Confluence

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Confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Rivers to produce the Ganges at Devprayag, India Devprayag - Confluence of Bhagirathi and Alaknanda.JPG
Confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Rivers to produce the Ganges at Devprayag, India
The same confluence viewed from upstream at a different time; note the swirl of sediment from the Alaknanda. Confluence.JPG
The same confluence viewed from upstream at a different time; note the swirl of sediment from the Alaknanda.

In geography, a confluence (also: conflux) occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. [1] A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main stem); or where two streams meet to become the source of a river of a new name (such as the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers at Pittsburgh, forming the Ohio); or where two separated channels of a river (forming a river island) rejoin at the downstream end.

Geography The science that studies the terrestrial surface, the societies that inhabit it and the territories, landscapes, places or regions that form it

Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

Tributary stream or river that flows into a main stem river or lake

A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean.

River Natural flowing watercourse

A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague.

Contents

Scientific study of confluences

Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences. Hydrology studies the characteristic flow patterns of confluences and how they give rise to patterns of erosion, bars, and scour pools. [2] The water flows and their consequences are often studied with mathematical models. [3] Confluences are relevant to the distribution of living organisms (i.e., ecology) as well; "the general pattern [downstream of confluences] of increasing stream flow and decreasing slopes drives a corresponding shift in habitat characteristics." [4]

Hydrology The science of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets

Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering. Using various analytical methods and scientific techniques, they collect and analyze data to help solve water related problems such as environmental preservation, natural disasters, and water management.

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed mathematical modeling. Mathematical models are used in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines, as well as in the social sciences.

Ecology Scientific study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment

Ecology is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits. Biodiversity means the varieties of species, genes, and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services.

Another science relevant to the study of confluences is chemistry, because sometimes the mixing of the waters of two streams triggers a chemical reaction, particularly in a polluted stream. The United States Geological Survey gives an example: "chemical changes occur when a stream contaminated with acid mine drainage combines with a stream with near-neutral pH water; these reactions happen very rapidly and influence the subsequent transport of metals downstream of the mixing zone." [5]

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.

United States Geological Survey scientific agency of the United States government

The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.

Acid mine drainage

Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines.

A natural phenomenon at confluences that is obvious even to casual observers is a difference in color between the two streams; see images in this article for several examples. According to Lynch, "the color of each river is determined by many things: type and amount of vegetation in the watershed, geological properties, dissolved chemicals, sediments and biologic content – usually algae." Lynch also notes that color differences can persist for miles downstream before they finally blend completely. [6]

Sediment transport The movement of solid particles, typically by gravity and fluid entrainment

Sediment transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained. Sediment transport occurs in natural systems where the particles are clastic rocks, mud, or clay; the fluid is air, water, or ice; and the force of gravity acts to move the particles along the sloping surface on which they are resting. Sediment transport due to fluid motion occurs in rivers, oceans, lakes, seas, and other bodies of water due to currents and tides. Transport is also caused by glaciers as they flow, and on terrestrial surfaces under the influence of wind. Sediment transport due only to gravity can occur on sloping surfaces in general, including hillslopes, scarps, cliffs, and the continental shelf—continental slope boundary.

Algae Group of eukaryotic organisms

Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic. Including organisms ranging from unicellular microalgae genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, which are found in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra and the stoneworts.

River confluence flow zones

Hydrodynamic features of a river/flume confluence can be separated into six identifiable distinct zones, also called confluence flow zones. Confluence Flow Zones.png
Hydrodynamic features of a river/flume confluence can be separated into six identifiable distinct zones, also called confluence flow zones.

