The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Western culture and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.(June 2019)
Political satire is satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics; it has also been used with subversive intent where political speech and dissent are forbidden by a regime, as a method of advancing political arguments where such arguments are expressly forbidden.
Political satire is usually distinguished from political protest or political dissent, as it does not necessarily carry an agenda nor seek to influence the political process. While occasionally it may, it more commonly aims simply to provide entertainment. By its very nature, it rarely offers a constructive view in itself; when it is used as part of protest or dissent, it tends to simply establish the error of matters rather than provide solutions.
Satire can be traced back throughout history; wherever organized government, or social categories, has existed, so has satire.[ citation needed ]
The oldest example that has survived till today is Aristophanes. In his time satire targeted top politicians, like Cleon,and religion, at the time headed by Zeus. "Satire and derision progressively attacked even the fundamental and most sacred facts of faith," leading to an increased doubt towards religion by the general population. The Roman period, for example, gives us the satirical poems and epigrams of Martial. Cynic philosophers often engaged in political satire.
Due to lack of political freedom of speech in many ancient civilizations, covert satire is more usual than overt satire in ancient literatures of political liberalism. Historically, the public opinion in the Athenian democracy was remarkably influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theatres.Watching or reading satire has since ancient time been considered one of the best ways to understand a culture and a society.
During the 20th and 21st Centuries satire is found in an increasing number of media (in cartoons as political cartoons with heavy caricature and exaggeration, and in political magazines) and the parallel exposure of political scandals to performances (including television shows). Examples include musicians such as Tom Lehrer, live performance groups like the Capitol Steps and the Montana Logging and Ballet Co., and public television and live performer Mark Russell. Additional subgenres include such literary classics as Gulliver's Travels and Animal Farm , and more recently, internet Ezine and website sources such as The Onion .
An early and renowned piece of political satire is a poem by Dante Alighieri titled "Divine comedy", in this piece Dante suggests that politicians of that time, in Italy should travel to hell.Additionally, another well-known form of political satire was through theatre, William Shakespeare used the play "Richard II" in order to criticise politics and the authority figures of the time
One example is Maurice Joly's 1864 pamphlet entitled The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu (Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu), which attacks the political ambitions of Napoleon III. It was first published in Brussels in 1864. The piece used the literary device of a dialogue between two diabolical plotters in Hell, the historical characters of Machiavelli and Montesquieu, to cover up a direct, and illegal, attack on Napoleon's rule. The noble baron Montesquieu made the case for liberalism; the Florentine political writer Machiavelli presented the case for cynical despotism. In this manner, Joly communicated the secret ways in which liberalism might spawn a despot like Napoleon III.
According to Santayana, Nietzsche was actually "a keen satirist"."Nietzsche's satire" was aimed at Lutheranism.
The UK has a long tradition of political satire, dating from the early years of English literature. In some readings, a number of William Shakespeare's plays can be seen – or at least performed – as satire, including Richard III and The Merchant of Venice . Later examples such as Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal are more outright in their satirical nature.
Through the 18th and 19th centuries editorial cartoons developed as graphic form of satire, with dedicated satirical magazines of the like of Punch appearing in the first half of the 19th century.
In recent decades, political satire in the United Kingdom includes pamphlets and newspaper articles, such as Private Eye , topical television panel shows such as Have I Got News for You and Mock the Week , and television series such as Ballot Monkeys , The Mash Report and Spitting Image .
In 2021, political cartoons when successful play a role in the political discourse of a society that provides for freedom of speech and for the press (Thomas Knieper 2007 SOURCE?). Key political cartoonists in the United Kingdom include people such as Peter Brookes who has been a political cartoonist for The Times since 1992 and Nicola Jennings who features regularly in the Guardian.
Notably, in the modern era street artists such as Banksy have been hailed for their dark political humour and witty political and social commentaries,primarily through graffiti Banksy's work has commented on various political themes such as capitalism, imperialism and war. By choosing Street Art (Graffiti) as the main artistic medium, Banksy has enabled his or herself to reach a wider audience in a more candid way. However, in the present day Graffiti and Street art are often attributed to vandalism, but this is part of the alluring nature that Banksy's Street art offers. Street Art arguably disrupts and imposes itself on the environment around us and Banksy's work and his artistic methods continue to revolutionise art and political satire.
Political satire in the United Kingdom has been described by some critics as a "chronic disease".Political satire although enables many to express political dissent in a humorous way, it is argued to "invite audiences to laugh at what they don't have the gumption to change ... you do a nice dissection of the way things are in the Orthodox elite and the Orthodox elite slaps you on the back and says 'jolly good, can we have some more?'".
