Waitaha (South Island iwi)

Last updated

Waitaha
Iwi (tribe) in Māoridom
Rohe (region) South Island
Waka (canoe) Uruaokapuarangi

Waitaha is an early Māori iwi which inhabited the South Island of New Zealand. They were largely absorbed via marriage and conquest first by the Ngāti Māmoe and then Ngāi Tahu from the 16th century onward. Today those of Waitaha descent are represented by the Ngāi Tahu iwi. Like Ngāi Tahu today, Waitaha was itself a collection of various ancient iwi. Kāti Rākai was said to be one of Waitaha's hapū. [1]

Contents

History

Origins

Waitaha's earliest ancestors are traditionally traced as arrivals from Te Patunui-o-āio [lower-alpha 1] in Eastern Polynesia aboard the Uruaokapuarangi canoe (waka), of which Rākaihautū had been the captain. [3] He was accompanied by his wife and son, Waiariki-o-āio and Te Rakihouia, [lower-alpha 2] the renowned tohunga kōkōrangi (astronomer) Matiti, [2] Waitaa, [6] [lower-alpha 3] and other kin of the Te Kāhui Tipua, Te Kāhui Roko, and Te Kāhui Waitaha iwi. [7] When genealogies are interpreted with 25–30 years' worth of lifespan for at least 34 generations, [8] these people are calculated to have lived in or around the 9th century at the latest, [9] but this is not an entirely reliable way to trace earlier occupants of New Zealand.

A traditional story tells how Rākaihautū used Kapakitua, his adze, [lower-alpha 4] to cut a path through heavy fog on the canoe's voyage. [3] Other traditional stories such as the story of Ngā Puna Wai Karikari o Rākaihautū (roughly translated as "The Flowing Water Diggings of Rākaihautū"), credit Rākaihautū with travelling down the Southern Alps to Foveaux Strait from Boulder Bank, digging up many great lakes and waterways with Tūwhakarōria - his magical (digging stick), [9] and filling them with food as he went. Te Rakihouia and Waitaa also journeyed down along the east coast as far south as the Clutha River. [6] The two groups met up near the Waitaki River, where the Uruaokapuarangi is still said to lie as part of the riverbed today. [6] The party then moved back northwards to live at Banks Peninsula, where Rākaihautū renamed Tūwhakarōria to Tuhiraki, thrusting it into a hill called Pūhai where it turned into the rocky peak known to Pākehā today as Mount Bossu. [11] According to Sir Āpirana Ngata, it is "very doubtful" that Rākaihautū went south at all, saying specifically in an audio recording with John Te Herekiekie Grace: [12]

He landed in the north. Whether he went south is very doubtful. They localized him in the South Island because the people who knew the position moved south. Well, that was somewhere about the ninth century.

Āpirana Ngata, The Journal of the Polynesian Society LIX: The Io Cult - Early Migration - Puzzle of the Canoes (1950) [12]

Rākaihautū's descendants

A daughter of Rākaihautū, Te Uhi-tataraiakoa, stayed behind in Te Patunui-o-āio, and became the great grandmother of Toi. [8] Eight generations after Toi there lived Waitaha-nui and after him Waitaha-araki, [13] after whom there came Hāwea-i-te-raki, [lower-alpha 5] and finally seven generations later lived Hotumāmoe from Hastings, the founding ancestor of Ngāti Māmoe. In addition, Te Kāhea was a fifth generation descendant of Toi, and Rāhiri was also a 16th generation descendant. [8] Tūhaitara from Hastings, a famed Ngāi Tahu ancestress, was said to have some Ngāti Māmoe ancestry. [8] Her husband Marukore was a local with Te Kāhea ancestry. [14] Waiwhero and Hekeia were Waitaha chiefs, [1] with Te Anau being the latter's granddaughter [15] and Aparim-a being his mother. Otaraia was the name of another chief. [1]

Waitaha's included O whitianga te ra ("place of the shining sun"), close to the southern end of Lake Te Anau [15] a site at the Taerutu Lagoon near Woodend,[ citation needed ] a site at the mouth of Mata-au, a site in the Oamaru area, and a site around Lake Wakatipu. [1]

At the time Ngāti Māmoe migrated to the South Island from Te Whanganui-a-Tara about the 16th century, all the South Island's ancient iwi including the original Waitaha, Te Kāhui Tipua, Te Kāhui Roko, Te Rapuwai, Ngāti Hawea, and Ngāti Wairangi were all collectively grouped together as Waitaha. [4] [5] [7] This happened again to Kāti Māmoe when Ngāi Tahu conquered the South Island in the 17th and 18th centuries. [10]

Latter day claim

In 1995, a book by controversial author Barry Brailsford, Song of Waitaha: The Histories of a Nation, claimed that the ancestors of a "Nation of Waitaha" were the first inhabitants of New Zealand, three groups of people of different races, two of light complexion and one of dark complexion, who had arrived in New Zealand from an unspecified location in the Pacific Ocean, 67 generations before the book appeared.[ citation needed ]