Hydrodynamic behaviour of flow in a confluence can be divided into six distinct features [7] which are commonly called confluence flow zones (CFZ). These include

  1. Stagnation zone
  2. Flow deflection zone
  3. Flow separation zone / recirculation zone
  4. Maximum velocity zone
  5. Flow recovery zone
  6. Shear layers

Confluences and Mankind

The fountain at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, at the apex of the confluence of the Allegheny (top) and the Monongahela Point State Park fountain.jpg
The fountain at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, at the apex of the confluence of the Allegheny (top) and the Monongahela

Since rivers often serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a tripoint. Various examples are found in the list below.

Tripoint geographical point at which the borders of three territories meet

A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet.

A number of major cities, such as Chongqing, St. Louis, and Khartoum, arose at confluences; further examples appear in the list. Within a city, a confluence often forms a visually prominent point, so that confluences are sometimes chosen as the site of prominent public buildings or monuments, as in Koblenz, Lyon, and Winnipeg. Cities also often build parks at confluences, sometimes as projects of municipal improvement, as at Portland and Pittsburgh. In other cases, a confluence is an industrial site, as in Philadelphia or Mannheim. Often a confluence lies in the shared floodplain of the two rivers and nothing is built on it, for example at Manaus, described below.

One other way that confluences may be employed by humans is as a sacred place in a religion. Rogers suggests that for the ancient peoples of the Iron Age in northwest Europe, watery locations were often sacred, especially sources and confluences. [8] Pre-Christian Slavic peoples chose confluences as the sites for fortified triangular temples, where they practiced human sacrifice and other sacred rites. [9] In Hinduism, the confluence of two sacred rivers often is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. [10] In Pittsburgh, a number of adherents to Mayanism consider their city's confluence to be sacred. [11]

Notable confluences

The White Nile and Blue Nile merge at Khartoum; April 2013 satellite view Whiteandblueniles.jpg
The White Nile and Blue Nile merge at Khartoum; April 2013 satellite view

Africa

Asia

The Nam Khan flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos Mouth of Nam Khan.JPG
The Nam Khan flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos
The confluence of the Jialing and the Yangtze in Chongqing. The Yangtze flows left to right across the bottom of the image. SkylineOfChongqing.jpg
The confluence of the Jialing and the Yangtze in Chongqing. The Yangtze flows left to right across the bottom of the image.

Australia

The Seine becomes a single channel at the west end of the Ile de la Cite in Paris. The Pont Neuf can be seen. DSC00679 Ile de la Cite.JPG
The Seine becomes a single channel at the west end of the Île de la Cité in Paris. The Pont Neuf can be seen.

Europe

Seine

  • The Seine divides in the historical center of Paris, flowing around two river islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the Île de la Cité. At the downstream confluence, where the river becomes a single channel again, the Île de la Cité is crossed by the famous Pont Neuf, adjacent to an equestrian statue of King Henri IV and the historically more recent Vert Galant park. The site has repeatedly been portrayed by artists including Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro.
  • Further upstream, the Marne empties into the Seine at Charenton-le-Pont, just southeast of the Paris city limits. The site is dominated by the Huatian Chinagora, a four-star hotel under Chinese management.
The Mosel flows into the Rhine at Koblenz. Koblenz im Buga-Jahr 2011 - Deutsches Eck 01.jpg
The Mosel flows into the Rhine at Koblenz.

Rhine

  • The Rhine carries much river traffic, and major inland ports are found at its confluence with the Ruhr at Duisburg, and with the Neckar at Mannheim; see Mannheim Harbour.
  • The Main flows into the Rhine just south of Mainz.
  • The Mosel flows into the Rhine further north at Koblenz. The name "Koblenz" itself has its origin in the Latin name "Confluentes". In German, this confluence is known as the "Deutsches Eck" ("German corner") and is the site of an imposing monument to German unification featuring an equestrian statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I.
  • Upstream in Switzerland, a small town also named Koblenz (for the same reason) is where the Aare joins the Rhine.

