History of Pomerania

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The history of Pomerania starts shortly before 1000 AD with ongoing conquests by newly arrived Polans rulers. Before that, the area was recorded nearly 2000 years ago as Germania, and in modern-day times Pomerania is split between Germany and Poland. Its name comes from the Slavic po more, which means "land at the sea". [1]

Contents

Settlement in the area started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, about 13,000 years ago. [2] Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, of Veneti and Germanic peoples during the Iron Age and, in the Middle Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Starting in the 10th century, Piast Poland on several occasions acquired parts of the region from the south-east, while the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark reached the region in augmenting their territory to the west and north. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]

In the High Middle Ages, the area became Christian and was ruled by local dukes of the House of Pomerania and the Samborides, at various times vassals of Denmark, the Holy Roman Empire and Poland. [16] [17] [18] From the late 12th century, the Griffin Duchy of Pomerania stayed with the Holy Roman Empire and the Principality of Rugia with Denmark, while Denmark, Brandenburg, Poland and the Teutonic Knights struggled for control in Samboride Pomerelia. [18] [19] [20] The Teutonic Knights succeeded in annexing Pomerelia to their monastic state in the early 14th century. Meanwhile, the Ostsiedlung started to turn Pomerania into a German-settled area; the remaining Wends, who became known as Slovincians and Kashubians, continued to settle within the rural East. [21] [22] In 1325, the line of the princes of Rugia (Rügen) died out, and the principality was inherited by the House of Pomerania, [23] themselves involved in the Brandenburg-Pomeranian conflict about superiority in their often internally divided duchy. In 1466, with the Teutonic Order's defeat, Pomerelia became subject to the Polish Crown as a part of Royal Prussia. [24] While the Duchy of Pomerania adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1534, [25] [26] [27] , as part of the Empire by then termed the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation [28] , Kashubia remained with the Roman Catholic Church. The Thirty Years' and subsequent wars severely ravaged and depopulated most of Pomerania. [29] With the extinction of the Griffin house during the same period, the Duchy of Pomerania was divided between the Swedish Empire and Brandenburg-Prussia in 1648.

Prussia gained the southern parts of Swedish Pomerania in 1720. [30] It gained the remainder of Swedish Pomerania in 1815, when French occupation during the Napoleonic Wars was lifted. [31] The former Brandenburg-Prussian Pomerania and the former Swedish parts were reorganized into the Prussian Province of Pomerania, [32] while Pomerelia in the partitions of Poland was made part of the Province of West Prussia. With Prussia, both provinces joined the newly constituted German Empire in 1871. Following the empire's defeat in World War I, Pomerelia became part of the Second Polish Republic (Polish Corridor) and the Free City of Danzig was created. Germany's Province of Pomerania was expanded in 1938 to include northern parts of the former Province of Posen–West Prussia, and in 1939 the annexed Polish territories became the part of Nazi Germany known as Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. The Nazis deported the Pomeranian Jews to a reservation near Lublin [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] and mass-murdered Jews, Poles and Kashubians in Pomerania, planning to eventually exterminate Jews and Poles and Germanise the Kashubians.

After Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, the German–Polish border was shifted west to the Oder–Neisse line and all of Pomerania was placed under Soviet military control. [43] [44] The area west of the line became part of East Germany, the other areas part of the People's Republic of Poland even though it did not have a sizeable Polish population. The German population of the areas east of the line was expelled, and the area was resettled primarily with Poles, some of whom were themselves expellees from former eastern Poland) and some Ukrainians who were resettled under Operation Vistula) and Jews. [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] Most of Western Pomerania (Vorpommern) today forms the eastern part of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in Federal Republic of Germany, while the Polish part of the region is divided between West Pomeranian Voivodeship and Pomeranian Voivodeship, with their capitals in Szczecin and Gdańsk, respectively. During the late 1980s, the Solidarność and Die Wende movements overthrew the Communist regimes implemented during the post-war era .[ citation needed ] Since then, Pomerania has been democratically governed.

