|Signed||19 October 1466|
|Location||Thorn (Toruń), Poland|
| King Casimir IV Jagiellon |
Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen
|Parties|| Kingdom of Poland |
State of the Teutonic Order
The Peace of Thorn or Toruń of 1466, also known as the Second Peace of Thorn or Toruń (Polish : drugi pokój toruński; German : Zweiter Friede von Thorn), was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon and the Teutonic Knights, which ended the Thirteen Years' War, the longest of Polish–Teutonic wars.
The treaty was signed in the Artus Court,and afterward a mass was held in the Gothic Franciscan Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary to celebrate the peace treaty.
The treaty concluded the Thirteen Years' War which had begun in February 1454 with the revolt of the Prussian Confederation, led by the cities of Danzig (Gdańsk), Elbing (Elbląg), Kulm (Chełmno) and Thorn, and the Prussian gentry against the rule of the Teutonic Knights in the Monastic State, in order to join the Kingdom of Poland.
Both sides agreed to seek confirmation from Pope Paul II and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, but the Polish side stressed (and the Teutonic side agreed) that this confirmation would not be needed for validation of the treaty. The peace talks were held in Nieszawa (present-day Mała Nieszawka) from 23 September 1466,and in the final stages moved to Toruń.
In the treaty, the Teutonic Order renounced any claims to the territories of Gdańsk/Eastern Pomerania and Chełmno Land, which were reintegrated with Poland,and the region of Elbing (Elbląg) and Marienburg (Malbork), and the Bishopric of Warmia, which were also recognized as part of Poland. The eastern part remained with the Teutonic Order as a fief and protectorate of Poland, also considered an integral part of "one and indivisible" Kingdom of Poland. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Chełmno became a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Gniezno.
From now on, every Grand Master of the Teutonic Order was obliged to swear an oath of allegiance to the reigning Polish king within six months of taking office, and any new territorial acquisitions by the Teutonic Order, also outside Prussia, would also be incorporated into Poland.The Grand Master became a prince and counselor of the Polish king and the Kingdom of Poland. Poles were to be admitted to the Teutonic Order. The Teutonic Knights were obliged to help Poland in the event of war, and were forbidden to wage war against Catholics without the consent of Polish kings. Any prisoners of war on both sides were to be released.
The treaty also dismissed any possibility of releasing the Teutonic Order from dependence to Poland or of any revision of the terms of the treaty by referring to any foreign authority, including imperial and papal.
The territories directly held by Poland were already organized into three voivodeships (Chełmno, Pomeranian, Malbork) and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, all of which formed the province of Royal Prussia(later also part of the larger Greater Poland Province of the Polish Crown), which was considered the exclusive property of the Polish king and Polish kingdom. Later some disagreements arose concerning certain prerogatives that Royal Prussia and the cities held, like Danzig's privileges. The region possessed certain privileges such as the minting of its own coins, its own Diet meetings (see the Prussian estates), its own military, and its own administrative usage of the German language. A conflict over the right to name and approve Bishops in Warmia, resulted in the War of the Priests (1467–1479). Eventually, Royal Prussia became integrated into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but retained some distinctive features until the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century.
In 1525, the Order was ousted from their territory by its own Grand Master when Albert, Duke of Prussia adopted Lutheranism and assumed the title of duke as hereditary ruler under the overlordship of Poland in the Prussian Homage. The area became known as the Duchy of Prussia.
Elbląg is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 119,317 inhabitants. It is the capital of Elbląg County and has been assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. Previously it was the capital of Elbląg Voivodeship (1975–1998) and a county seat within Gdańsk Voivodeship (1945–1975).
The Prussian Confederation was an organization formed on 21 February 1440 at Marienwerder by a group of 53 nobles and clergy and 19 cities in Prussia, to oppose the arbitrariness of the Teutonic Knights. It was based on the basis of an earlier similar organization, the Lizard Union established in 1397 by Chełmno Land nobles.
The Marienwerder Region was a government region (Regierungsbezirk), of Prussia from 1815 until 1945. The regional capital was Marienwerder in West Prussia. The Marienwerder Region was part of the Province of West Prussia from 1815 to 1829, and again 1878–1920, belonging to the Province of Prussia in the intervening years. The Marienwerder Region was then placed under an inter-Allied commission from 1920 to 1922 and was eventually divided, with the western districts included within the newly established Polish Republic as part of the so-called Polish Corridor. The eastern part of Marienwerder that voted to be incorporated within the Weimar Republic was named the Region of West Prussia while it was joined to the Province of East Prussia from 1922 to 1939, after which its original name was restored until its dissolution in 1945.