Furthermore, satire is argued by some to be a facilitator of civic privatism, TV shows and their audiences favour laughter and consumption of political satire as opposed to creating real change or holding those at the focal point of the satirical piece to account. For example, Boris Johnson appeared on Have I Got News for You, in which the host Ian Hislop began to question Boris Johnson on his dubious phone call with his friend Darius Guppy, in which they discussed the organising of an assault of "unfriendly journalist"; Stuart Collier,eventually another member of the show; Paul Merton interjected with a gag and satirised the event, subsequently Boris Johnson was not questioned further on the event on the show, at least in a serious capacity which he held him accountable.
Additionally, television shows like Mock the Week which feature sections of political satire, arguably invites its "powerless audience"to laugh instead of changing what they are laughing at, leading to satire becoming a vice rather a corrective vice.
Satire became more visible on American television during the 1960s. Some of the early shows that used political satire include the British and American versions of the program That Was the Week That Was (airing on the American Broadcasting Company, or ABC, in the U.S.), CBS's The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour , and NBC's Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In . During the months leading up to the 1968 presidential election, Richard Nixon appeared on Laugh-In and repeated the program's catch-phrase "Sock it to me."Other forms of satire of the 1960s and early 1970s typically used the sitcom format, such as the show All in the Family .
When Saturday Night Live debuted in 1975, the show began to change the way that comedians would depict the president on television. Chevy Chase opened the fourth episode of the show with his impersonation of a bumbling Gerald Ford.Chase did not change his appearance to look like President Ford, and he portrayed the president by repeatedly falling down on the stage. Some of the other famous presidential impersonations on Saturday Night Live include Dan Aykroyd's Richard Nixon and Jimmy Carter caricatures, Dana Carvey as George H. W. Bush, Darrell Hammond as Bill Clinton, Will Ferrell as George W. Bush, and Jay Pharoah as Barack Obama. Hammond was the first cast member to impersonate Donald Trump, but now Alec Baldwin portrays him.
During the 2008 presidential campaign, Saturday Night Live gained wide attention because former cast member Tina Fey returned to the show to satirize Republican Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin. In addition to Fey's striking physical resemblance to Palin, the impersonation of the vice presidential candidate was also noteworthy because of Fey's humorous use of some of exactly the same words Palin used in media interviews and campaign speeches as a way to perform political satire.
Saturday Night Live also uses political satire throughout its Weekend Update sketch. Weekend Update is a fake news segment on the show that satirizes politics and current events. It has been a part of SNL since the first episode of the show on October 11, 1975.
The Daily Show and The Colbert Report use stylistic formats that are similar to Weekend Update. On The Daily Show, host Jon Stewart used footage from news programs to satirize politics and the news media. Stephen Colbert performed in character on The Colbert Report as a right-wing news pundit. Both hosts' television programs were broadcast on Comedy Central, while The Daily Show continues to run featuring Trevor Noah as a new host. Colbert became the host of The Late Show , succeeding David Letterman. With their shows, Stewart and Colbert helped increase public and academic discussion of the significance of political satire. Real Time with Bill Maher and Full Frontal with Samantha Bee are also examples of political commentary.
During the 2020 presidential campaign, perennial candidate Vermin Supreme was recruited by members of the Libertarian Party to run a serious presidential campaign (Vermin Supreme 2020 presidential campaign) which utilizes his satirical character to promote libertarianism.
In the film industry, the controversial film titled "The Hunt" was perceived to "tackle" the issue of partisan divide.In a film, in which "deplorable" and "liberal elites" battle each other, the characters "hurl political laden insults at each other", these political insults include words such as "snowflakes", there is also mentions of such as the "deep state", "crisis actors" and "cancel culture". All terms can be used in a political sphere and can be referenced in conversation surrounding US governance.
Arab poets were well known for their ability to use humour and poetry to commentate on politics and governments, however due to the nature and power of the "medieval government"the humour had developed to be very different to the humour used in the West. However, there has been several instances in various Middle Eastern countries in which satirists created political satire unafraid of the consequences they could suffer under an oppressive regime.
