Oder

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Oder
WyspaRedzinska-GK.JPG
Oder near the city of Wrocław, Poland
Oder.png
Polen = Poland, Deutschland = Germany, and Tschechien = Czech Republic
Native nameOdra
Wódra
Location
Country Poland, Czech Republic, Germany
Physical characteristics
Source 
  locationFidlův kopec, Oderské vrchy, Nízký Jeseník, Olomouc District, Olomouc Region, Moravia, Czech Republic
  coordinates 49°36′47″N017°31′15″E / 49.61306°N 17.52083°E / 49.61306; 17.52083
  elevation634 m (2,080 ft)
Mouth Szczecin Lagoon
  location
Baltic Sea, Poland
  coordinates
53°40′19″N14°31′25″E / 53.67194°N 14.52361°E / 53.67194; 14.52361 Coordinates: 53°40′19″N14°31′25″E / 53.67194°N 14.52361°E / 53.67194; 14.52361
Length840 km (520 mi)
Basin size119,074 km2 (45,975 sq mi)
Discharge 
  location Mouth
  average567 m3/s (20,000 cu ft/s)

The Oder ( /ˈdər/ , German: [ˈʔoːdɐ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Czech, Lower Sorbian and Polish : Odra; [lower-alpha 1] Upper Sorbian : Wódra) is a river in Central Europe and Poland's third-longest river after the Vistula and Warta. [1] It rises in the Czech Republic and flows 742 kilometres (461 mi) through western Poland, later forming 187 kilometres (116 mi) of the border between Poland and Germany as part of the Oder–Neisse line. [2] The river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoon north of Szczecin and then into three branches (the Dziwna, Świna and Peene) that empty into the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea.

Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree, as well as Polish. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.

Lower Sorbian is a West Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg.

Polish language West Slavic language spoken in Poland

Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Contents

Names

The Oder is known by several names in different languages, but the modern ones are very similar: English and German: Oder; Czech, Polish, and Lower Sorbian : Odra, Upper Sorbian : Wódra; Kashubian : Òdra (pronounced  [ˈwɛdra] ); Medieval Latin: Od(d)era; Renaissance Latin: Viadrus (invented in 1534).

Upper Sorbian is a minority language spoken by Sorbs in Germany in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, which is today part of Saxony. It is grouped in the West Slavic language branch, together with Lower Sorbian, Czech, Polish, Slovak and Kashubian.

Kashubian language Indo-European language spoken in Poland

Kashubian or Cassubian is a West Slavic lect belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian. Although often classified as a language in its own right, it is sometimes viewed as a dialect of Pomeranian or as a dialect of Polish.

Ptolemy knew the modern Oder as the Συήβος (Suebos; Latin Suevus), a name apparently derived from the Suebi, a Germanic people. While he also refers to an outlet in the area as the Οὐιαδούα Ouiadoua (or Οὐιλδούα Ouildoua; Latin Viadua or Vildua), this was apparently the modern Wieprza, as it was said to be a third of the distance between the Suebos and Vistula. [3] [4] The name Suebos may be preserved in the modern name of the Świna river (German Swine), an outlet from the Szczecin Lagoon to the Baltic.

Ptolemy 2nd-century Greco-Egyptian writer and astronomer

Claudius Ptolemy was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, under the rule of the Roman Empire, had a Latin name, which several historians have taken to imply he was also a Roman citizen, cited Greek philosophers, and used Babylonian observations and Babylonian lunar theory. The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, however, and there is no other evidence to confirm or contradict it. He died in Alexandria around AD 168.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Suebi historical ethnic grouping of Germanic tribes

The Suebi were a large group of related Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.

In the Old Church Slavonic language, the name of the river is Vjodr. [5]

Old Church Slavonic Medieval Slavic literary language

Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic, or Old Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. It is also referred to as Paleo-Slavic (Paleoslavic) or Palaeo-Slavic (Palaeoslavic), not to be confused with Proto-Slavic. It is often abbreviated to OCS.

