Te Tai Tonga

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Te Tai Tonga electorate boundaries used since the 2008 election Te Tai Tonga electorate, 2014.svg
Te Tai Tonga electorate boundaries used since the 2008 election
Chatham Islands farm View from Chatham Islands.jpg
Chatham Islands farm

Te Tai Tonga is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. The current MP for Te Tai Tonga is Rino Tirikatene of the Labour Party, who in 2011 defeated Rahui Katene of the Māori Party, who in turn had won the seat in 2008.

Māori electorates

In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; there are currently seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.

New Zealand House of Representatives Sole chamber of New Zealand Parliament

The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.

Rino Tirikatene New Zealand politician

Rino Tirikatene is a New Zealand politician and a member of the House of Representatives, representing the Te Tai Tonga electorate since the 2011 election. He is a member of the Labour Party. He comes from a family with a strong political history.

Contents

Population centres

Te Tai Tonga is by far the largest of the seventy-one electorates of New Zealand, covering all of the South Island, Stewart Island, the Chatham Islands, all the islands in the Southern Ocean and a large part of the Wellington urban area, namely Wellington City as far as Johnsonville, and Petone, Lower Hutt and Eastbourne from the Hutt Valley. Besides Wellington, the main centres in te Tai Tonga are Nelson, Christchurch, Timaru, Oamaru, Dunedin, Queenstown, and Invercargill.

South Island Southernmost of the two main islands in New Zealand

The South Island, also officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area; the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi), making it the world's 12th-largest island. It has a temperate climate.

Stewart Island New Zealands third largest island

Stewart Island, officially named Stewart Island/Rakiura,, is the third-largest island of New Zealand. It lies 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of the South Island, across the Foveaux Strait. Its permanent population is 381 people as of the 2013 census, most of whom live in the settlement of Oban on the eastern side of the island.

Chatham Islands New Zealands most remote group of inhabited islands

The Chatham Islands form an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean about 800 kilometres (500 mi) east of the South Island of New Zealand. It consists of about ten islands within a 40-kilometre (25 mi) radius, the largest of which are Chatham Island and Pitt Island. Some of these islands, once cleared for farming, are now preserved as nature reserves to conserve some of the unique flora and fauna. The resident population is 600. The local economy is largely dependent on conservation, tourism, farming, and fishing.

Te Tai Tonga's size was marginally decreased after a review of boundaries in 2007, when the suburbs of Naenae and Taita were moved into Ikaroa-Rāwhiti. [1] The 2013/14 redistribution did not further alter the boundaries of the electorate. [2]

Naenae

Naenae is a suburb of the city of Lower Hutt, New Zealand. It lies on the eastern edge of the floodplain of the Hutt River, four kilometres from the Lower Hutt Central business district. A small tributary of the Hutt, the Waiwhetu Stream, flows through the suburb. Naenae has a population of around 8,000 people.

Ikaroa-Rāwhiti

Ikaroa-Rāwhiti is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate. It was formed for the 1999 election and held by Parekura Horomia of the Labour Party until his death in 2013. A by-election to replace him was held on 29 June 2013 and was won by Labour's Meka Whaitiri, who remains the incumbent after the 2014 election.

The main iwi of Te Tai Tonga are Ngāi Tahu/Kāi Tahu, Kāti Māmoe and Waitaha, and in the North Island, Te Āti Awa ki Whakarongotai, Ngāti Toa Rangatira and Ngāti Poneke, [3] that latter of which is not iwi in the traditional sense, but an urban pan-tribal grouping. The Chatham Islands was invaded by members of Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama, and their descendants live there today, alongside the indigenous Moriori.

Ngāi Tahu Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi (tribe) of the southern region of New Zealand. Its takiwā is the largest in New Zealand, and extends from Blenheim, Mount Mahanga and Kahurangi Point in the north to Stewart Island in the south. The takiwā comprises 18 rūnanga corresponding to traditional settlements.

Kāti Māmoe is a historic Māori iwi. Originally from the Heretaunga (Hastings) area they moved in the 16th century to the South Island which at the time was occupied by Waitaha.

Waitaha is an early historical Māori iwi. Inhabitants of the South Island of New Zealand, they were largely absorbed via marriage and conquest first by the Kāti Māmoe and then Ngāi Tahu from the 16th century onward. Today those of Waitaha descent are represented by the Ngāi Tahu iwi.

History

Eastbourne, Lower Hutt Eastbourne NZ Rimu Street.jpg
Eastbourne, Lower Hutt
Otakou marae, near Dunedin Otakou marae.jpg
Otakou marae, near Dunedin

The boundaries of Te Tai Tonga have a lot in common with the seat of Southern Maori that it superseded in 1996 with the introduction of Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) voting and an increase in the number of Māori electorates from four to five. The main difference involves the separation of the Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay into seats wholly located in the North Island – initially Te Puku O Te Whenua, and since 1999 Ikaroa-Rāwhiti. The voting patterns of Te Tai Tonga reflect the adaptation of Te Tai Tonga voters to proportional representation.[ citation needed ] Whetū Tirikatene-Sullivan had served as Southern Maori's representative in Parliament during the terms of five different governments and nine Prime Ministers, but the New Zealand First Party challenger Tū Wyllie tipped her out of the seat in 1996, as sixty years of Labour Party control of the (then) four Māori electorates ended.