Even as early as the days of the Ottoman Empire political satire was being used as a way to express political dissent and to help mobilise public opinionhowever the form of political satire was drastically different to the present day, due to technology, political dissent during the Ottoman Empire was expressed through shadow puppet shows, improvised folk theatre and cartoons. Subsequently, the Ottoman Empire's first satirical magazine was known as Karagöz or "Black eye"
In Arabic societies, there have been many magazines throughout history and more recently the 21st century that will use humour and political satire to criticise and express their dissenting opinions.For example, Turkey is home to the political satire magazine known as LeMan, which by 2010 would have published its 1000th issue, LeMan is well known for its political cartoons highlighting corruption, lampooning and shedding light on serious situations using humour. Furthermore, one of the most widely read satirists in the Middle East is Lenin El-Ramly, hailing from Egypt, the political satire El-Ramly creates is not as explicit and outright as the Political Satire created by Western Satirists. El-Ramly is credited with over 30 scripts for films and television series and 12 plays. El-Ramly explained that the satire in Egypt cannot directly mention "Sex, The President, Religion and Social Values", however later on stated that they can "touch on them in satire"
In Syria, in the year 2001 a satirical newspaper known as the "Lamplighter" was first published and resonated with the public as it sold out immediately.It was the first independent paper in the country since 1965 and was created by cartoonist and satirist Ali Farzat. Farzan's satire covered topics such as the poor economy, terrorism, torture and corruption within Syria.
Although political satire in the Middle East rarely depicts the Prophet Muhammed as it is strictly taboo in Arabic cultures, however there are numerous examples of depictions of corrupt or "hypocritical leaders",another well-known satirist operating is Bassem Youssef, who is considered the poster-boy for Egyptian Satire, his political satire show began on YouTube and quickly amassed a wide following around Egypt
Censorship of political satire is an issue particularly relevant to satirist operating in the Middle East. An example of censorship comes in the year 2002, in which satirist Ali Farzat was ordered to remove 2 articles and a cartoon from a magazine pertaining Prime Minister, which was deemed insulting. Subsequently, Farzat's newspaper was shut down and his printing license was revoked.A more grave example of censorship, is the assassination of Walid Hassan in 2006, which came after the actor appeared on a satirical show known as "Caricature", Walid Hassan appeared to satirise US military forces, Iraqi politicians and also Shiite and Sunni militias.
According to the findings of the 2004 Pew Survey, both younger and older audiences are turning to late-night comedy shows as not only a source of entertainment, but also for an opportunity to gain political awareness.For this reason, Geoffrey Baym suggests that shows that make use of political satire, such as The Daily Show , should be considered as a form of alternative journalism. Utilizing satire has shown to be an attractive feature in news programming, drawing in the audiences of less politically engaged demographic cohorts. Moreover, satire news programming can be considered alternative because satire plays an important role in dissecting and critiquing power.
In his article The Daily Show: Discursive Integration and the Reinvention of Political Journalism, Baym detailed how The Daily Show , then hosted by Jon Stewart, presented news stories. For the satire news show, presenting information in a comprehensive manner was used to give viewers a greater perspective of a situation.Often, Stewart studded his segments with additional background information, or reminders of relevant and past details. For example, The Daily Show displayed the full video of Bush's comments regarding Tenet's resignation in 2004. This was a deliberate choice by the show in attempt to give a more sincere representation of the event. Moreover, it can be seen as a challenge and critique of what more traditional news shows failed to include. In this way, satire news can be seen as more informative than other news sources. Notably, research findings released by National Annenberg Election Survey (NAES) concede that followers of satire news are more knowledgeable and consume more news than the general population.
Meanwhile, Joseph Faina has considered the satire used in news shows as a facilitator in developing a public journalism practice.Faina explains in his article that the nature of satire encourages viewers to become politically engaged, and a civic participant, in which the humor exercised by hosts elicit responses in viewers. However, Faina has acknowledged that this model is somewhat idealistic. Nevertheless, Faina argues that the potential still exists. Not to mention, with the rise in technology and the growing ubiquity of cellular phones, it can be argued that civic participation is all the more easier to accomplish.
Modern studies of the effects of political satire have shown that political satire has an influence on political participation,in fact research has shown that an exposure to satire of a political nature evokes negative emotions which consequently mobilises political participation. It is documented that watching late-night comedy shows increases political participation due to the interpersonal discussions and online interaction that follows as a result of political satire.
On the other hand, some scholars have expressed concern over the influence of political comedy shows, it is argued that rather than increase political participation it has the adverse effect. Rather than mobilise participation it can actually demobilise participation due to the negative analysis of political figures, leading to cynicism towards the government and electoral system.
Though satire in news is celebrated as a vehicle toward a more informed public, such view is not universally shared among scholars.Critics have expressed their hesitancy toward the infiltration of lighthearted practices to cover more dire topics like political affair. Potentially off-color remarks, or vulgar comments made by the likes of Stephen Colbert of The Late Show with Stephen Colbert , or Samantha Bee, host of Full Frontal with Samantha Bee , can be used as examples of what critics are concerned about. Here, satire is believed to diminish the gravity of a topic.
