Bydgoszcz

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Bydgoszcz
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Bydgoszcz
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Bydgoszcz
Coordinates: 53°7′19″N18°00′01″E / 53.12194°N 18.00028°E / 53.12194; 18.00028 Coordinates: 53°7′19″N18°00′01″E / 53.12194°N 18.00028°E / 53.12194; 18.00028
Country Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship POL wojewodztwo kujawsko-pomorskie flag.svg  Kuyavian-Pomeranian
County city county
Establishedbefore 1238
Town rights1346
Government
   President (Mayor) Rafał Bruski (PO)
   City Council Chairperson Zbigniew Sobociński (PO)
Area
  City175.98 km2 (67.95 sq mi)
Elevation
60 m (200 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2018)
  City350,178 Decrease2.svg (8th) [1]
   Metro
470,285
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
85-001 to 85-915
Area code(s) (+48) 52
Car plates CB
Website www.bydgoszcz.pl

Bydgoszcz ( UK: /ˈbɪdɡɒʃ/ BID-goshtch, [2] US: /-ɡɔːʃ()/ -gawsh(tch), [3] [4] [5] Polish:  [ˈbɨdɡɔʂtʂ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); German : Bromberg [ˈbʁɔmbɛɐ̯k] ; Latin : Bydgostia, Brombergum [6] ) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers. With a city population of 350,178 (December 2018), [1] and an urban agglomeration with more than 470,000 inhabitants, Bydgoszcz is the eighth-largest city in Poland. It has been the seat of Bydgoszcz County and the co-capital, with Toruń, of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to this, between 1947 and 1998, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, and before that, of the Pomeranian Voivodeship between 1945 and 1947.

British English is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Contents

The city is part of the Bydgoszcz–Toruń metropolitan area, which totals over 850,000 inhabitants. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Casimir the Great University, University of Technology and Life Sciences and a conservatory, as well as the Medical College of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. It also hosts the Pomeranian Philharmonic concert hall, the Opera Nova opera house, and Bydgoszcz Airport. Due to its location between the Vistula and Oder rivers, and the water course of the Bydgoszcz Canal, the city forms part of a water system connected via the Noteć, Warta and Elbe with the Rhine and Rotterdam.

Bydgoszcz–Toruń

Bydgoszcz–Toruń metropolitan area is the name of the bi-polar agglomeration in the middle of the Vistula river created by 2 cities: Bydgoszcz and Toruń. The distance between the built-up areas of the cities is about 30 km. They are the administrative capitals and economic center of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship.

Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz

Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, also known as the Casimir the Great University, is a state-funded university in Bydgoszcz, Poland. It was named after Casimir III the Great, the King of Poland (1333-70) who granted the city municipal rights on 19 April 1346.

Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń

Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń is located in Toruń, Poland. It was named after Nicolaus Copernicus who was born in this town in 1473.

Bydgoszcz is an architecturally rich city, with neo-gothic, neo-baroque, neoclassicist, modernist and Art Nouveau styles present, for which it earned a nickname Little Berlin. [7] The notable granaries on Mill Island and along the riverside belong to one of the most recognized timber-framed landmarks in Poland. [8]

Baroque architecture Building style of the Baroque era

Baroque architecture is a highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy in the early 17th century and gradually spread across Europe. It was originally introduced by the Catholic Church, particularly by the Jesuits, as a means to combat the Reformation and the Protestant church with a new architecture that inspired surprise and awe. It reached its peak in the High Baroque (1625–1675), when it was used in churches and palaces in Italy, Spain, Portugal and France, and Austria. In the Late Baroque period (1675–1750), it reached as far as Russia and the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America, Beginning in about 1730, an even more elaborately decorative variant called Rococo appeared and flourished in Central Europe.

Neoclassicism Western art movements that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome

Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity. Neoclassicism was born largely thanks to the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, at the time of the rediscovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum, but its popularity spread all over Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals. The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th and up to the 21st century.

