Lake Te Anau

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Lake Te Anau
On Lake Te Anau.jpg
NZ-L Te Anau.png
Lake Te Anau
Location Southland District, Southland Region, South Island
Coordinates 45°12′S167°48′E / 45.200°S 167.800°E / -45.200; 167.800 Coordinates: 45°12′S167°48′E / 45.200°S 167.800°E / -45.200; 167.800
Primary inflows Eglinton River, Clinton River, Worsley River, Glaisnock River, Wapiti River, Doon River, McKenzie Burn, Upukerora River
Primary outflows Waiau River
Basin  countries New Zealand
Max. length 65 km (40 mi)
Surface area 344 km2 (133 sq mi)
Max. depth 417 m (1,368 ft)
Surface elevation 210 m (690 ft)
Settlements Te Anau

Lake Te Anau is in the southwestern corner of the South Island of New Zealand. The lake covers an area of 344 km2 (133 sq mi), making it the second-largest lake by surface area in New Zealand (after Lake Taupo) and the largest in the South Island. It is the largest lake in Australasia by fresh water volume. [1]

South Island Southernmost of the two main islands in New Zealand

The South Island, also officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area; the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi), making it the world's 12th-largest island. It has a temperate climate.

New Zealand Country in Oceania

New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.

Lake Taupo New Zealands largest lake

Lake Taupo is a lake in the North Island of New Zealand. It is in the caldera of the Taupo Volcano. With a surface area of 616 square kilometres (238 sq mi), it is the largest lake by surface area in New Zealand, and the second largest freshwater lake by surface area in geopolitical Oceania after Lake Murray. Motutaiko Island lies in the south east area of the lake.

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Lake Te Anau Anz-0326.jpg
Lake Te Anau

The main body of the lake runs north-south, and is 65 km in length. Three large fiords form arms to the lake on its western flank: North Fiord, Middle Fiord and South Fiord. These are the only inland fiords that New Zealand has, the other 14 are out on the coast. Several small islands lie in the entrance to Middle Fiord, which forks partway along its length into northwest and southwest arms. The surface of the lake is at an altitude of 210 m. It has a maximum depth of 417 m, [2] so much of its bed lies below sea level, with the deepest part of the lake being 226 metres below sea level.

Several rivers feed the lake, of which the most important is the Eglinton River, which joins the lake from the east, opposite the entrance to North Fiord. The outflow is the Waiau River, which flows south for several kilometres into Lake Manapouri. The town of Te Anau lies at the south-eastern corner of the lake, close to the outflow.

Eglinton River river of New Zealand

The Eglinton River is located in the region of Southland in the southwest of New Zealand. It flows through Fiordland National Park for 50 kilometres (31 mi). Its headwaters are at Lake Gunn, 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of Milford Sound, and it flows generally south before entering Lake Te Anau along the lake's eastern shore opposite the entrance to North Fiord.

Lake Manapouri lake in Southland Region, New Zealand

Lake Manapōuri is located in the South Island of New Zealand. The lake is situated within the Fiordland National Park and the wider region of Te Wahipounamu South West New Zealand World Heritage Area.

Te Anau human settlement

Te Anau is a town in the Southland region of the South Island of New Zealand. It is on the eastern shore of Lake Te Anau in Fiordland. Lake Te Anau is the largest lake in the South Island and within New Zealand second only to Lake Taupo. The 2013 census recorded the town's population as 1,911. The town has a wide range of accommodation, with over 4,000 beds available in summer.

Most of the lake is within Fiordland National Park and the Te Wahipounamu World Heritage site, the latter of which was officially recognized internationally in 1990. Other than the Te Anau township, the only human habitation close to the lake is the farming settlement of Te Anau Downs, close to the mouth of the Eglinton River. Between these two settlements the land is rolling hill country, but elsewhere the land is mountainous, especially along its western shore, where the Kepler and Murchison Mountains rise 1,400 m above the surface of the lake.

Fiordland National Park national park on South Island of New Zealand

Fiordland National Park occupies the southwest corner of the South Island of New Zealand. It is by far the largest of the 14 national parks in New Zealand, with an area of 12,607 square kilometres (4,868 sq mi), and a major part of the Te Wahipounamu World Heritage site. The park is administered by the Department of Conservation.