Danube basin

The triple confluence in Passau; from left to right, the Inn, the Danube, and the Ilz. Passau aerial view 1.jpg
The triple confluence in Passau; from left to right, the Inn, the Danube, and the Ilz.
  • Passau, Germany, sometimes called the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), is the site of a triple confluence, described thus in a guidebook: "from the north the little Ilz sluices brackish water down from the peat-rich Bavarian Forest, meeting the cloudy brown of the Danube as it flows from the west and the pale snow-melt jade of the Inn from the south [i.e., the Alps] to create a murky tricolour." [16]
  • The Thaya flows into the Morava in a rural location near Hohenau an der March in Austria, forming the tripoint of Austria, Czechia, and Slovakia.
  • The Morava flows into the Danube at Devín, on the border between Slovakia and Austria.
  • The Sava flows into the Danube at Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
  • In karst topography, which arises in soluble rock, rivers sometimes flow underground and form subterranean confluences, as at Planina Cave in Slovenia, where the Pivka and Rak merge to form the Unica. [17]

Other

North America

The confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela at Pittsburgh, forming the Ohio Allegheny Monongahela Ohio.jpg
The confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela at Pittsburgh, forming the Ohio
The Ohio flows into the Mississippi at Cairo. CairoIL from space annotated.jpg
The Ohio flows into the Mississippi at Cairo.
The Rideau Falls in Ottawa, where the Rideau River tumbles into Ottawa River at its mouth. Rideau Falls.JPG
The Rideau Falls in Ottawa, where the Rideau River tumbles into Ottawa River at its mouth.

Mississippi basin

Atlantic watersheds

Pacific watersheds

The confluence of the Rio Negro (black) and the Rio Solimoes (turbid) near Manaus, Brazil. Encontro das Aguas - Manaus.jpg
The confluence of the Rio Negro (black) and the Rio Solimões (turbid) near Manaus, Brazil.

South America

Confluences of two waterways

Confluence of canals
This simplified diagram shows how a section of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans also serves as the channel for the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal. At the bottom, a portion of the Intracoastal is also shown to be "confluent" with the Mississippi River. IHNCconfluence.png
Confluence of canals
This simplified diagram shows how a section of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans also serves as the channel for the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal. At the bottom, a portion of the Intracoastal is also shown to be "confluent" with the Mississippi River.

Occasionally "confluence" is used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water, such as two canals [19] or a canal and a lake. [20] A one-mile (1.6 km) portion of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans accommodates the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal; therefore those three waterways are confluent there.

The term confluence also applies to the merger of the flow of two glaciers. [21]