Southern Maori was one of the four original New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorates, from 1868 to 1996.

1996 New Zealand general election

The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.

Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received. The constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both.

In 1999 New Zealand First lost its electoral footing after an unpopular term in office, firstly as junior government-coalition partner and then following an internal split in the party, with much of the party's original parliamentary caucus leaving the party ("waka-jumping") to prop up the government of Jenny Shipley (although Wyllie himself did not join the breakaway group). Along with a drop in the New Zealand First vote from thirteen to four percent nationwide came the return of the Māori electorates to Labour and the election of Mahara Okeroa to Parliament as the Labour Party MP for Te Tai Tonga.

1999 New Zealand general election

The 1999 New Zealand general election was held on 27 November 1999 to determine the composition of the 46th New Zealand Parliament. The governing National Party, led by Prime Minister Jenny Shipley, was defeated, being replaced by a coalition of Helen Clark's Labour Party and the smaller Alliance. This marked an end to nine years of National Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand which would govern for 9 years, until its loss to the National Party in the 2008 general election.

Waka-jumping

New Zealanders speak colloquially of waka-jumping when a Member of Parliament (MP) switches political party between elections, taking their parliamentary seat with them and potentially upsetting electoral proportionality in the Parliament of New Zealand.

Jenny Shipley 36th Prime Minister of New Zealand

Dame Jennifer Mary Shipley is a former New Zealand politician who served as the 36th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1997 to 1999. She was the first female Prime Minister of New Zealand, and is the only woman to have led the National Party.

A political difference of opinion between many Māori and the Labour Party emerged in 2004, when Helen Clark's Labour government introduced the Seabed and Foreshore Bill, claiming the coastline for the Crown and in the process providing the catalyst for the launch of the Māori Party (7 July 2004), which went on to win four of the seven Māori seats (but not the plurality of the party votes cast in those seats) at the 2005 general election. Te Tai Tonga did not form part of this electoral sea-change, with Okeroa's majority slashed from 8,000 to around 2,500 despite his facing two fewer contenders than in 2002. At the same time, voters in the seat used the left-hand side of the ballot paper to up Labour's share of the party vote from 52 to 57 percent and to help re-elect Clark's Labour government (possibly[ original research? ] due to the campaign stance of National Party leader Don Brash).

Rahui Katene won the electorate for the Māori Party in the 2008 election, defeating the incumbent. [4] Tirikatene won the electorate in 2011 with a margin of 1,475 votes. [5] Tirikatene significantly increased his majority in the 2014 election. [6]

Members of Parliament

Key

  NZ First     Labour     Māori     Green   

ElectionWinner
1996 election Tu Wyllie
1999 election Mahara Okeroa
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election Rahui Katene
2011 election Rino Tirikatene
2014 election
2017 election

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Te Tai Tonga electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

ElectionWinner
2005 election Metiria Turei

Election results

2017 election

2017 general election: Te Tai Tonga [7]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Rino Tirikatene 10,41644.44+2.6713,48455.80+19.1
Green Metiria Turei 5,74024.50+8.811,9638.12-8.29
Māori Mei Reedy-Taare4,91520.97-3.222,0308.40-2.79
Legalise Cannabis Emma-Jane Mihaere Kingi1,6256.93+1.962801.16-15.25
National  3,01412.47-2.45
NZ First  1,9267.80-5.02
Opportunities  9443.91
Mana  1230.51
Ban 1080  580.24-0.24
ACT  480.20+0.03
People's Party  200.82
Conservative  180.075-0.68
Outdoors  110.046
United Future  100.041-0.049
Internet  60.025
Democrats  50.021-0.5
Informal votes738226
Total Valid votes24,16623,434
Labour holdMajority4,67619.95+2.37

2014 election

2014 general election: Te Tai Tonga [8]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Rino Tirikatene 8,44541.77+1.157,60736.70-1.82
Māori Ngaire Button4,89124.19-7.602,31911.19-2.30
Green Dora Roimata Langsbury3,17315.69+0.453,40216.41+0.59
Mana Georgina Beyer 1,9969.87+1.73
Legalise Cannabis Emma-Jane Mihaere Kingi1,0054.97+0.762821.36+0.06
National  2,97714.92-0.56
NZ First  2,65712.82+4.06
Internet Mana  1,0214.93-0.99 [lower-alpha 1]
Conservative  1530.74+0.06
Ban 1080  990.48+0.48
ACT  350.17-0.01
United Future  180.09-0.15
Democrats  150.07-0.02
Civilian  90.04+0.04
Independent Coalition  80.04+0.04
Focus  30.01+0.01
Informal votes545125
Total Valid votes20,22020,730
Labour holdMajority3,55417.58+8.75