Geography

Oder in Wroclaw, overlooking Ostrow Tumski - Cathedral Island Wroclaw - Ostrow Tumski.jpg
Oder in Wrocław, overlooking Ostrów Tumski - Cathedral Island

The Oder is 840 kilometres (522 miles) long: 112 km (70 miles) in the Czech Republic, 726 km (451 miles) in Poland (including 187 km (116 miles) on the border between Germany and Poland) and is the third longest river located within Poland (after the Vistula and Warta), however, second longest river overall taking into account its total length, including parts in neighbouring countries. [2] It drains a basin of 119,074 square kilometres (45,975 sq mi), 106,043 km2 (40,943 sq mi) of which are in Poland (89%), [2] 7,246 km2 (2,798 sq mi) in the Czech Republic (6%), and 5,587 km2 (2,157 sq mi) in Germany (5%). Channels connect it to the Havel, Spree, Vistula system and Kłodnica. It flows through Silesian, Opole, Lower Silesian, Lubusz, and West Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland and the states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany.

Havel river in northeastern Germany

The Havel is a river in north-eastern Germany, flowing through the German states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Berlin and Saxony-Anhalt. It is a right tributary of the Elbe and 325 kilometres (202 mi) long. However, the direct distance from its source to its mouth is only 94 kilometres (58 mi).

Spree river in Germany

The Spree is a river that flows through the Saxony, Brandenburg and Berlin states of Germany, and in the Ústí nad Labem region of the Czech Republic. Approximately 400 kilometres (250 mi) in length, it is a left bank tributary of the River Havel, which itself flows into the Elbe and then the North Sea. It is the river on which the original centre of Berlin was built.

Kłodnica river in Poland

Kłodnica is a river in the Upper Silesia region. It is about 75 km long and a right tributary of the Odra river.

The main branch empties into the Szczecin Lagoon near Police, Poland. The Szczecin Lagoon is bordered on the north by the islands of Usedom (west) and Wolin (east). Between these two islands, there is only a narrow channel (Świna) going to the Bay of Pomerania, which forms a part of the Baltic Sea.

Police, West Pomeranian Voivodeship Place in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Police is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, northwestern Poland. It is the capital of Police County. It is one of the biggest towns of the Szczecin agglomeration.

Usedom Baltic Sea island

Usedom is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland. It is the second biggest Pomeranian island after Rügen.

Wolin island

Wolin is the name both of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea, just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island. Administratively the island belongs to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Wolin is separated from the island of Usedom (Uznam) by the Strait of Świna, and from mainland Pomerania by the Strait of Dziwna. The island has an area of 265 km2 (102 sq mi) and its highest point is Mount Grzywacz at 116 m above sea level

The largest city on the Oder is Wrocław, in Lower Silesia.

The Oder dividing Poland and Germany seen from the Polish side near Kostrzyn (Kustrin) Slup graniczny Odra.jpg
The Oder dividing Poland and Germany seen from the Polish side near Kostrzyn (Küstrin)
Estuary of the Lusatian Neisse into the Oder Oder Fluss.jpg
Estuary of the Lusatian Neisse into the Oder

The Oder is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as the town of Koźle, where the river connects to the Gliwice Canal. The upstream part of the river is canalized and permits larger barges (up to CEMT Class IV) to navigate between the industrial sites around the Wrocław area.

Further downstream the river is free flowing, passing the towns of Eisenhüttenstadt (where the Oder–Spree Canal connects the river to the Spree in Berlin) and Frankfurt upon Oder. Downstream of Frankfurt the river Warta forms a navigable connection with Poznań and Bydgoszcz for smaller vessels. At Hohensaaten the Oder–Havel Canal connects with the Berlin waterways again.