Although a series of further books, web sites and events have addressed these claims, they have been widely disputed and dismissed by scholars. Historian Michael King noted: "There was not a skerrick of evidence linguistic, artifactual, genetic; no datable carbon or pollen remains, nothing that the story had any basis in fact. Which would make Waitaha the first people on earth to live in a country for several millennia and leave no trace of their occupation." [16]

Organisations

Several organisations have Waitaha as part of their title, often as a synonym for Canterbury or in a generic "ancient links to the land" sense. Some are:

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Iwi are the largest social units in Aotearoa Māori society. The Māori-language word iwi roughly translates to "people" or "nation", and is often translated as "tribe", or "a confederation of tribes". The word is both singular and plural in the Māori language. Māori use the word rohe to describe the territory or boundaries of iwi.

Lake Wānaka Lake in Otago, New Zealand

Lake Wānaka is New Zealand's fourth-largest lake and the seat of the town of Wānaka in the Otago region. The lake is 278 meters above sea level, covers 192 km2 (74 sq mi), and is more than 300 m (980 ft) deep.

Ngāi Tahu Māori iwi (tribe) of the South Island, New Zealand

Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi (tribe) of the South Island. Its takiwā is the largest in New Zealand, and extends from the White Bluffs / Te Parinui o Whiti, Mount Mahanga and Kahurangi Point in the north to Stewart Island / Rakiura in the south. The takiwā comprises 18 rūnanga corresponding to traditional settlements.

Ngāti Porou Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāti Porou is a Māori iwi traditionally located in the East Cape and Gisborne regions of the North Island of New Zealand. Ngāti Porou is affiliated with the 28th Maori Battalion and has the second-largest affiliation of any iwi in New Zealand, with 71,910 registered members in 2006. The traditional rohe or tribal area of Ngāti Porou extends from Pōtikirua and Lottin Point in the north to Te Toka-a-Taiau in the south.

Otakou Place in Otago, New Zealand

Otakou is a settlement within the boundaries of the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. It is located 25 kilometres from the city centre at the eastern end of Otago Peninsula, close to the entrance of Otago Harbour. Though a small fishing village, Otakou is important in the history of Otago for several reasons. The settlement is the modern centre and traditional home of the Ōtākou rūnanga (assembly) of Ngāi Tahu. In 1946 Otakou Fisheries was founded in the township; this was later to become a major part of the Otago fishing industry.

Lake Hāwea Lake in Otago Region, New Zealand

Lake Hāwea is New Zealand's ninth largest lake.

Patupaiarehe are supernatural beings in Māori mythology that are described as pale to fair skinned with blonde hair or red hair, usually having the same stature as ordinary people, and never tattooed. They can draw mist to themselves, but tend to be nocturnal or active on misty or foggy days as direct sunlight can be fatal to them. They prefer raw food and have an aversion to steam and fire.

Kāti Māmoe is a historic Māori iwi. Originally from the Hastings area, they moved in the 16th century to the South Island which at the time was already occupied by the Waitaha.

Claims and settlements under the Treaty of Waitangi have been a significant feature of New Zealand politics since the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975. Successive governments have increasingly provided formal legal and political opportunity for Māori to seek redress for breaches by the Crown of the guarantees set out in the Treaty of Waitangi. While it has resulted in putting to rest a number of significant longstanding grievances, the process has been subject to criticisms from a number of angles, from those who believe that the redress is insufficient to compensate for Māori losses, to those who see no value in revisiting painful and contentious historical issues. The settlements are typically seen as part of a broader Māori Renaissance.

Māori mythology Tales relating to the origins of the (Māori) world

Māori mythology and Māori traditions are two major categories into which the remote oral history of New Zealand's Māori may be divided. Māori myths concern fantastic tales relating to the origins of what was the observable world for the pre-European Māori, often involving gods and demigods. Māori tradition concerns more folkloric legends often involving historical or semi-historical forebears. Both categories merge in whakapapa to explain the overall origin of the Māori and their connections to the world which they lived in.

New Zealand's Otago region is one of the more isolated outliers of the inhabited earth. Its high latitude, elevation and distance from larger foreign and domestic population centers has defined Otago at each stage of its history.

Ngāi Tāmanuhiri Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāi Tāmanuhiri is a Māori iwi of New Zealand and were formerly known by the name of Ngai Tahu, and Ngai Tahu-po respectively. They are descendants of Tahu-nui who is also the eponymous ancestor of the Kai Tahu iwi of Te Waipounamu.

Uruaokapuarangi was one of the great ocean-going, voyaging canoes that was used in the migrations that settled the South Island according to Māori tradition.

Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi (died 1836 or 1837) was a notable New Zealand tribal leader. A Māori, he identified with the Ngāti Tama and Ngāti Toa iwi. Te Pūoho was born in Poutama, Taranaki, New Zealand, possibly in the late eighteenth century. Late in his life, he moved to the South Island and settled at Parapara.