Prehistory and antiquity

One of more than 1,000 megalith sites in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern - the Lancken-Granitz dolmen LG Dolmen1.JPG
One of more than 1,000 megalith sites in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern - the Lancken-Granitz dolmen

After the glaciers of the Vistula Glacial Stage retreated from Pomerania during the Allerød oscillation, [2] a warming period that falls within the Early Stone Age, they left a tundra. First humans appeared, hunting reindeer in the summer. [54] A climate change in 8000 BC [55] allowed hunters and foragers of the Maglemosian culture, [2] and from 6000 BC of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture, to continuously inhabit the area. [56] These people became influenced by farmers of the Linear Pottery culture who settled in southern Pomerania. [56] [57] The hunters of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture became farmers of the Funnelbeaker culture in 3000 BC. [56] [58] The Havelland culture dominated in the Uckermark from 2500 to 2000 BC. [59] In 2400 BC, the Corded Ware culture reached Pomerania [59] [60] and introduced the domestic horse. [60] Both Linear Pottery and Corded Ware culture have been associated with Indo-Europeans. [60] Except for Western Pomerania, [59] the Funnelbeaker culture was replaced by the Globular Amphora culture a thousand years later. [61]

During the Bronze Age, Western Pomerania was part of the Nordic Bronze Age cultures, while east of the Oder the Lusatian culture dominated. [62] Throughout the Iron Age, the people of the western Pomeranian areas belonged to the Jastorf culture, [63] [64] while the Lusatian culture of the East was succeeded by the Pomeranian culture, [63] then in 150 BC by the Oxhöft (Oksywie) culture, and at the beginning of the first millennium by the Willenberg (Wielbark) Culture. [63]

While the Jastorf culture is usually associated with Germanic peoples, [65] the ethnic category of the Lusatian culture and its successors is debated. [66] Veneti, Germanic peoples (Goths, Rugians, and Gepids) and possibly Slavs are assumed to have been the bearers of these cultures or parts thereof. [66]

Beginning in the 3rd century, many settlements were abandoned, [67] marking the beginning of the Migration Period in Pomerania. It is assumed that Burgundians, Goths and Gepids with parts of the Rugians left Pomerania during that stage, while some Veneti, Vidivarii and other, Germanic groups remained, [68] and formed the Gustow, Debczyn and late Willenberg cultures, which existed in Pomerania until the 6th century. [67]

Timeline 10,000 BC600 AD

Pomeranian culture - Pomerelian faced urns Gesichtsurnen.jpg
Pomeranian culture - Pomerelian faced urns

Early Middle Ages

Distribution of Slavic tribes between the 9th-10th centuries West slavs 9th-10th c..png
Distribution of Slavic tribes between the 9th–10th centuries
A priest of Svantevit depicted on a stone from Arkona, now in the church of Altenkirchen Steinrelief Pfarrkirche Altenkirchen.jpg
A priest of Svantevit depicted on a stone from Arkona, now in the church of Altenkirchen

The southward movement of Germanic tribes and Veneti during the Migration Period had left Pomerania largely depopulated by the 7th century. [70] Between 650 and 850 AD, West Slavic tribes settled in Pomerania. [71] [72] These tribes were collectively known as "Pomeranians" between the Oder and Vistula rivers, or as "Veleti" (later "Liuticians") west of the Oder. A distinct tribe, the Rani, was based on the island of Rügen and the adjacent mainland. [7] [73] In the 8th and 9th centuries, Slavic-Scandinavian emporia were set up along the coastline as powerful centres of craft and trade. [74]

In 936, the Holy Roman Empire set up the Billung and Northern marches in Western Pomerania, divided by the Peene. The Liutician federation, in an uprising of 983, managed to regain independence, but broke apart in the course of the 11th century because of internal conflicts. [9] [75] Meanwhile, Polish Piasts managed to acquire parts of eastern Pomerania during the late 960s, where the Diocese of Kołobrzeg was installed in 1000 AD. The Pomeranians regained independence during the Pomeranian uprising of 1005. [10] [12] [13] [ failed verification ] [14] [15] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80]

During the first half of the 11th century, the Liuticians participated in the Holy Roman Empire's wars against Piast Poland. [81] The alliance broke off when Poland was defeated, [82] and the Liutician federation broke apart in 1057 during a civil war. [83] The Liutician capital was destroyed by the Germans in 1068/69, [84] making way for the subsequent eastward expansion of their western neighbour, the Obodrite state. In 1093, the Luticians, [85] Pomeranians [85] and Rani [85] had to pay tribute to Obodrite prince Henry. [86]