Near its mouth the Oder reaches the city of Szczecin, a major maritime port. The river finally reaches the Baltic Sea through the Szczecin Lagoon and the river mouth at Świnoujście. [6]

History

Under Germania Magna the river was known to the Romans as the Viadrus or Viadua in Classical Latin, as it was a branch of the Amber Road from the Baltic Sea to the Roman Empire. In Germanic languages, including English, it was and still is called the Oder, written in medieval Latin documents as Odera or Oddera. Most notably, it was mentioned in the Dagome iudex, which described territory of the Duchy of Poland under Duke Mieszko I in A.D. 990, as a part of duchy's western frontier.

Before Slavs settled along its banks, the Oder was an important trade route and towns in Germania were documented along with many tribes living between the rivers Albis (Elbe), Oder, and Vistula. Centuries later, after Germanic tribes, the Bavarian Geographer (ca. 845) specified the following West Slavic peoples: Sleenzane, Dadosesani, Opolanie, Lupiglaa, and Golensizi in Silesia and Wolinians with Pyrzycans in Western Pomerania. A document of the Bishopric of Prague (1086) mentions Zlasane, Trebovyane, Poborane, and Dedositze in Silesia.

In the 13th century, the first dams were built to protect agricultural lands.

The Finow Canal, first built in 1605, connects the Oder and Havel. After completion of the more straight Oder–Havel Canal in 1914, its economic relevance decreased.

The earliest important undertaking with a view to improving the waterway was initiated by Frederick the Great, who recommended diverting the river into a new and straight channel in the swampy tract known as Oderbruch near Küstrin. The work was carried out in the years 1746–53, a large tract of marshland being brought under cultivation, a considerable detour cut off and the main stream successfully confined to a canal.

In the late 19th century, three additional alterations were made to the waterway:

The Oder in Szczecin, Poland, flows along the banks of the Old Town and the Ducal Castle WOPR, Barka i Zamek Ksiazat Pomorskich.jpg
The Oder in Szczecin, Poland, flows along the banks of the Old Town and the Ducal Castle

By the Treaty of Versailles, navigation on the Oder became subject to International Commission of the Oder. [7] Following the articles 363 and 364 of the Treaty Czechoslovakia was entitled to lease in Stettin (now Szczecin) its own section in the harbour, then called Tschechoslowakische Zone im Hafen Stettin. [8] The contract of lease between Czechoslovakia and Germany, and supervised by the United Kingdom, was signed on February 16, 1929, and would end in 2028, however, after 1945 Czechoslovakia did not regain this legal position, de facto abolished in 1938–39.

At the 1943 Tehran Conference the allies decided that the new Eastern border of Germany would run along the Oder [9] but after World War II, the Oder and the Lusatian Neisse formed the Oder–Neisse line, which was designated by the victorious allies at the Potsdam Conference as the new border between Poland and Germany. A significant percentage of the German populations east of these two rivers were evacuated by the Nazis or fled before the approaching Red Army. After the war, the remaining population was forcibly expelled in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement. [10] East Germany confirmed the border with Poland in 1950, then West Germany, after a period of refusal, finally accepted the border in 1970. In 1990 newly reunified Germany and the Republic of Poland signed a treaty recognizing it as their border.

Cities

Larpia, a left distributary of the Oder in Police, Poland Larpia-rzeka.jpg
Łarpia, a left distributary of the Oder in Police, Poland

Main section:

OstravaBohumínRacibórzKędzierzyn-KoźleKrapkowiceOpoleBrzegOławaJelcz-LaskowiceWrocławBrzeg DolnyŚcinawaSzlichtyngowaGłogówBytom OdrzańskiNowa SólZielona GóraKrosno OdrzańskieEisenhüttenstadtFrankfurt (Oder)SłubiceKostrzynCedyniaSchwedtVierradenGartzGryfinoSzczecinPolice

Dziwna branch (between Wolin Island and mainland Poland):

WolinKamień PomorskiDziwnów

Świna branch (between Wolin and the Usedom islands):