Te Wahipounamu World Heritage Site in the south west corner of the South Island of New Zealand

Te Wāhipounamu is a World Heritage Site in the south west corner of the South Island of New Zealand.

Lake Te Anau was important for the Ngai Tahu iwi [lower-alpha 1] in pre-European times as the area was a traditional stopping point on their trails between the east and west coasts of the South Island of New Zealand, where they obtained food and resources. The lake was first discovered by European explorers Charles Naim and William Stephen in 1852.

Two New Zealand Great Walks start at the lake. The Milford Track starts at the northern tip of the lake and the Kepler Track starts and ends at the south tip of the lake at the Waiau River.

New Zealand Great Walks

The New Zealand Great Walks are a set of popular tramping tracks developed and maintained by the Department of Conservation. They are New Zealand's premier tracks, through areas of some of the best scenery in the country, ranging from coastlines with beaches to dense rain forests and alpine terrain. The tracks are maintained to a high standard, making it easier for visitors to explore some of the most scenic parts of New Zealand's backcountry.

Milford Track

The Milford Track is a widely known tramping (hiking) route in New Zealand – located amidst mountains and temperate rain forest in Fiordland National Park in the southwest of the South Island.

Kepler Track

The Kepler Track is a 60 km (37 mi) circular tramping track which travels through the landscape of the South Island of New Zealand and is situated near the town of Te Anau. The track passes through many landscapes of the Fiordland National Park such as rocky mountain ridges, tall mossy forests, lake shores, deep gorges, rare wetlands and rivers. Like the mountains it traverses, the track is named after Johannes Kepler. The track is one of the New Zealand Great Walks and is administered by New Zealand Department of Conservation (DOC).

Name

The English translation of the Maori name Te Anau has been disputed. It was supposed by many that Te Anau was the name of the granddaughter of Hekeia, a chief of the Waitaha tribe, whose name now belongs to a mountain on the Longwood Range. [3] [4] When the Te Ana-au Caves were rediscovered in 1948, earlier explanations of the name were replaced by the interpretation of the full name Te Ana-au, Maori for 'The cave of swirling water'. [5]

Flora and fauna

Numerous species of wildlife and vegetation are found in the watershed of Lake Te Anau. Vegetative understory includes numerous fern species including the crown fern, Blechnum discolor . [6]

Several species of endangered birds live around the shores of Lake Te Anau, notably the takahē (Notornis hochstetteri). An area between the Middle and South Fiords called the Murchison Mountains is a sanctuary set aside for these birds. The western shore of the lake also features the Te Ana-au Caves.

Recreation

Throughout summer the lake is used for boating, fishing, kayaking, swimming and access to Fiordland National Park. The lake is home to both the Marakura Yacht Club and the Te Anau Boating Club. [7] Every year on the weekend of Labour Day a fishing competition is held. [8]

See also

Notes

  1. The Maori word for tribe

Related Research Articles

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Manapouri Place in New Zealand

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Te Ana-au Caves cave

The Te Ana-au caves are a culturally and ecologically important system of limestone caves on the western shore of Lake Te Anau, in the southwest of New Zealand. It was discovered in 1948 by Lawson Burrows, who found the upper entry after three years of searching, following clues in old Māori legends. It later became a major tourist attraction for the area, as the part of the caverns close to the lake shore is home to glowworms. The unofficial name used by the national caving association is Aurora. The caves are geologically young and hence there is only one tiny stalactite.

Waiau River (Southland) river in New Zealand

Waiau River is the largest river in the Southland Region of New Zealand. It is the outflow of Lake Te Anau, flowing from it into Lake Manapouri 10 kilometres (6 mi) to the south, and from there flows south for 70 kilometres (43 mi) before reaching the Foveaux Strait 8 kilometres (5 mi) south of Tuatapere. It also takes water from Lake Monowai.

Kepler Challenge

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References

Citations

  1. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-05-23. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  2. "Lakes in New Zealand". Ministry for the Environment. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15.
  3. McLintock, A. H. (1966). "Te Anau, Lake". Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  4. Taylor, W. A. (1952). "Murihiki". Lore and History of the South Island Maori. Bascands. p. 148. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  5. "Te Anau". NZHistory. Ministry of Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  6. C. Michael Hogan. 2009
  7. "Te Anau Boating Club" . Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  8. "Te Anau Manapouri Fishing Classic" . Retrieved 15 February 2017.

Sources