Baym proposes that as these shows are alternative, they have no obligation to "abide by standard practices".Unlike traditional news sources, which may be required to adhere to certain agendas, like political affiliation or advertising restrictions, hosts of satire news shows are free and zealous to showcase personal contributions through their mentions of disdain, qualms, and excitement. Critics of satire in news shows thus believe that the showcasing of an overly and openly frustrated host will induce or perpetuate "cynicism in viewers".
The Financial Times argues that political satire can contribute to "media led populism",this is argued to be due to the mockery of politicians and public officials that is required to be accountable only to "audience maximisation", it is argued that this form of media led populism is more prevalent in the United States than the United Kingdom, as commentators who are both Liberal and Conservative are being used more often as the "main way" in which young viewers learn about current affairs. This is particularly troublesome when commentators use polemic and sarcasm in their satire as opposed to witty humour or impersonations.
Satire is a genre of the visual, literary, and performing arts, usually in the form of fiction and less frequently non-fiction, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society.
British comedy, in film, radio and television, is known for its consistently peculiar characters, plots and settings, and has produced some of the most famous and memorable comic actors and characters.
A political cartoon, a type of editorial cartoon, is a cartoon graphic with caricatures of public figures, expressing the artist's opinion. An artist who writes and draws such images is known as an editorial cartoonist. They typically combine artistic skill, hyperbole and satire in order to question authority and draw attention to corruption, political violence and other social ills.
A humorist (American) or humourist is an intellectual who uses humor, or wit in writing or public speaking, but is not an artist who seeks only to elicit laughs. Humorists are distinct from comedians, who are show business entertainers whose business is to make an audience laugh. It is possible to play both roles in the course of a career.
The Daily Show is an American late-night talk and news satire television program. It airs each Monday through Thursday on Comedy Central. Describing itself as a fake news program, The Daily Show draws its comedy and satire from recent news stories, political figures, media organizations, and often uses self-referential humor as well.
BBspot was a geek satire and humour web site founded in 2000. In 2003, the site was successful enough that webmaster Brian Briggs "quit his day job" and made the site his full-time vocation. BBspot is most notable for its technology news satire.
British humour carries a strong element of satire aimed at the absurdity of everyday life. Common themes include sarcasm, insults, self-deprecation, taboo subjects, puns, innuendo, wit, and the British class system. These are often accompanied by a deadpan delivery which is present throughout the British sense of humour. It may be used to bury emotions in a way that seems unkind in the eyes of other cultures. Jokes are told about everything and almost no subject is off-limits, though a lack of subtlety when discussing controversial issues is sometimes considered insensitive. Many British comedy series have become internationally popular, serving as a representation of British culture to international audiences.
Canadian humour is an integral part of the Canadian Identity. There are several traditions in Canadian humour in both English and French. While these traditions are distinct and at times very different, there are common themes that relate to Canadians' shared history and geopolitical situation in North America and the world. Though neither universally kind nor moderate, humorous Canadian literature has often been branded by author Dick Bourgeois-Doyle as "gentle satire," evoking the notion embedded in humorist Stephen Leacock's definition of humour as "the kindly contemplation of the incongruities of life and the artistic expression thereof."
The satire boom was the output of a generation of British satirical writers, journalists and performers at the end of the 1950s. The satire boom is often regarded as having begun with the first performance of Beyond the Fringe on 22 August 1960 and ending around December 1963 with the cancellation of the BBC TV show That Was The Week That Was. The figures most closely identified with the satire boom are Peter Cook, John Bird, John Fortune, David Frost, Dudley Moore, Bernard Levin and Richard Ingrams. Many figures who found celebrity through the satire boom went on to establish subsequently more serious careers as writers including Alan Bennett (drama), Jonathan Miller (polymathic), and Paul Foot.
Ancient Greek comedy was one of the final three principal dramatic forms in the theatre of classical Greece. Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods: Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy. Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes; Middle Comedy is largely lost, i.e. preserved only in relatively short fragments by authors such as Athenaeus of Naucratis; and New Comedy is known primarily from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander.
News satire is a type of parody presented in a format typical of mainstream journalism, and called a satire because of its content. News satire has been around almost as long as journalism itself, but it is particularly popular on the web, with websites like The Onion, where it is relatively easy to mimic a legitimate news source. News satire relies heavily on irony and deadpan humor.