Art Nouveau Style of art and architecture about 1890 to 1911

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, known in different languages by different names: Jugendstil in German, Stile Liberty in Italian, Modernisme in Catalan, etc. In English it is also known as the Modern Style. The style was most popular between 1890 and 1910. It was a reaction against the academic art, eclecticism and historicism of 19th century architecture and decoration. It was often inspired by natural forms such as the sinuous curves of plants and flowers. Other characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry or "whiplash" curves, and the use of modern materials, particularly iron, glass, ceramics and later concrete, to create unusual forms and larger open spaces.

Etymology

Bydgoszcz, originally Bydgoszcza (feminine), is a pronoun name the second part of which – 'goszcz' comes from 'gost-jь' possibly or 'gost-ja' an old Slavic root which refers to an urban or suburban trading settlement. There are also a number of other Polish place-names which make use of the 'goszcz' suffix: i.e. Małogoszcz and Skorogoszcz. Bydgoszcz, however, has a long, rich history of etymological change: in 1239 known as Bidgosciam, in 1242 as castrum quod Budegosta vulgariter nuncupatur (castle, which is colloquially called Bydgoszcza), in 1279 as Bidgoscha, since 1558 as Bydgoszcz, that is, until the 16th century, and as Bydgoszcza "fishing village or campsite belonging to Bydgosta".

Małogoszcz Place in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland

Małogoszcz(listen) is a town in the Jędrzejów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland. The Battle of Małogoszcz. one of the biggest battles of the 1863 January Uprising, took place there. Małogoszcz belongs to Lesser Poland; the name of the town comes from ancient Polish given name Małogost.

Skorogoszcz Village in Opole Voivodeship, Poland

Skorogoszcz is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lewin Brzeski, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. It lies approximately 6 kilometres (4 mi) east of Lewin Brzeski, 20 km (12 mi) south-east of Brzeg, and 19 km (12 mi) north-west of the regional capital Opole.

The name 'Byd-gost' contains archaic elements of the Proto-Slavonic root 'byd' which existed as a variant of the verb 'to raise' (Ancient Russian 'vъzbydati' = stimulating, Proto-Slavonic 'bъděti' / 'bъd 'ǫ' = no sleep, to watch), [9] and the common Slavic root 'Goszcz' (fireplace). Some people identify the name of the town as 'Budorgis', a name from the 2nd century which is listed as being next to the village Calisia on the amber route.

Calisia was a "station" on so-called "Amber Road", mentioned by Ptolemy, formerly universally identified with Kalisz in Poland. Besides the similarity of the names, the identification was supported by the closeness between the latitude given by Ptolemy (52°50') and the actual latitude of Kalisz (51°45'27").

The etymology of the German name of the town developed later and derives from the river Brahe (Brda in Polish), on whose banks the city is located, and berg, elevation, mount(ain), combined to 'Brahenberg', with 'a' pronounced in East Pomeranian Low German rather like 'å', later contracted to Bromberg, dropping the weak 'h', with the 'n' assimilated as 'm' to the following labial sound 'b'.

History

Panorama of Bromberg in 1657 Bydgoszcz 1657 sztych E Dalhberga.jpg
Panorama of Bromberg in 1657

During the early Slavic times a fishing settlement called Bydgozcya ("Bydgostia" in Latin), became a stronghold on the Vistula trade routes. In the 13th century it was the site of a castellany, mentioned in 1238. The city was occupied by the Teutonic Knights in 1331, and incorporated into the monastic state of Teutonic Prussia as Bromberg. The city was relinquished by the Knights in 1343 with their signing of the Treaty of Kalisz along with Dobrzyń and the remainder of Kuyavia. King Casimir III of Poland, granted Bydgoszcz city rights (charter) on 19 April 1346. [10] The city increasingly saw an influx of Jews after that date. In 1555, however, due to pressure by the clergy, the Jews were expelled and came back only with the annexion to Prussia in 1772. In the 15th and 16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading.