Timeline 600–1100

Pomerania as part of Poland under the Duke Mieszko I, 960-992 Polska 960 - 992.svg
Pomerania as part of Poland under the Duke Mieszko I, 960-992
Stone ships at the site of an early medieval Scandinavian settlement, Altes Lager Menzlin near Anklam WalMenz.jpg
Stone ships at the site of an early medieval Scandinavian settlement, Altes Lager Menzlin near Anklam

High Middle Ages

Cathedral, Kammin (Cammin, Kamien Pomorski), see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kammin, set up in 1140 in Wollin (Wolin) Kamien Pomorski - katedra zewnatrz 02.JPG
Cathedral, Kammin (Cammin, Kamien Pomorski), see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kammin, set up in 1140 in Wollin (Wolin)

In the early 12th century, Obodrite, Polish, Saxon, and Danish conquests resulted in vassalage and Christianization of the formerly pagan and independent Pomeranian tribes. [16] [92] [93] [94] Local dynasties ruled the Principality of Rügen (House of Wizlaw), the Duchy of Pomerania (House of Pomerania), the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp (Ratiboride branch of the House of Pomerania), and the duchies in Pomerelia (Samborides). [92] Monasteries were founded at Grobe, Kolbatz, Gramzow, and Belbuck which supported Pomerania's Christianization and advanced German settlements. [95]

The dukes of Pomerania expanded their realm into Circipania and Uckermark to the Southwest, and competed with the Margraviate of Brandenburg for territory and formal overlordship over their duchies. Pomerania-Demmin lost most of her territory and was integrated into Pomerania-Stettin in the mid-13th century. When the Ratiborides died out in 1223, competition arose for the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, [96] which changed hands numerous times.

Throughout the High Middle Ages, a large influx of German settlers and the introduction of German law, custom, and Low German language turned the area west of the Oder into a German one (Ostsiedlung). The Wends, who during the Early Middle Ages had belonged to the Slavic Rani, Lutician and Pomeranian tribes, were assimilated by the German Pomeranians. To the east of the Oder this development occurred later; in the area from Szczecin eastward, the number of German settlers in the 12th century was still insignificant. The Kashubians descendants of Slavic Pomeranians, dominated many rural areas in Pomerelia.

The conversion of Pomerania to Christianity was achieved primarily by the missionary efforts of Absalon and Otto von Bamberg, by the foundation of numerous monasteries, and by the assimilatory power of the Christian settlers. A Pomeranian diocese was set up in Wolin, the see was later moved to Cammin. [97]

Timeline 1100–1300

Monument of Swietopelk II the Great in Szeroka Street in Gdansk Monument of Swietopelk II the Great in Szeroka Street in Gdansk.jpg
Monument of Swietopelk II the Great in Szeroka Street in Gdańsk
Stralsund, one of several Hanseatic cities in Pomerania. Brick Gothic was the typical medieval architecture that can be seen throughout the region. Nikolaikirche Rathaus HST.jpg
Stralsund, one of several Hanseatic cities in Pomerania. Brick Gothic was the typical medieval architecture that can be seen throughout the region.

Late Middle Ages

The Duchy of Pomerania-Stolp between 1368-1478 was a feudal territory under the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland Polska 1386 - 1434.png
The Duchy of Pomerania-Stolp between 1368-1478 was a feudal territory under the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Pomeranian Dukes' Castle in Szczecin. While this is a reconstruction of the late medieval castle, a burgh had been on this site already in the Early Middle Ages. Szczecin Zamek Ksiazat Pomorskich (od pln-wsch).jpg
Pomeranian Dukes' Castle in Szczecin. While this is a reconstruction of the late medieval castle, a burgh had been on this site already in the Early Middle Ages.
The Duchy of Pomerania (yellow) in 1400 within the Holy Roman Empire, P.-Stettin and P.-Wolgast are indicated; purple: Diocese of Cammin (BM. Cammin) and the Teutonic Order state; orange: Margraviate of Brandenburg; pink: duchies of Mecklenburg Bistum Cammin 1400.PNG
The Duchy of Pomerania (yellow) in 1400 within the Holy Roman Empire, P.-Stettin and P.-Wolgast are indicated; purple: Diocese of Cammin (BM. Cammin) and the Teutonic Order state; orange: Margraviate of Brandenburg; pink: duchies of Mecklenburg

The towns of the Hanseatic League were acting as quasi autonomous political and military entities. [118] [119] The Duchy of Pomerania gained the Principality of Rugia after two wars with Mecklenburg, [23] the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp [120] and the Lauenburg and Bütow Land. [24] Pomerelia was integrated into the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights after the Teutonic takeover of Danzig in 1308, and became a part of Royal Prussia in 1466.