Świnoujście

Szczecin Lagoon:

Nowe WarpnoUeckermünde

Peene branch (between Usedom Island and the German mainland):

UsedomLassanWolgast

Eastern tributaries

OstraviceOlzaRudaBierawkaKłodnicaCzarnkaMała PanewStobrawaWidawaJezierzycaBaryczKrzycki RówObrzycaJabłonnaPliszkaOłobokGryżynkaWarta with the NotećMyślaKurzycaStubiaRurzycaTywaPłoniaInaGowienica - Śmieszka

Western tributaries

Opava – Psina (Cyna) – Cisek – Olszówka – Stradunia – Osobłoga – Prószkowski Potok – Nysa Kłodzka – Oława – Ślęza – Bystrzyca – Średzka Woda – Cicha Woda – Kaczawa – Ślepca – Zimnica – Dębniak – Biała Woda – Czarna Struga – Śląska Ochla – Zimny Potok – Bóbr – Olcha – Racza – Lusatian NeisseFinowGunica

See also

Notes

  1. Czech pronunciation: [ˈodra] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), Polish pronunciation:  [ˈɔdra] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ).

Related Research Articles

Pomerania Place

Pomerania is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.

Warta river in Poland

The Warta is a river in western-central Poland and a tributary of the Oder. With a length of approximately 795 kilometres (494 mi), it is the country's second-longest river located within its borders and third-longest in terms of total length. The Warta has a basin area of 54,520 square kilometers (21,050 sq mi) and it is navigable from Kostrzyn nad Odrą to Konin, approximately half of its length. It is connected to the Vistula by the Noteć River and the Bydgoszcz Canal near the city of Bydgoszcz.

Świnoujście Place in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Świnoujście(listen) is a city and seaport on the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon, located in the extreme north-west of Poland. It is situated mainly on the islands of Usedom and Wolin, but also occupies smaller islands, of which the largest is Karsibór island, once part of Usedom, now separated by the Piast Canal dug in the late 19th century to facilitate ship access to Szczecin.

Świna river in Poland

The Świna is a river in northwest Poland, between 2 to 4 km from the German border. It flows from Szczecin Lagoon to the Baltic Sea between the islands of Uznam and Wolin. It is a part of the Oder estuary, and carries about 75% of that river's waterflow. It has a length of about 16 km. Świnoujście is a major town on the river.

Piast Canal Canal in Poland

The Piast Canal - is a canal that connects the Oder Lagoon with the Baltic Sea, more exactly with the northern part of the Świna river. The eastern part of the river is bypassed, providing a more convenient south-north connection for large ships.,

Bay of Pomerania Basin in the Baltic Sea

The Bay of Pomerania or Pomeranian Bay is a basin in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Poland and Germany.

Szczecin Lagoon bight in Germany

Szczecin Lagoon, Stettin Lagoon, Bay of Szczecin, or Stettin Bay, also Oder lagoon, is a lagoon in the Oder estuary, shared by Germany and Poland. It is separated from the Pomeranian Bay of the Baltic Sea by the islands of Usedom and Wolin. The lagoon is subdivided into the Kleines Haff in the West and the Wielki Zalew in the East. An ambiguous historical German name was Frisches Haff, which later exclusively referred to the Vistula Lagoon.

Dziwna river in Poland

The Dziwna is a channel of the Oder River in northwestern Poland, one of three straits connecting the Oder Lagoon with the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea. It separates the island of Wolin from the rest of the Polish mainland. The other two channels are the Świna and the Peene.

West Oder river in Poland

West Oder is the western arm of the lower Oder near Szczecin, Poland along the border with Germany. It flows into the Oder Lagoon.

North European Plain

The North European Plain is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, with small parts of northern France and Czech republic.