West Slavs group of Slavic peoples speaking the West Slavic languages (Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Sorbs, Kashubians, Moravians, Silesians), separating from the common Slavic group around the 7th century in Central Europe

The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages. They separated from the common Slavic group around the 7th century, and established independent polities in Central Europe by the 8th to 9th centuries. The West Slavic languages diversified into their historically attested forms over the 10th to 14th centuries.

Trade route series of roads, pathways and stoppages for commercial trade on land; excludes rail

A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing goods to reach distant markets, a single trade route contains long distance arteries, which may further be connected to smaller networks of commercial and noncommercial transportation routes. Among notable trade routes was the Amber Road, which served as a dependable network for long-distance trade. Maritime trade along the Spice Route became prominent during the Middle Ages, when nations resorted to military means for control of this influential route. During the Middle Ages, organizations such as the Hanseatic League, aimed at protecting interests of the merchants and trade became increasingly prominent.

State of the Teutonic Order Crusader state formed by the Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades

The State of the Teutonic Order, also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the knights of the Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea. The state was based in Prussia after the Order's conquest of the Pagan Old Prussians which began in 1230. It expanded to include at various times Courland, Gotland, Livonia, Neumark, Pomerelia and Samogitia. Its territory was in the modern countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Sweden (Gotland). Most of the territory was conquered by military orders, after which German colonization occurred to varying effect.

During 1629, near the end of the Polish-Swedish War of 1626–29, the town was conquered by Swedish troops led by king Gustav II Adolph of Sweden personally. During the events of war the town suffered demolitions. [11] The town was conquered a second and third time by Sweden in 1656 and 1657 during the Second Northern War. On the latter occasion the castle was destroyed completely and has since then remained a ruin. After the war only 94 houses were inhabited, 103 stood empty and 35 were burned down. Also the suburbs had been damaged considerably. [12]

Theater Square in Brombergn (1911). Bydgoszcz016.jpg
Theater Square in Brombergn (1911).

The Treaty of Bromberg, agreed in 1657 by King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland and Elector Frederick William II of Brandenburg-Prussia, created a military alliance between Poland and Prussia while marking the withdrawal of Prussia from its alliance with Sweden.

In 1772, in the First Partition of Poland, the town was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia as Bromberg, and incorporated into the Netze District in West Prussia. At the time, the town was seriously depressed and semi-derelict. [13] Under Frederick the Great the town revived, notably with construction of a canal from Bromberg to Nakel (Nakło) which connected the north-flowing Vistula River via the Brda to the west-flowing Netze, which in turn flowed to the Oder via the Warta. [14]

In 1807, after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the signing of the Treaty of Tilsit, Bromberg became part of his short-lived Duchy of Warsaw. With Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Nations in 1815, the town was returned to Prussia as part of the Grand Duchy of Posen (Poznań), becoming the capital of the Bromberg Region. In 1871 the Province of Posen, along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, became part of the newly formed German Empire.

In the mid-19th century, the arrival of the Prussian Eastern Railway ( Preußische Ostbahn ) contributed greatly to the development of Bromberg. The first stretch, from Schneidemühl (Piła) to Bromberg, was opened in July 1851. The city grew from 12,900 in 1852 to 57,700 in 1910 – of whom 84 percent were ethnic Germans and 16 percent ethnic Poles (Polish minority in Germany), all holding German citizenships.

After World War I, despite the town's German majority, Bromberg was assigned to the recreated Polish state by the 1919 Versailles Treaty. Now officially Bydgoszcz again, the city belonged to the Poznań Voivodeship. The local populace was required to acquire Polish citizenship or leave the country. This led to a drastic decline in ethnically German residents (German minority in Poland), whose number within the town decreased to 11,016 in 1926. [15] In 1938, it was made part of the Polish Greater Pomerania.