The Duchy of Pomerania was internally fragmented into Pomerania-Wolgast, -Stettin, -Barth, and -Stolp. [121] [122] The dukes were in continuous warfare with the Margraviate of Brandenburg due to Uckermark and Neumark border disputes and disputes over formal overlordship of Pomerania. [123]

In 1478, the duchy was reunited under the rule of Bogislaw X, when most of the other dukes had died of the plague. [124] [125]

Timeline 13001500

University of Greifswald, founded in 1456 EMAU - Rubenowplatz 2.jpg
University of Greifswald, founded in 1456

Early Modern Age

Invasion of the Swedish Rugen by Brandenburg-Prussia, 1678 Belagerung ruegen.jpg
Invasion of the Swedish Rügen by Brandenburg-Prussia, 1678
Pomerelia as a part of Royal Prussia (light blue), 16th century; Duchy of Pomerania in brown K0nigl+BherzoglPreussen en.png
Pomerelia as a part of Royal Prussia (light blue), 16th century; Duchy of Pomerania in brown
The former Duchy of Pomerania (center) partitioned between the Swedish Empire and Brandenburg after the Treaty of Stettin in 1653. Swedish Pomerania (West Pomerania) is indicated in blue; Brandenburg, including Brandenburgian Pomerania (East Pomerania) is shown in orange. Pomerania 1653.PNG
The former Duchy of Pomerania (center) partitioned between the Swedish Empire and Brandenburg after the Treaty of Stettin in 1653. Swedish Pomerania (West Pomerania) is indicated in blue; Brandenburg, including Brandenburgian Pomerania (East Pomerania) is shown in orange.

Throughout this time, Pomerelia was within Royal Prussia, a part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth with considerable autonomy. In the late 18th century, it became a part of Prussia.

The Duchy of Pomerania was fragmented into Pomerania-Stettin (Farther Pomerania) and Pomerania-Wolgast (Western Pomerania) in 1532, [18] [141] underwent Protestant Reformation in 1534, [26] [27] [25] and was even further fragmented in 1569. [142] In 1627, the Thirty Years' War reached the duchy. [143] Since the Treaty of Stettin (1630), it was under Swedish control. [143] [144] In the midst of the war, the last duke Bogislaw XIV died without an issue. Garrison, plunder, numerous battles, famine and diseases left two thirds of the population dead and most of the country ravaged. [145] [146] In the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, the Swedish Empire and Brandenburg-Prussia agreed on a partition of the duchy, which came into effect after the Treaty of Stettin (1653). Western Pomerania became Swedish Pomerania, a Swedish dominion, while Farther Pomerania became a Brandenburg-Prussian province.

A series of wars affected Pomerania in the following centuries. As a consequence, most of the formerly free peasants became serfs of the nobles. [147] Brandenburg-Prussia was able to integrate southern Swedish Pomerania into her Pomeranian province during the Great Northern War, which was confirmed in the Treaty of Stockholm in 1720. [30] In the 18th century, Prussia rebuild and colonised her war-torn Pomeranian province. [148]

Timeline 15001806

Gustavus II Adolphus started the Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War from Pomerania, parts of which [[Swedish Pomerania|would remain Swedish until 1815]]. This and subsequent wars severely ravaged the region, two thirds of the population died during the Thirty Years' War. Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle at Breitenfeld.jpg
Gustavus II Adolphus started the Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War from Pomerania, parts of which [[Swedish Pomerania|would remain Swedish until 1815]]. This and subsequent wars severely ravaged the region, two thirds of the population died during the Thirty Years' War.
Pomerania as part of the Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia HRR 1648.png
Pomerania as part of the Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia

Modern Age

Gdynia, a major port city constructed in 1921 as Poland's harbour within the Polish Corridor Sea Towers Skwer.jpg
Gdynia, a major port city constructed in 1921 as Poland's harbour within the Polish Corridor
Map of the Prussian province Pomerania (Pommern) in 1905 Provinz Pommern 1905.png
Map of the Prussian province Pomerania (Pommern) in 1905
Acquisitions of land from ethnic Poles for settling ethnic German commoners by the Prussian Settlement Commission in the provinces of Posen and West Prussia (outside Prussian Pomerania) Prussian Settlement Commission.JPG
Acquisitions of land from ethnic Poles for settling ethnic German commoners by the Prussian Settlement Commission in the provinces of Posen and West Prussia (outside Prussian Pomerania)
Map of West Prussia and the Gdansk Bay in 1896 Westpreussen und DanzigerBucht.png
Map of West Prussia and the Gdańsk Bay in 1896

From the Napoleonic Wars to World War I, Pomerania was administered by the Kingdom of Prussia as the Province of Pomerania (Western and Farther Pomerania) and West Prussia (Pomerelia).

The Province of Pomerania was created from the Province of Pomerania (1653–1815) (Farther Pomerania and southern Vorpommern) and Swedish Pomerania (northern Vorpommern), and the districts of Schivelbein and Dramburg, formerly belonging to the Neumark. [32] While in the Kingdom of Prussia, the province was heavily influenced by the reforms of Karl August von Hardenberg [155] and Otto von Bismarck. [156] The industrial revolution had an impact primarily on the Stettin area and the infrastructure, while most of the province retained a rural and agricultural character. [157] Since 1850, the net migration rate was negative, Pomeranians emigrated primarily to Berlin, the West German industrial regions and overseas. [158] Also, more than 100,000 Kashubian Poles emigrated from Pomerania between 1855 and 1900, for economic and social reasons, in what is called the Kashubian diaspora. [159] In areas where ethnically Polish population lived along with ethnic Germans a virtual apartheid existed (in Prussian Pomerania this was mostly the Lauenburg and Bütow Land), with bans on Kashubian or Polish language and religious discrimination, besides attempts to colonize areas of prevailingly ethnically Polish population with ethnic Germans [160] the Prussian Settlement Commission, established in 1886 and restricted to act in Posen and West Prussia provinces only, parcelled acquired noble latifundia into 21,727 homesteads of an average of 13 to 15 hectares, introducing 154,000 ethnic German colonists before World War I, which were all outside of Prussian Pomerania, but are also located in areas today denominated as Pomerania in Polish geography. [161] This was surpassed after 1892 by efforts of new private initiatives by minority of ethnically Polish Germans, but a majority in wide parts of Posen and West Prussia province, who founded the Prussian banks Bank Ziemski, Bank Społek Zarobkowych (cooperative central clearing bank) and land acquisition cooperatives (spółki ziemskie) [162] which collected private funds and succeeded to buy more latifundia from defaulted owners and settle more ethnically Polish Germans as farmers on the parcelled land than their governmentally funded counter-party. A big success of the Prussian activists for the Polish nation.

After the First World War, the Pomeranian Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic was established from the bulk of West Prussia. Poland became a democracy and introduced women's right to vote already in 1918. [163]

The German minority in Poland moved in large numbers to Germany, mostly of free will and due to their economic situation. [164] Poland build a large Baltic port at the site of the former village Gdynia. The Danzig (Gdańsk) area became the city state Free City of Danzig.

In the Province of Pomerania that, after Kaiser's abdication became part of the Free State of Prussia within the Weimar Republic, democracy and women's right to vote were introduced. [165] The economic situation worsened due to the consequences of World War I and the worldwide recession. [166] As in the Kingdom of Prussia before, Pomerania was a stronghold of nationalistic and anti-Semitic [167] DNVP. [168] The government of the state of Prussia, of which Pomerania was a province, was between 1920 and 1932 led by the Social Democrats, Otto Braun being Prussian minister-president almost continuously during this time.

Timeline 18061933

Narrow gauge railways like "Rugensche Kleinbahn", operating since 1895, were built in all of Pomerania during the late 19th century. Ruegen 038.jpg
Narrow gauge railways like "Rügensche Kleinbahn", operating since 1895, were built in all of Pomerania during the late 19th century.
Since the late 19th century, the Pomeranian coast is a tourist resort. In Binz, tourism started in the 1860s. Binz Kurhaus.JPG
Since the late 19th century, the Pomeranian coast is a tourist resort. In Binz, tourism started in the 1860s.