See also

Notes

  1. "Conflux – Definition of conflux by Merriam-Webster". merriam-webster.com.
  2. A widely cited work is James L. Best (1986) The morphology of river channel confluences. Progress in Physical Geography 10:157–174. For work citing Best, see .
  3. A recent contribution with review of earlier work is Laurent Schindfessel, Stéphan Creëlle and Tom De Mulder (2015) "Flow patterns in an open channel confluence with increasingly dominant tributary inflow," Water 7: 4724–4751; available on line.
  4. Quoted from Beechie et al. (2012), who cite earlier work. Tim Beechie, John S. Richardson, Angela M. Gurnell, and Junjiro Negishi (2012) "Watershed processes, human impacts, and process-based restoration." In Philip Roni and Tim Beechie (eds.) (2012) Stream and Watershed Restoration: A Guide to Restoring Riverine Processes and Habitats, John Wiley & Sons. Excerpts available on line at Google Books.
  5. U.S. Geological Survey, "How do contaminants mix at the confluence of two streams?", on line at .
  6. David Lynch (2014) "The Confluence of Rivers"; Earth Science Picture of the Day, at .
  7. Best, James L. (1987). "Flow Dynamics at River Channel Confluences: Implications for Sediment Transport and Bed Morphology". Recent Developments in Fluvial Sedimentology. pp. 27–35. doi:10.2110/pec.87.39.0027. ISBN   978-0-918985-67-5.
  8. Rogers, Adam (2011) Late Roman Towns in Britain: Rethinking Change and Decline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 42. Excerpts available on line at Google Books.
  9. Gasparini, Evel (n.d.) "Slavic religion", in Encyclopedia Brittanica, on line edition:
  10. Source: Letizia (2017), who writes, "as rivers are considered holy entities, at the meeting of two streams the 'sacredness' of the first river add to that of the second one. The confluence seems to have a sort of 'additive fame' ... because it gives pilgrims the chance to bathe in two rivers at the same time."
  11. Ann Rodgers, "So how did the Point get on a Mayan calendar?", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 22, 2008. On line at .
  12. See reporting in the New York Times () and The Atlantic ().
  13. The incorporation of invisible rivers into confluences elsewhere in the subcontinent is documented by Letizia (2017).
  14. See New Straits Times, August 28, 2017, 'Najib launches River of Life, Blue Pool projects", at .
  15. See Bruno Maçães, "Signs and Symbols on the Sino-Russian Border", published in The Diplomat . On line at .
  16. See Andrea Schulte-Peevers, Kerry Christiani, Marc Di Duca, Catherine Le Nevez, Tom Masters, Ryan Ver Berkmoes, and Benedict Walker (2016) Lonely Planet Germany, Lonely Planet Publishing. Excepts posted on line at Google Books:
  17. Kogovšek, Janja; Petrič, Metka; Zupan Hajna, Nadja; Pipan, Tanja. "Planinska jama" [Planina Cave]. In Šmid Hribar, Mateja; Golež, Gregor; Podjed, Dan; Kladnik, Drago; Erhartič, Bojan; Pavlin, Primož; Ines, Jerele. Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem [Encyclopedia of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Slovenia] (in Slovenian). Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  18. "Caronoco: confluencia de los rios Caroní y Orinoco". Parques Nacionales Venezuela. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  19. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers refers to the confluence of the Assawoman Canal with the Bethany Loop Canal in Delaware. See: "CENAP-OP-R-Quarterly Report, 2004-05-12". Philadelphia Engineer District. Archived from the original on 2004-10-17. Retrieved 2006-03-11.
  20. Engineers in New Orleans refer to the confluence of the 17th Street Canal and Lake Pontchartrain. See: "Interim Closure Structure at 17th St. Canal". Task Force Guardian. Archived from the original on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2006-03-11.
  21. Vladimir Kotlyakov and Anna Komarova (2006) Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German. Elsevier. Passage cited may be accessed on Google Books.

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Moselle river in Germany, France and Luxembourg

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River source The starting point of a river

The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river.

Wabash River tributary of the Ohio River in the United States of America

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Channel (geography) A type of landform in which part of a body of water is confined to a relatively narrow but long region

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Meander A sinuous bend in a series in the channel of a river

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Side valleys and tributary valleys are valleys whose brooks or rivers flow into greater ones.

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Stream A body of surface water flowing down a channel

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The River Sidon is the only river mentioned by name, and is the most prominent river in the Book of Mormon. It was east of the great city of Zarahemla. There were several battles fought in and around this river. These include the battle between Captain Moroni and the Lamanite leader Zarahemna that took place between 74–56 BCE. This battle was ostensibly fought near the source or "head of the river Sidon". Although the Book of Mormon never specifies the direction it flowed, the river Sidon did, and does, have specific battle locations, hills and valleys to the east and west of it. However, since the southern cities were higher in elevation than the northern cities it can be assumed that the river flowed in a northern direction. According to the Book of Mormon, the river Sidon ultimately flows into a "sea". The river Sidon is never mentioned in lands north of Zarahemla. Identifying the Sidon is crucial to locating the land of Zarahemla. In the Book of Mormon the river Sidon was deep and swift enough to carry away semi-buoyant human carcasses.There were also crossing points along the river; and whether the river was crossed on foot or by canoe is heatedly debated by different proponents of the book of Mormon

Coyote Creek (San Gabriel River tributary) stream in Southern California, tributary of the San Gabriel River

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References