Public execution of civilians caught in a street roundup on 9 September 1939. Public execution of Polish hostages in Bydgoszcz (1939).jpg
Public execution of civilians caught in a street roundup on 9 September 1939.

With the start of World War II on Sept. 1, 1939, Bydgoszcz was occupied by Nazi Germany and annexed to the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia as the seat of the district or county (kreis) of Bromberg. However, the annexation was not recognised in international law. Both ethnically German and Polish residents of the region died during the fighting, and Nazi propaganda used the deaths of ethnic Germans as a pretext for lethal reprisals against ethnic Poles. The execution of hundreds of residents, known as the Bloody Sunday massacre, occurred on 3 September 1939.

The history of Jews in Bydgoszcz ended with the German invasion of Poland and the Holocaust. The city's Jewish citizens, many of whom spoke German, were sent to Nazi death camps or murdered in the town itself. Bromberg was the site of Bromberg-Ost, a women's subcamp of Stutthof concentration camp near Danzig (Gdańsk). A deportation camp was situated in Smukała village, now part of Bydgoszcz. An estimated 3,700 citizens of Bydgoszcz – Jews and non-Jews – died during the Nazi occupation. [16]

In spring 1945 Bromberg was occupied by the advancing Red Army. Those German residents who had survived were expelled and the city was returned to Poland as Bydgoszcz. In the same year it was made the seat of the Pomeranian Voivodship, the northern part of which was soon separated to form Gdańsk Voivodship. The remaining part of the Pomeranian Voivodship was renamed Bydgoszcz Voivodeship in 1950. In March 1981, Solidarity's activists were violently suppressed in Bydgoszcz.

Population

Stare Miasto (Old Town) in Bydgoszcz Stary Rynek pln pierzeja panorama 1.jpg
Stare Miasto (Old Town) in Bydgoszcz
Main Post Office building in Bydgoszcz. Bdg PocztaGl bok 3 07-2013.jpg
Main Post Office building in Bydgoszcz.
Hotel "Pod Orlem" (Eagle Hotel), Bydgoszcz. Hotel ,,Pod Orlem", 1893-1896, Bydgoszcz by AW.jpg
Hotel "Pod Orlem" (Eagle Hotel), Bydgoszcz.
YearInhabitantsRemarks
1346-17713,500 to 5,000 [17] Mostly Polish wheat merchants and bargees [17]
1771≈ 1,000Including about 80% Catholics. The population declined as a result of the Great Northern War and plagues brought by the fighting armies. [17] (1700–1721)
1772≈ 600 [13]
17802,046Excluding military personnel [18]
17832,562In 337 households, excluding military personnel, including 27 Jews (three families) [18]
17883,077Excluding military personnel [19]
17923,915Excluding military personnel [19]
18166,100Including 41% Catholics
1831≈ 8,000 [13]
185212,900Mostly Germans, including 26% Catholics
187531,308 [20]
188034,044 [20]
188536,294 [20]
189041,39928,411 Protestants, 11,165 Catholics, 1,451 Jews and 372 others [20]
190052,204Including 34,415 Protestants, 15,663 Catholics and 1,519 Jews [20] [21]
191057,69637,008 Protestants, 18,539 Catholics and 2,149 others including Jews [20]
192188,000Including 64,000 Catholics and 22,500 Protestants (24,000 Germans) [22]
1939141,000
1946134,614
1975322,657
1998386,855
2012368,286
2014358,614

Main sights

The oldest building in the city is the Church of St Martin and Nicolaus, commonly known as Fara Church. It is a three-aisle late Gothic church, erected between 1466 and 1502, which boasts a late-Gothic painting entitled Madonna with a Rose or the Holy Virgin of Beautiful Love from the 16th century. The colourful 20th-century polychrome is also worth noticing.