Nazi era

Stutthof concentration camp, former Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia, site of the deaths of 85,000 people KL Stutthof 01.jpg
Stutthof concentration camp, former Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia, site of the deaths of 85,000 people
Memorial to the victims of Nazi camps in a town named Police (at that time German: Politz) situated in Trzeszczyn, Wkrzanska Heath Trzeszczyn pomnik.jpg
Memorial to the victims of Nazi camps in a town named Police (at that time German: Pölitz) situated in Trzeszczyn, Wkrzańska Heath

In 1933, the Province of Pomerania like all of Germany came under control of the Nazi regime. During the following years, the Nazis led by Gauleiter Franz Schwede-Coburg manifested their power by Gleichschaltung and repression of their opponents. [180] Pomerelia then formed the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic. Concerning Pomerania, Nazi diplomacy aimed at incorporation of the Free City of Danzig and a transit route through the corridor, which was rejected by the Polish government. [181]

In 1939, the German Wehrmacht invaded Poland. Inhabitants of the region from all ethnic backgrounds were subject to numerous atrocities by Nazi Germany forces, of which the most affected were Polish and Jewish civilians. [182] [183] [184] Pomerelia was made part of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. The Nazis set up concentration camps, ethnically cleansed Poles and Jews, and systematically exterminated Poles, Roma and the Jews. In Pomerania Albert Forster was directly responsible for extermination of non-Germans in Danzig-West Prussia. He personally believed in the need to engage in genocide of Poles and stated that "We have to exterminate this nation, starting from the cradle" [185] [186] [187] [ verification needed ] and declared that Poles and Jews were not human. [188] [189]

Around 70 camps were set up for Polish populations in Pomerania where they were subjected to murder, torture and in case of women and girls, rape before executions [190] [191] [ verification needed ] Between 10 and 15 September Forster organised a meeting of top Nazi officials in his region and ordered the immediate removal of all "dangerous" Poles, all Jews and Polish clergy [192] In some cases Forster ordered executions himself. [193] On 19 October he reprimanded Nazi officials in the city of Grudziadz for not "spilling enough Polish blood" [194]

Timeline 19331945

World War II devastated Kolberg (Kolobrzeg), like most of Pomerania. Kolobrzeg1945.JPG
World War II devastated Kolberg (Kolobrzeg), like most of Pomerania.

Communist era and recent history

Historical Province of Pomerania (yellow) superimposed on modern Germany (red) and Poland (blue) Pomeraniamap.png
Historical Province of Pomerania (yellow) superimposed on modern Germany (red) and Poland (blue)
"Solidarity" Szczecin-Goleniow Airport Port lotniczy Szczecin-Goleniow.jpg
"Solidarity" Szczecin–Goleniów Airport
Centrum Dialogu ,,Przelomy", a part of the National Museum in Szczecin Szczecin CD Przelomy (4).jpg
Centrum Dialogu „Przełomy”, a part of the National Museum in Szczecin
Nowe Warpno - a popular destination for regional tourism near the border between Poland and Germany, close to Altwarp Nowe Warpno Plac Zwyciestwa.JPG
Nowe Warpno - a popular destination for regional tourism near the border between Poland and Germany, close to Altwarp

In 1945, Pomerania was taken by the Red Army and Polish Armed Forces in the East during the East Pomeranian Offensive and the Battle of Berlin. [197] After the post-war border changes, the German population that had not yet fled was expelled from what in Poland was propagated [198] to be recovered territory. [199] [200] [201] [202] The area east of the Oder and the Szczecin (former Stettin) area was resettled primarily with Poles, who themselves were expelled from Eastern Poland that was re-attached to the USSR. Most of the German cultural heritage of the region was destroyed. [203] [204] Most of Western Pomerania stayed with Germany and was merged into Mecklenburg.