Pre-Māori settlement of New Zealand theories Theories on who were the first people to settle New Zealand

Since the early 1900s the theory that Polynesians were the first ethnic group to settle in New Zealand has been dominant among archaeologists and anthropologists. Before that time and until the 1920s, however, a small group of prominent anthropologists proposed that the Moriori people of the Chatham Islands represented a pre-Māori group of people from Melanesia, who once lived across all of New Zealand and were replaced by the Māori. While this idea lost favour among academics, it was widely and controversially incorporated into school textbooks during the 20th century.

Maungaharuru Tangitū is a collective of Māori hapū (subtribes) of the Ngāti Kahungunu iwi in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, who joined forces for Treaty of Waitangi settlement negotiations. The several hapū are Marangatūhetaua, Ngāi Tauira, Ngāi Te Ruruku ki Tangoio, Ngāi Tahu, Ngāti Kurumōkihi and Ngāti Whakaari. The group's rohe ranges from Bay View in the south to the Waitaha Stream in the north, and from the Maungaharuru Range in the west to the sea in Hawke Bay, that part of the sea being known as Tangitū.

Waipounamu Māori are a group of Māori iwi at or around the South Island of New Zealand. It includes the iwi (tribe) of Ngāi Tahu and the historical iwi of Kāti Māmoe, who occupy the island except for its most northern districts. It also includes Te Tau Ihu Māori iwi, such as Ngāti Toa, Te Atiawa o Te Waka-a-Māui, Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō, Rangitāne, Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Rārua, Ngāti Kōata and Ngāti Tama.

Rākaihautū was the captain of the Uruaokapuarangi canoe and a Polynesian ancestor of various iwi, most famously of Waitaha and other southern groups, though he is also known in the traditions of Taitokerau, and in those of Rarotonga.

Charles Eldon Fayne Robinson is a New Zealand Māori artist specialising in carving. Robinson has contributed to the carving of buildings on many marae in New Zealand as well as exhibiting his art in galleries and museums.

Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri is a Māori iwi (tribe) of New Zealand, who arrived on the Kurahaupō waka. In the 1600s the iwi settled northwestern South Island, becoming a major power in the region until the 1800s. In 1642, members of Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri made the first known contact between Europeans and Māori, when Dutch explorer Abel Tasman visited Golden Bay / Mohua.

References

Notes

  1. Another name for Hawaiki, sometimes recorded as Patunui-o-waio. [2]
  2. Spelled Rokohuia by Sir Tipene O'Regan in Waitangi: Maori & Pakeha Perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi. [4] [5]
  3. Sometimes recorded as Waitaha. [6]
  4. Some traditions say that Kapakitua was the name for Ngāti Hawea's canoe that arrived under Taiehu's captaincy earlier than Uruaokapuarangi, [1] [10] or at the same time. [6]
  5. The founder of Ngāti Hawea. [1]

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Ancient Iwi – Ngāi Tahu". ngaitahu.maori.nz. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  2. 1 2 "Notes and queries". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. XXXIV: 386. 1925. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  3. 1 2 Tau, Te Maire (2005). "Ngāi Tahu – Ngāi Tahu and Waitaha". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  4. 1 2 "The Ngai Tahu Land Report" (PDF). Ministry of Justice – Tāhū o te Ture. 1991. p. 179. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  5. 1 2 Kawharu, I.H. (1989). Waitangai: Maori & Pakeha Perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–237. ISBN   0-19-558175-X.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Stephenson, Janet; Bauchop, Heather; Petchey, Peter (2004). Bannockburn Heritage Landscape Study (PDF). p. 29.
  7. 1 2 Te Taumutu Rūnanga. "Our History" . Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Graham, George (1922). "Te heke-o-nga-toko-toru. (The migration of the three.)". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. XXXI: 386. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  9. 1 2 Ashburton District Plan - 02 Takata Whenua Values.pdf (PDF). Ashburton District Council. 2014. p. 3.
  10. 1 2 "tauparapara continued". Te Rūnaka o Ōtākou. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  11. Tau, Te Maire (2005). "Tuhiraki photo, John Wilson". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  12. 1 2 Ngata, A.T. (1950). "The Io Cult - Early Migration - Puzzle of the Canoes". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. LIX: 338. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  13. Mitchell, Hilary and John. "Te Tau Ihu tribes - Early Traditions". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  14. Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu (2012). "Manawa Kāi Tahu – Waiata mō Huirapa" . Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  15. 1 2 Taylor, W. A. (1952). "Murihiki". Lore and History of the South Island Maori. Bascands. p. 148. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  16. Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN   0-14-301867-1.
  17. "Waitaha Scout Group". scoutingotago.org.nz. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  18. "Waitaha Cultural Council". waitahaculturalcouncil.co.nz. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  19. "Canterbury/Waitaha District Council". wcdc-nzei.org.nz. Retrieved 10 September 2016.