19th-century water tower Bdg wiezacisnien 2 07-2013.jpg
19th-century water tower

The Church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin, commonly referred to as "The Church of Poor Clares," is a famous landmark of the city. It is a small, Gothic-Renaissance (including Neo-Renaissance additions), single-aisle church built between 1582–1602. The interior is rather austere since the church has been stripped of most of its furnishings. Not a surprising fact, considering that in the 19th century the Prussian authorities dissolved the Order of St Clare and turned the church into a warehouse, among other uses. Nonetheless, the church is worth visiting and inspecting. In particular the original wooden polychrome ceiling dating from the 17th century draws the attention of every visitor.

Wyspa Młyńska (Mill Island) is among the most spectacular and atmospheric places in Bydgoszcz. What makes it unique is the location in the very heart of the city centre, just a few steps from the old Market Square. It was the 'industrial' centre of Bydgoszcz in the Middle Ages and for several hundred years thereafter, and it was here that the famous royal mint operated in the 17th century. Most of the buildings which can still be seen on the island date from the 19th century, but the so-called Biały Spichlerz (the White Granary) recalls the end of the 18th century. However, it is the water, footbridges, historic red-brick tenement houses reflected in the rivers, and the greenery, including old chestnut trees, that create the unique atmosphere of the island.

The Old Port Granary built in 1835 Bdg SpichrzStrPort 7 07-2013.jpg
The Old Port Granary built in 1835

"Hotel pod Orłem" (Hotel Adler or The Eagle Hotel), an icon of the city's 19th-century architecture, was designed by the distinguished Bydgoszcz architect Józef Święcicki, the author of around sixty buildings in the city. Completed in 1896, it served as a hotel from the very beginning and was originally owned by Emil Bernhardt, a hotel manager educated in Switzerland. Its façade displays forms characteristic of the Neo-baroque style in architecture.

Saint Vincent de Paul's Basilica, erected between 1925 and 1939, is the largest church in Bydgoszcz and one of the biggest in Poland. It can accommodate around 12,000 people. This monumental church, modelled after the Pantheon in Rome, was designed by the Polish architect Adam Ballenstaedt. The most characteristic element of the neo-classical temple is the reinforced concrete dome 40 metres in diameter.

The three granaries in Grodzka Street, picturesquely located on the Brda River in the immediate vicinity of the old Market Square, are the official symbol of the city. Built at the turn of the 19th century, they were originally used to store grain and similar products, but now house exhibitions of the City's Leon Wyczółkowski District Museum.

The city is mostly associated with water, sports, Art Nouveau buildings, waterfront, music, and urban greenery. It is worth noting that Bydgoszcz boasts the largest city park in Poland (830 ha). The city was also once famous for its industry.

Unfortunately, some great monuments were destroyed, for example the church in the Old Market Square and the Municipal Theatre. Additionally, the Old Town lost a few characteristic tenement houses, including the western frontage of the Market Square. The city also lost its Gothic castle and defensive walls. In Bydgoszcz there is a great number of villas in the concept of garden suburbs.

Buildings on the Brda (German: Brahe) River, with the 2004 Tightrope sculpture. Widok z mostu Sulimy-Kaminskiego w Bydg zmierzch panorama1.jpg
Buildings on the Brda (German: Brahe) River, with the 2004 Tightrope sculpture.

Economy

In the city there are 38 banks represented through a network of 116 branches (including the headquarters of the Postal Bank), whilst 37 insurance companies also have offices in the city. JP Morgan Chase, one of the largest financial institutions in the world, has established a branch in Bydgoszcz. Most industrial complexes are scattered throughout the city, however, the 'Zachem' chemical works deserves attention, covering tens of square kilometers in the south-east of the city, the remnants of the German explosives factory built in World War II occupy an area which has its own rail lines, internal communication, housing, and large forested area.

Since 2000, Bydgoszcz has been annually subjected to international 'verification' ratings. In February 2008 the Agency 'Fitch Ratings', recategorised the city, increasing its rating from BBB-(stable forecast) to BBB (stable estimate).