With the consolidation of Communism in East Germany and Poland, Pomerania was part of the Eastern Bloc. In the 1980s, the Solidarność movement in Gdańsk (Danzig) and the Wende movement in East Germany forced the Communists out of power and led to the establishment of democracy in both the Polish and German part of Pomerania. [ citation needed ]

Timeline 1945present

See also

Sources

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The Pomeranian Evangelical Church was a Protestant regional church in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, serving the citizens living in Hither Pomerania. The Pomeranian Evangelical Church was based on the teachings brought forward by Martin Luther and other Reformators during the Reformation. It combined Lutheran and Reformed traditions. The seat of the church was Greifswald, the bishop's preaching venue was the former Collegiate Church of St. Nicholas in Greifswald.

Farther Pomerania

Farther Pomerania, Hinder Pomerania, Rear Pomerania or Eastern Pomerania, is the part of Pomerania which comprised the eastern part of the Duchy and later Province of Pomerania. It stretched roughly from the Oder River in the West to Pomerelia in the East. Since 1945, Farther Pomerania has been part of Poland; the bulk of former Farther Pomerania is within the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, while its easternmost parts are within the Pomeranian Voivodeship. The Polish term Pomorze Zachodnie is colloquially used in contemporary Poland as a synonym for the West Pomeranian Voivodship whose borders do not match the historical ones; in Polish historical usage, it applied to all areas west of Pomerelia.

Province of Pomerania (1815–1945) Province of Prussia from 1815 to 1945

The Province of Pomerania was a province of Prussia from 1815 to 1945. Pomerania was established as a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815, an expansion of the older Brandenburg-Prussia province of Pomerania, and then became part of the German Empire in 1871. From 1918, Pomerania was a province of the Free State of Prussia until it was dissolved in 1945 following World War II, and its territory divided between Poland and Allied-occupied Germany.

Lands of Schlawe and Stolp

The Schlawe and Stolp Land, also known as Słupsk and Sławno Land, is a historical region in Pomerania, centered on the towns of Sławno (Schlawe) and Słupsk (Stolp) in Farther Pomerania, in present-day Poland.

Pomerania during the High Middle Ages

Pomerania during the High Middle Ages covers the history of Pomerania in the 12th and 13th centuries.

Pomerania during the Late Middle Ages

Pomerania during the Late Middle Ages covers the history of Pomerania in the 14th and 15th centuries.

History of Pomerania (1933–1945)

History of Pomerania between 1933 and 1945 covers the period of one decade of the long history of Pomerania, lasting from the Adolf Hitler's rise to power until the end of World War II in Europe. In 1933, the German Province of Pomerania like all of Germany came under control of the Nazi regime. During the following years, the Nazis led by Gauleiter Franz Schwede-Coburg manifested their power through the process known as Gleichschaltung and repressed their opponents. Meanwhile, the Pomeranian Voivodeship was part of the Second Polish Republic, led by Józef Piłsudski. With respect to Polish Pomerania, Nazi diplomacy – as part of their initial attempts to subordinate Poland into Anti-Comintern Pact – aimed at incorporation of the Free City of Danzig into the Third Reich and an extra-territorial transit route through Polish territory, which was rejected by the Polish government, that feared economic blackmail by Nazi Germany, and reduction to puppet status.

Pomerania during the Early Modern Age

Pomerania during the Early Modern Age covers the history of Pomerania in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

Province of Pomerania (1653–1815)

The Province of Pomerania was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia, the later Kingdom of Prussia. After the Thirty Years' War, the province consisted of Farther Pomerania. Subsequently, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land, Draheim, and Swedish Pomerania south of the Peene river were joined into the province. The province was succeeded by the Province of Pomerania set up in 1815.

History of Pomerania (1806–1933)

History of Pomerania (1806–1933) covers the history of Pomerania from the early 19th century until the rise of Nazi Germany.

History of Pomerania (1945–present)

History of Pomerania (1945–present) covers the history of Pomerania during World War II aftermath, the Communist and since 1989 Democratic era.