2011 election

2011 general election: Te Tai Tonga [5]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Rino Tirikatene 6,78640.62-1.186,79138.52-11.06
Māori Red x.svgN Rahui Katene 5,31131.79-15.512,37913.49-8.76
Green Dora Roimata Langsbury2,54615.24+4.342,78915.82+8.61
Mana Clinton Dearlove1,3608.14+8.141,0435.92+5.92
Legalise Cannabis Emma-Jane Mihaere Kingi7034.21+4.212301.30+0.26
National  2,63114.92+3.78
NZ First  1,5448.76+3.20
Conservative  1200.68+0.68
United Future  430.24+0.05
ACT  320.18-0.48
Democrats  160.09+0.06
Alliance  70.04-0.03
Libertarianz  40.02+0.003
Informal votes840268
Total Valid votes16,70617,629
Labour gain from Māori Majority1,4758.83+14.34

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 31,933 [9]

2008 election

2008 general election: Te Tai Tonga [10]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Māori Rahui Katene 9,01147.304,41422.26
Labour Red x.svgN Mahara Okeroa 7,96241.809,83349.58
Green Dora Roimata Langsbury2,07610.901,4307.21
National  2,21011.14
NZ First  1,1025.56
Legalise Cannabis  2071.04
Bill and Ben  1580.80
ACT  1310.66
Progressive  1220.62
Family Party  760.38
Kiwi  690.35
United Future  380.19
Alliance  140.07
Workers Party  130.07
Democrats  60.03
Libertarianz  40.02
Pacific  40.02
RAM  20.01
RONZ  00.00
Informal votes656261
Total Valid votes19,04919,833
Māori gain from Labour Majority1,0495.51

2005 election

2005 general election: Te Tai Tonga [11]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Mahara Okeroa 9,01547.23-15.9411,48557.89
Māori Monte Ohia6,51234.12+34.123,48117.55
Green Metiria Turei 2,29612.031,2836.47
Progressive Russell Caldwell7053.691690.85
Destiny Maru Samuel5592.932351.18
National  1,4627.37
NZ First  1,2406.25
United Future  2111.06
Legalise Cannabis  1590.80
ACT  580.29
Alliance  140.07
Christian Heritage  90.05
Democrats  80.04
Family Rights  70.04
Libertarianz  40.02
One NZ  40.02
99 MP  30.02
Direct Democracy  30.02
RONZ  30.02
Informal votes655322
Total Valid votes19,08719,838
Labour holdMajority2,50313.11-38.99

1999 election

Refer to Candidates in the New Zealand general election 1999 by electorate#Te Tai Tonga for a list of candidates.

1996 election

1996 general election: Te Tai Tonga [12] [13] [14]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
NZ First Tutekawa Wyllie 7,65737.996,57632.47
Labour Red x.svgN Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 7,37236.587,16735.39
Alliance Hone Kaiwai1,9169.512,29011.31
Independent Eva Rickard 1,2206.05
National Cliff Bedwell1,1155.531,7328.55
Independent Honty Whaanga-Morris8734.33
Legalise Cannabis  8964.42
Mana Māori  6673.29
Christian Coalition  4412.18
ACT  2321.15
United NZ  520.26
McGillicuddy Serious  370.18
Te Tawharau 350.17
Progressive Green 330.16
Animals First  280.14
Green Society 220.11
Natural Law  120.06
Superannuitants & Youth 90.04
Ethnic Minority Party 70.03
Conservatives 50.02
Libertarianz  40.02
Advance New Zealand 30.01
Asia Pacific United 20.01
Informal votes279182
Total Valid votes20,15320,250
NZ First win new seatMajority2851.41

Notes

  1. 2014 Internet Mana swing is relative to the votes for Mana in 2011; it shared a party list with Internet in the 2014 election.

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References

  1. Report of the Representation Commission 2007 (PDF). Representation Commission. 14 September 2007. p. 11. ISBN   978-0-477-10414-2 . Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  2. Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 11. ISBN   978-0-477-10414-2 . Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  3. Te Puni Kōkiri – In Your Region – Te Whanganui ā Tara
  4. Macintosh, Rob (13 September 2011). "Battle for Maori seat is under way". The Marlborough Express . Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  5. 1 2 "Official Count Results – Te Tai Tonga". Electoral Commission. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  6. "Official Count Results – Te Tai Tonga". Electoral Commission. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  7. "E9 Statistics – Electorate Status". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  8. "Official Count Results – Te Tai Tonga". Electoral Commission. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  9. "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  10. 2008 election results
  11. 2005 election results
  12. "Electorate Candidate and Party Votes Recorded at Each Polling Place – Te Tai Tonga" (PDF). Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  13. Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties Archived 8 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  14. Party Lists of Unsuccessful Registered Parties

Coordinates: 43°36′00″S172°00′00″E / 43.6000°S 172.0000°E / -43.6000; 172.0000