In 2004, Bydgoszcz launched an Industrial and Technology Park of 283 hectares, an attractive place for doing business as companies which relocate there receive tax breaks, 24-hour security, access to large plots of land and to the media, the railway line Chorzów Batory – Tczew (passenger, coal), the DK5 and DK10 national roads, and future freeways S10 and S5. Bydgoszcz airport is also close by.

The city has, in recent years, become one of Poland's most important economic centres. This is especially true for the role the city plays in the economy of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, of which it is, along with Toruń, capital.

Major corporations

Culture

Baroque Revival tenement house at Plac Wolnosci 1 Bydgoszcz Pl Wolnosci zmierzch jasny.jpg
Baroque Revival tenement house at Plac Wolności 1

Bydgoszcz is a major cultural center in the country, especially for music. Traditions of the municipal theater date back to the 17th century, when the Jesuit college built a theater. In 1824, a permanent theater building was erected, and this was rebuilt in 1895 in a monumental form by the Berlin architect Heinrich Seeling. The first music school was established in Bydgoszcz in 1904; it had close links to the very well-known European piano factory of Bruno Sommerfeld. Numerous orchestras and choirs, both German (Gesangverein, Liedertafel) and Polish (St. Wojciech Halka, Moniuszko), have also made the city their home. Since 1974, Bydgoszcz has been home to a very prestigious Academy of Music. Bydgoszcz is also an important place for contemporary European culture; one of the most important European centers of jazz music, the Brain club, was founded in Bydgoszcz by Jacek Majewski and Slawomir Janicki.

Bydgoszcz was a candidate for the title of European Capital of Culture in 2016. [24]

Museums

The town museum on Gdanska Street, originally 17th-century nunnery Klasztor klarysek 0732.jpg
The town museum on Gdańska Street, originally 17th-century nunnery

Muzeum Okręgowe im. Leona Wyczółkowskiego (Leon Wyczółkowski District Museum) is a municipally-owned museum. Apart from a large collection of Leon Wyczółkowski's works, it houses permanent as well as temporary exhibitions of art. It is based in several buildings, including the old granaries on the Brda River and Mill Island.

In Bydgoszcz the Pomeranian Military Museum specializes in documenting 19th- and 20th-century Polish military history, particularly the history of the Pomeranian Military District and several other units present in the area.

The city has many art galleries, two symphony orchestras and chamber[ clarification needed ] and choirs. Bydgoszcz's cultural facilities also include libraries, including the Provincial and Municipal Public Library with an extensive collection of volumes from the 15th to the 19th centuries, and old books from Germany.

Classical music

Theatre

Pomeranian Philharmonic Orchestra House Filharmonia Pomorska AW.jpg
Pomeranian Philharmonic Orchestra House

Teatr Polski im Hieronima Konieczki (Hieronim Konieczka's Polish Theatre): Despite its name, the theatre offers a wide variety of shows both of national and foreign origin. It also regularly plays hosts to a large number of touring shows. Founded in 1949, since 2002 the theatre has taken part in the "Festiwal Prapremier" where the most renowned Polish theatres stage their latest premieres. There are also a number of private theatre companies operating in Bydgoszcz.

In the years 1960–1986 there was an outdoor theater, the reactivation of which is currently being pursued by the Theatre Culture Association, "Fides" and the Acting School A. Grzymala-Siedlecki.

Opera Nova on the Brda River bank Bdg OperaNova 8 07-2013.jpg
Opera Nova on the Brda River bank

The Pomeranian Philharmonic named after Ignacy Jan Paderewski has existed since 1953. The concert hall, which can hold 920 people is classified, in terms of sound, as one of the best in Europe, which is confirmed by well-known artists and critics (including J. Waldorff). Due to the phenomenon of acoustics, it attracts the interest of many famous artists. Bydgoszcz's stage has been frequented by many global celebrities, including Arthur Rubinstein, Benjamin Britten, Witold Malcuzynski, Luciano Pavarotti, Shlomo Mintz, Mischa Maisky, Kevin Kenner, Kurt Masur, Kazimierz Kord, Jerzy Maksymiuk and Antoni Wit. In recent years, the city has also hosted an excellent range of bands such as the BBC Radio Symphony Orchestra, the National Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra and others.