The Colbert Report is an American late-night talk and news satire television program hosted by Stephen Colbert that aired four days a week on Comedy Central from October 17, 2005, to December 18, 2014, for 1,447 episodes. The show focused on a fictional anchorman character named Stephen Colbert, played by his real-life namesake. The character, described by Colbert as a "well-intentioned, poorly informed, high-status idiot", is a caricature of televised political pundits. Furthermore, the show satirized conservative personality-driven political talk programs, particularly Fox News's The O'Reilly Factor. The Colbert Report is a spin-off of Comedy Central's The Daily Show, in which Colbert acted as a correspondent for the program for several years while developing the character.
Religious satire is a form of satire that refers to religious beliefs and can take the form of texts, plays, films, and parody. From the earliest times, at least since the plays of Aristophanes, religion has been one of the three primary topics of literary satire, along with politics and sex. Satire which targets the clergy is a type of political satire, while religious satire is that which targets religious beliefs. Religious satire is also sometimes called philosophical satire, and is thought to be the result of agnosticism or atheism. Notable works of religious satire surfaced during the Renaissance, with works by Geoffrey Chaucer, Erasmus and Albrecht Dürer.
Comedy is a genre of fiction consisting of discourses or works intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, television, radio, books, or any other entertainment medium. The term originated in Ancient Greece: in Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by political satire performed by comic poets in theaters. The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance pitting two groups, ages, genders, or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions posing obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth then becomes constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to resort to ruses which engender dramatic irony, which provokes laughter.
Kunal Vijayakar is a food writer, author and television personality. A whole generation have watched him eat his way into the hearts of hundreds and thousands of Indians. He is India’s most recognisable food show host, and the anchor of the country's most popular food show The Foodie – with Kunal Vijayakar, a show which ran uninterrupted for nine years, completing close to 500 episodes. He has been a food columnist and writer with The Times of India, Bombay Times, DNA, Asian Age, Mahanagar, and The Week and is currently a food writer and columnist with Hindustan Times. He is the author of Made In India – his first cookbook. He is also an actor, director and political satirist, and writer, performer and director of the political satirical show The News That Wasn't and The Week That Wasn't on CNN News18.
Australian comedy refers to the comedy and humour performed in or about Australia or by the people of Australia. Australian humour can be traced to various origins, and today is manifested in a diversity of cultural practices and pursuits. Writers like Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson helped to establish a tradition of laconic, ironic and irreverent wit in Australian literature, while Australian politicians and cultural stereotypes have each proved rich sources of comedy for artists from poet C. J. Dennis to satirist Barry Humphries to iconic film maker Paul Hogan, each of whom have given wide circulation to Australian slang.
Bassem Raafat Mohamed Youssef is an Egyptian comedian, writer, producer, surgeon, doctor, media critic, and television host, who hosted El-Bernameg, a satirical news program, from 2011 to 2014. The press has compared Youssef with American comedian Jon Stewart, whose satire program The Daily Show inspired Youssef to begin his career. In 2013, he was named as one of the "100 most influential people in the world" by Time magazine. Youssef's current projects are Tickling Giants, The Democracy Handbook, and Revolution For Dummies.
Comedic journalism is a new form of journalism, popularized in the twenty-first century, that incorporates a comedic tone to transmit the news to mass audiences, using humour and/or satire to relay a point in news reports. Comedic journalism has been applied to print media in the past but has experienced a resurgence through the medium of television with shows such as The Daily Show, Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, and The Rick Mercer Report. Conversely, there has been much criticism about defining these media outlets as “journalism”, since some scholars believe there should be a distinction kept between comedy and journalism.
Jeffrey P. Jones is Executive Director of the George Foster Peabody Awards and Lambdin Kay Chair for the Peabodys at the University of Georgia. Jones was appointed as only the fifth director of the program in July 2013. He is also Director of the Peabody Media Center. Jones is the author and editor of six books including Entertaining Politics: Satirical Television and Political Engagement and Satire TV: Politics and Comedy in the Post-Network Era.
The fact that the gods could be brought down to a human or 'far too human' level is certainly rooted in the very nature of Greek religion, and there is no doubt that this attitude contributed to the gradual undermining of the old belief in the gods. [...] To tell immoral and scandalous stories about the gods did not offend average religious feeling; it troubled only advanced spirits like Xenophanes and Pintar [...] and it is clear that people no longer believed either in the story or in Zeus. Satire and derision progressively attacked even the fundamental and most sacred facts of faith, above all faith in the gods' power, and it was from this that doubt began to grow.
The power of the gods, whose dignity and stringth were impressively reflected in most of the tragedies, however different the religious attitudes of the tragic poets were, this same power was on the same festival days belittled and questioned by the comic poets who made fun of the gods and represented traditional and sacred forms in a starling manner.