Lower Lusatia Geographic region in Europe

Lower Lusatia is a historical region in Central Europe, stretching from the southeast of the German state of Brandenburg to the southwest of Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland. Like adjacent Upper Lusatia in the south, Lower Lusatia is a settlement area of the West Slavic Sorbs whose endangered Lower Sorbian language is related to Upper Sorbian and Polish.

Kostrzyn nad Odrą Place in Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland

Kostrzyn nad Odrą is a town in Gorzów County, Lubusz Voivodeship in western Poland, close to the border with Germany.

Karsibór island

Karsibór is an island in the Oder Lagoon, Poland, which was created by the cutting of the Kaiserfahrt canal which separated it from the island of Usedom. The island was named after its largest village.

Geography of Poland

Poland is a country in East-Central Europe with an area of 312,679 square kilometres, and mostly temperate climate. Generally speaking, Poland is an almost unbroken plain reaching from the Baltic Sea in the north, to the Carpathian Mountains in the south. Within that plain, terrain variations run in bands east to west. The Baltic coast has two natural harbors, the larger one in the Gdańsk-Gdynia region, and a smaller one near Szczecin in the far northwest. The northeastern region, also known as the Masurian Lake District with more than 2,000 lakes, is densely wooded and sparsely populated. To the south of the lake district, and across central Poland a vast region of plains extends all the way to the Sudetes on the Czech and Slovak borders southwest, and to the Carpathians on the Czech, Slovak and Ukrainian borders southeast. The central lowlands had been formed by glacial erosion in the Pleistocene ice age. The neighboring countries are Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and Lithuania and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad to the northeast.

Szczecin–Świnoujście railway railway line

The Szczecin–Świnoujście railway is a Polish 100-kilometre long railway line, that connects Szczecin with the port in Świnoujście. The railway is part of European TEN-T route E59 from Scandinavia to Vienna, Budapest and Prague. For this reason the classification of the PLK line is also in the "first-class" category.

References

  1. kontakt@naukowiec.org, naukowiec.org. "Największe rzeki w Polsce". Naukowiec.org. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland 2017, Statistics Poland, p. 85-86
  3. Claudius Ptolemaios: Geographike Hyphegesis, Kap. 11: Germania Magna. (altgriech./lat./engl.)
  4. Ralf Loock: Mündungen der Flüsse bestimmt. [ permanent dead link ] In: Märkische Oderzeitung, Frankfurt 2008,3 (März); Ralf Loock: Namenskrimi um Viadrus in: Märkische Oderzeitung – Journal. Frankfurt 25./26. Nov. 2006, S. 2; siehe auch Alfred Stückelberger, Gerd Graßhoff (Hrsg.): Ptolemaios – Handbuch der Geographie. Schwabe, Basel 2006, S. 223, ISBN   3-7965-2148-7
  5. Encyclopædia Britannica's 9th edition 1870–1890: Oder&
  6. NoorderSoft Waterways Database Archived November 9, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  7. The commission was staffed with one representative of Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom each and three representatives of Prussia, being the German state competent for the navigable section of the Oder, comprised within the latter's borders. Cf. Der Große Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens in zwanzig Bänden: 21 Bde., completely revised ed., Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 151928-1935, vol 13 (1932): Dreizehnter Band Mue–Ost, article: 'Oder', pp. 600seq., here p. 601. No ISBN.
  8. Cf. Archiwum Państwowe w Szczecinie (State Archive of Szczecin), Rep. 126, Krajowy Urząd Skarbowy w Szczecinie
  9. Allen DJ (2003) The Oder-Neisse line: the United States, Poland, and Germany in the Cold War, Praeger P13
  10. XII. ORDERLY TRANSFER OF GERMAN POPULATIONS. The Three Governments, having considered the question in all its aspects, recognize that the transfer to Germany of German populations, or elements thereof, remaining in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, will have to be undertaken. They agree that any transfers that take place should be effected in an orderly and humane manner.

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Oder". Encyclopædia Britannica . 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–3.