The Opera Nova, in existence since 1956, started the construction of a new building in 1974 which was to consist of three main halls, situated on the Brda. The Opera Nova has become a cultural showcase of Bydgoszcz in the world. Considering the short history of the Opera, its success has been astounding; a large number of famous opera singers have performed there and theatrical troops from the Wrocław Opera, Theater of Leningrad, Moscow, Kiev, Minsk and Gulbenkian Foundation of Lisbon have also made appearances.

Cinematography

Education

Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz Wydzial Matematyki, Fizyki i Techniki, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy.jpg
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz

Transport

Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport Bydgoszcz-0492 IMG.jpg
Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport

Airports

Railways

Bydgoszcz is one of the biggest railway junctions in Poland, with two important lines crossing there – the east-west connection from Toruń to Pila and the north-south line from Inowrocław to Gdańsk (see: Polish Coal Trunk-Line). There are also secondary-importance lines stemming from the city, to Szubin and to Chełmża. Among rail stations located in the city, there are:

BydgoszczGlowna ww5 11-2015.jpg
BydgoszczGlowna z4 11-2015.jpg
Main railway station in Bydgoszcz
  • Bydgoszcz Zachód
  • Bydgoszcz Łęgnowo
  • Bydgoszcz Bielawy
  • Bydgoszcz Osowa Góra
  • Bydgoszcz Fordon
Tram in Bydgoszcz Pesa 122NaB Swing.JPG
Tram in Bydgoszcz

Buses and trams

Sports

The sport, show and fair arena Luczniczka. Bdg halaLuczniczka 17 07-2013.jpg
The sport, show and fair arena Łuczniczka .
Zdzislaw Krzyszkowiak Stadium Stadion Zawiszy Bydgoszcz trybuna B.jpg
Zdzisław Krzyszkowiak Stadium

Sports clubs

Sports facilities

Sports events

Politics

Bydgoszcz constituency

Members of Polish Sejm 2007–2011 elected from Bydgoszcz constituency:

Members of Polish Senate 2007–2011 elected from Bydgoszcz constituency:

International relations

Twin towns and friendship relations

Luczniczka (The Archeress), Ferdinand Lepcke, 1897 Bydgoszcz Luczniczka.JPG
Łuczniczka (The Archeress), Ferdinand Lepcke, 1897
Twin Towns
City/TownCountryYear
  Reggio Emilia Flag of Italy.svg Italy 12.04.1962
  Kragujevac [26] Flag of Serbia.svg Serbia 23.07.1971
  Mannheim [27] Flag of Germany.svg Germany 26.11.1991
  Hartford Flag of the United States.svg United States 30.09.1996
  Pavlodar Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan 10.04.1997
  Perth Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland [28] 9.05.1998
  Cherkasy Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine 13.09.2000
  Kremenchuk Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine 30.06.2004
  Patras Flag of Greece.svg Greece 8.10.2004 [29]
  Ningbo Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 28.12.2005
  Wilhelmshaven Flag of Germany.svg Germany 19.04.2006
  Pitești Flag of Romania.svg Romania 22.06.2007 [30] [31]
  Sliven Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria 9.09.2019

Legends

It is also said that Pan Twardowski spent some time in the city of Bydgoszcz, where, in his memory, a figure was recently mounted in a window of a tenement, overseeing the Old Town. At 1:13 p.m. and 9:13 p.m. the window opens and Pan Twardowski appears, to the accompaniment of weird music and devilish laughter. He takes a bow, waves his hand, and then disappears. This little show gathers crowds of amused spectators.

People born in Bydgoszcz

See also

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References

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Further reading