The Duchy of Pomerania was partitioned several times to satisfy the claims of the male members of the ruling House of Pomerania dynasty. The partitions were named after the ducal residences: Pomerania-Barth, -Demmin, -Rügenwalde, -Stettin, -Stolp, and -Wolgast. None of the partitions had a hereditary character, the members of the House of Pomerania inherited the duchy in common. The duchy thus continued to exist as a whole despite its division. The only exception was made during a war with the Margraviate of Brandenburg, when in 1338 Barnim III of Pomerania-Stettin was granted his partition as a fief directly from the Holy Roman Emperor, while Pomerania-Wolgast remained under formal Brandenburgian overlordship. However, already in 1348, German king and later emperor Charles IV again granted the Duchy of Pomerania as a whole and the Principality of Rügen as a fief to the dukes of both Pomerania-Stettin and Pomerania-Wolgast, nullifying Brandenburg's claims by granting Imperial immediacy.

Starting in the 12th century, the Margraviate, later Electorate, of Brandenburg was in conflict with the neighboring Duchy of Pomerania over frontier territories claimed by them both, and over the status of the Pomeranian duchy, which Brandenburg claimed as a fief, whereas Pomerania claimed Imperial immediacy. The conflict frequently turned into open war, and despite occasional success, none of the parties prevailed permanently until the House of Pomerania died out in 1637. Brandenburg would by then have naturally have prevailed, but this was hindered by the contemporary Swedish occupation of Pomerania, and the conflict continued between Sweden and Brandenburg-Prussia until 1815, when Prussia incorporated Swedish Pomerania into her Province of Pomerania.

Beginning in the 12th century, on the initiative of monasteries, as well as the local nobility, German settlers began migrating to Pomerania in a process later termed the Ostsiedlung. The local nobles and rulers encouraged the settlement in order to strengthen and consolidate their position and to develop and intensify land use, while the settlers were attracted by the privileges that were granted to them.

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  190. Maria Wardzynska: Byl rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczenstwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion. Warszawa: Instytut Pamieci Narodowej, 2009. ISBN   978-83-7629-063-8 page 17
  191. Barbara Bojarska: Eksterminacja inteligencji polskiej na Pomorzu Gdanskim, page 67.
  192. Dieter Schenk (2002): Albert Forster. Gdanski namiestnik Hitlera. Gdansk: Wydawnictwo Oskar. ISBN   83-86181-83-4, pages 212-213.
  193. Dieter Schenk (2002): Albert Forster. Gdanski namiestnik Hitlera. Gdansk: Wydawnictwo Oskar. ISBN   83-86181-83-4, page 215.
  194. Barbara Bojarska: Eksterminacja inteligencji polskiej na Pomorzu Gdanskim, page 66.
  195. Buchholz (1999), p.510
  196. Jankowiak, Stanislaw (2001). "Cleansing" Poland of Germans: the Province of Pomerania 1945-1949. p. 87. ISBN   9780742510944. in Philipp Ther: Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948
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  198. Tomasz Kamusella and Terry Sullivan in Karl Cordell, Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe, 1999, p.169: "[the term "recovered territories" was] christened so by the Polish communist-cum-nationalist propaganda", ISBN   0-415-17312-4, ISBN   978-0-415-17312-4
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  200. Joanna B. Michlic, Poland's Threatening Other: The Image of the Jew from 1880 to the Present, 2006, pp.207-208, ISBN   0-8032-3240-3, ISBN   978-0-8032-3240-2
  201. Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes, 2005, pp.381ff, ISBN   0-19-925340-4, ISBN   978-0-19-925340-1
  202. Jan Kubik, The Power of Symbols Against the Symbols of Power: The Rise of Solidarity and the Fall of State Socialism in Poland, 1994, pp.64-65, ISBN   0-271-01084-3, ISBN   978-0-271-01084-7
  203. Dan Diner, Raphael Gross, Yfaat Weiss, Jüdische Geschichte als allgemeine Geschichte, p.164
  204. Gregor Thum, Die fremde Stadt. Breslau nach 1945", 2006, p.344, ISBN   3-570-55017-6, ISBN   978-3-570-55017-5
  205. Buchholz (1999), pp.515ff
  206. 1 2 Buchholz (1999), p.519
  207. Heinrich-Christian Kuhn, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Der Bürger im Staat, "Die Bundesländer", Heft 1/2, 1999
  208. Beatrice Vierneisel, Fremde im Land: Aspekte zur kulturellen Integration von Umsiedlern in Mecklenburg und Vorpommern 1945 bis 1953, 2006, p.13, ISBN   3-8309-1762-7, ISBN   978-3-8309-1762-5
  209. Buchholz (1999), p.521

Bibliography

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