Braniewo, is a town in northern Poland, in Warmia, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004). It is the capital of Braniewo County.
Royal Prussia or Polish Prussia was a province of Polish kingdom that was created as a result of the peace treaty of 1466 between the Teutonic Order and Poland. Prussian lands of the Order were divided, western part became part of Poland and was known as Royal Prussia, eastern remained under the rule of the Order as the Polish fief. Royal Prussia was granted autonomy and a guarantee of preserving rights and customs. Ultimately, in 1569 Royal Prussia was fully integrated into the Kingdom of Poland.
Kadyny is a village of Gmina Tolkmicko, within Elbląg County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Prussia is a historical region in Europe on the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, that ranges from the Gulf of Gdańsk in the west to the end of the Curonian Spit in the east and extends inland as far as Masuria. Tacitus's Germania is the oldest known record of an eyewitness account on the territory and its inhabitants. Pliny the Elder had already confirmed that the Romans had navigated into the waters beyond the Cimbric peninsula (Jutland). Suiones, Sitones, Goths and other Germanic people had settled to the east and west of the Vistula River, adjacent to the Aesti, who lived further to the east.
The State of the Teutonic Order, also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat was a medieval crusader state, located in Central Europe along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea. It was formed by the knights of the Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades in the region of Prussia, and was disestablished in 1525. At its greatest territorial extent, in the early 15th century, it encompassed Chełmno Land, Courland, Gotland, Livonia, Neumark, Pomerelia, Prussia and Samogitia, i.e. territories nowadays located in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Russia and Sweden.
Lidzbark is a town with 8,670 inhabitants in the Warmia-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland. It is located on the Wel river and Lake Lidzbark. The postal code for the entire area is 13-230. The town is popularly referred to as Lidzbark Welski, to distinguish it from Lidzbark Warmiński.
The Chełmno Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland since 1454/1466 until the Partitions of Poland in 1772/1795. Together with the Pomeranian and Malbork Voivodeships and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia it formed the historical province of Royal Prussia. Its capital was at Chełmno.
The Malbork Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from 1454/1466 until the partitions in 1772–1795. Together with the Pomeranian and Chełmno Voivodeships and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia it formed the historical province of Royal Prussia. Its capital was at Marienburg (Malbork).
Reszel(listen) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northeastern Poland. As of 2012 the population was 4,896. A small medieval town situated in the historical Warmia region, Reszel possesses many architecturally-renowned monuments and various attractions. The gothic castle, the main square and the core surrounded by brick defense walls are very popular among incoming tourists.
Lucas Watzenrode the Younger was Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermeland) and patron to his nephew, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
The War of the Priests was a conflict in the Polish province of Warmia between the King of Poland Casimir IV and Nicolaus von Tüngen, the new bishop of Warmia chosen – without the king's approval – by the Warmian chapter. The latter was supported by the Teutonic Knights, by this point vassals of Poland, who were seeking a revision of the recently signed Second Peace of Toruń.
Tolkmicko is a town in northern Poland, on the Vistula Lagoon, about 20 km northeast of Elbląg. It is located in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in Elbląg County. Its population is 2,766 (2004).
The Pomeranian Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1454/1466 until the First partition of Poland in 1772. From 1613 the capital was at Skarszewy.
The Thirteen Years' War, also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–1466 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
Pomesanians were one of the Prussian clans. They lived in Pomesania, a historical region in modern northern Poland, located between the Nogat and Vistula Rivers to the west and the Elbląg River to the east. It is located around the modern towns of Elbląg and Malbork. As the westernmost clan, the Pomesanians were the first of the Prussians to be conquered by the Teutonic Knights, a German military crusading order brought to the Chełmno Land to convert the pagans to Christianity. Due to Germanization and assimilation, Pomesanians became extinct some time in the 17th century.
The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia was a semi-independent ecclesiastical state, ruled by the incumbent ordinary of the Warmia see and comprising one third of the then diocesan area. The Warmia see was a Prussian diocese under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Riga that was a protectorate of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights (1243–1464) and a protectorate and part of the Kingdom of Poland—later part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1464–1772), confirmed by the Peace of Thorn in 1466. The other two thirds of the diocese were under the secular rule of the Teutonic Knights until 1525 and Ducal Prussia thereafter, both entities also being a protectorate and part of Poland from 1466.
The first settlement in the vicinity of Toruń is dated by archaeologists to 1100 BC. During early medieval times, in the 7th through 13th centuries, it was the location of an old Slavonic settlement, at a ford in the Vistula river. In the 10th century it became part of the emerging Polish state ruled by the Piast dynasty.