson helped to establish a tradition of laconic, ironic and irreverent wit in Australian literature, while Australian politicians and cultural stereotypes have each proved rich sources of comedy for artists from poet C. J. Dennis to satirist Barry Humphries to iconic film maker Paul Hogan, each of whom have given wide circulation to Australian slang.

Bassem Youssef Egyptian doctor and satirist

Bassem Raafat Mohamed Youssef is an Egyptian comedian, writer, producer, surgeon, doctor, media critic, and television host, who hosted El-Bernameg, a satirical news program, from 2011 to 2014. The press has compared Youssef with American comedian Jon Stewart, whose satire program The Daily Show inspired Youssef to begin his career. In 2013, he was named as one of the "100 most influential people in the world" by Time magazine. Youssef's current projects are Tickling Giants, The Democracy Handbook, and Revolution For Dummies.

Comedic journalism is a new form of journalism, popularized in the twenty-first century, that incorporates a comedic tone to transmit the news to mass audiences, using humour and/or satire to relay a point in news reports. Comedic journalism has been applied to print media in the past but has experienced a resurgence through the medium of television with shows such as The Daily Show, Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, and The Rick Mercer Report. Conversely, there has been much criticism about defining these media outlets as “journalism”, since some scholars believe there should be a distinction kept between comedy and journalism.

Jeffrey P. Jones

Jeffrey P. Jones is Executive Director of the George Foster Peabody Awards and Lambdin Kay Chair for the Peabodys at the University of Georgia. Jones was appointed as only the fifth director of the program in July 2013. He is also Director of the Peabody Media Center. Jones is the author and editor of six books including Entertaining Politics: Satirical Television and Political Engagement and Satire TV: Politics and Comedy in the Post-Network Era.

In a country that has not enjoyed complete freedom of speech; political satire in Jordan has been a way to criticize and make claims on the political authorities. Be it expressed in press as in weekly satirical newspapers, cartoons, prose, or as in recent times, on online social media platforms, satire in Jordan represents a unique genre that has reflected a local mode and attitude towards local and global issues. While it is not meant entirely to entertain, political satire in Jordan has been used as a way to poke fun at elected governments and their failure to tend to local issues. Like satirists worldwide, the Jordanian satirists aim to use pun and indirect references to tackle taboos, defy the restrictive laws that inhibit the freedom of speech, and convey public grievances.

<i>Our Cartoon President</i> American animated satirical television series

Our Cartoon President is an American adult animated satirical television series that premiered on February 11, 2018 and ended on November 8, 2020, on Showtime. The series was created by Stephen Colbert, Chris Licht, Matt Lappin, Tim Luecke, and R. J. Fried and is based on a recurring segment from Colbert's late night talk show The Late Show with Stephen Colbert.

The Juice Media (TJM) is an Australian company that produces contemporary, left-wing political and social satire. They are known for their Internet series Honest Government Ads and Juice Rap News.

Television comedy is a category of broadcasting that has been present since the early days of entertainment media. While there are several genres of comedy, some of the first ones aired were variety shows. One of the first United States television programs was the comedy-variety show Texaco Star Theater, which was most prominent in the years that it featured Milton Berle - from 1948 to 1956. The range of television comedy has become broader, with the addition of sitcoms, improvisational comedy, and stand-up comedy, while also adding comedic aspects into other television genres, including drama and news. Television comedy provides opportunities for viewers to relate the content in these shows to society. Some audience members may have similar views about certain comedic aspects of shows, while others will take different perspectives. This also relates to developing new social norms, sometimes acting as the medium that introduces these transitions.

<i>Tooning Out the News</i> American live-action/animated satirical news television program

Stephen Colbert Presents Tooning Out the News is an American live-action/animated satirical news television program created and executive produced by comedian and Late Show host Stephen Colbert, Chris Licht, R. J. Fried, and Tim Luecke. The series premiered on CBS All Access on April 7, 2020.


  1. Stephanos Matthaios, Franco Montanari, Antonios Rengakos Ancient Scholarship and Grammar: Archetypes, Concepts and Contexts pp.207-8
  2. Ehrenberg, Victor (1962) The people of Aristophanes: a sociology of old Attic comedy p.263 quotation:
    The fact that the gods could be brought down to a human or 'far too human' level is certainly rooted in the very nature of Greek religion, and there is no doubt that this attitude contributed to the gradual undermining of the old belief in the gods. [...] To tell immoral and scandalous stories about the gods did not offend average religious feeling; it troubled only advanced spirits like Xenophanes and Pintar [...] and it is clear that people no longer believed either in the story or in Zeus. Satire and derision progressively attacked even the fundamental and most sacred facts of faith, above all faith in the gods' power, and it was from this that doubt began to grow.
    The power of the gods, whose dignity and stringth were impressively reflected in most of the tragedies, however different the religious attitudes of the tragic poets were, this same power was on the same festival days belittled and questioned by the comic poets who made fun of the gods and represented traditional and sacred forms in a starling manner.
  3. Henderson, J. (1993) Comic Hero versus Political Elite pp.307-19 in Sommerstein, A.H.; S. Halliwell; J. Henderson; B. Zimmerman, eds. (1993). Tragedy, Comedy and the Polis. Bari: Levante Editori.
  4. Aristophanes I: Clouds, Wasps, Birds, Peter Meineck (translator) and Ian Storey (Introduction), Hackett Publishing 2000, page X
  5. Emil J. Piscitelli (1993) Before Socrates-Diotima Archived 2012-10-13 at the Wayback Machine The Special Case of Aristophanes: Tribal and Civil Justice
  6. Life of Aristophanes, pp.42-seq
  7. George Santayana : Egotism in German Philosophy. 1915. chapter 13.
  8. Christa Davis Acampora & Ralph R. Acampora : A Nietzchean Bestiary. Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. p. 109
  9. Jonathan Gray, Jeffrey P. Jones & Ethan Thompson : Satire TV: Politics and Comedy in the Post-Network Era. New York University Press, 2009. p. 22
  10. Jeffrey P. Jones, "With All Due Respect: Satirizing Presidents from Saturday Night Live to Lil' Bush", in Jonathan Gray, Jeffrey P. Jones & Ethan Thompson : Satire TV: Politics and Comedy in the Post-Network Era. New York University Press, 2009. pp. 39–41
  11. Jeffrey P. Jones, Entertaining Politics: Satiric Television and Political Engagement. 2nd edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2010. p. 4
  12. Vermin Supreme for President 2020
  13. 1 2 Tamar Seeman, Sonia (2017). "The Long History of Satire in the Middle East". Pacific Standard. Retrieved 9 March 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. Kishtainy, Khaled (2009). "Humor and Resistance in the Arab World and Greater Middle East". Humour and Resistance in the Arab World and Greater Middle East: 54. doi:10.1057/9780230101753_5. ISBN   978-0-230-62141-1 . Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  15. Tamar Seeman, Sonia. "The Long History of Satire in the Middle East". Pacific Standard. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Baym, Geoffrey (2005). "The Daily Show: Discursive Integration and the Reinvention of Political Journalism". Political Communication. 22 (3): 259–276. doi: 10.1080/10584600591006492 . ISSN   1091-7675.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Faina, Joseph (2012). "Public journalism is a joke: The case for Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert". Journalism. 14 (4): 541–555. doi:10.1177/1464884912448899. S2CID   146592279.
  18. Fenton, Natalie (October 2009). Allan, Stuart (ed.). "News in the Digital Age". The Routledge Companion to News and Journalism. Taylor & Francis e-Library: 557–567.
  19. Chen, Hsuan-Ting; Gan, Chen; Sun, Ping (2017). "How Does Political Satire Influence Political Participation? Examining the Role of Counter- and Proattitudinal Exposure, Anger, and Personal Issue Importance". International Journal of Communication. 11: 1. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  20. Chen, Hsuan-Ting; Gan, Chen; Sun, Ping. "How Does Political Satire Influence Political Participation? Examining the Role of Counter- and Proattitudinal Exposure, Anger, and Personal Issue Importance". International Journal of Communication: 3. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  21. Chen, Hsuan-Ting; Gan, Chen; Sun, Ping. "How Does Political Satire Influence Political Participation? Examining the Role of Counter- and Proattitudinal Exposure, Anger, and Personal Issue Importance". International Journal of Communication. 11: 2. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  22. Chen, Hsuan-Ting; Gan, Chen; Sun, Ping. "How Does Political Satire Influence Political Participation? Examining the Role of Counter- and Proattitudinal Exposure, Anger, and Personal Issue Importance". International Journal of Communication. 11: 3. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  23. 1 2 3 Young, Dannagal G. "Lighten up: How satire will make American politics relevant again". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  24. 1 2 Lloyd, John (11 September 2010). "Has Political Satire gone Too Far?" . Retrieved 7 March 2021.