|Location on the map of Poland|
|Land area||5989 km²|
|Kuyavia coat of arms|
Kuyavia (Polish : Kujawy; German : Kujawien; Latin : Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło. It is divided into three traditional parts: north-western (with the capital in Bydgoszcz, ethnographically regarded often as non-Kuyavian), central (the capital in Inowrocław or Kruszwica), and south-eastern (the capital in Włocławek or Brześć Kujawski).
The name Kuyavia first appeared in written sources in the 1136 Bull of Gniezno (Polish : Bulla Gnieźnieńska, Latin: Ex commisso nobis) issued by Pope Innocent II, and was then mentioned in many documents from medieval times. It is also mentioned in the chronicles of Wincenty Kadłubek.
In the north, Kuyavia borders with the historic regions of Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomerelia) and Chełmno Land, in the west with proper (exact) Greater Poland, in the south with Łęczyca Land and in the east with Masovia and Dobrzyń Land. The borders of Kuyavia stretch out on the left bank of Vistula River: from the mouth of Skrwa Lewa in the south-east, almost to the mouth of the Wda River to the north. The borders of Kuyavia spread out to the west from Koronowo and Nakło to the Noteć River where they turn south-west, cross Trląg Lake, and on to Strzelneński Forest, reaching Skulski Lake and the upper Noteć River. The borders also enclose Brdowski Lake, Przedecz and Lubień Kujawski through the Skrwa Lewa, ending at the Vistula River.
The Kuyavia lowlands have an average high of 100–130 meters above sea level, is post-glacial landscape, slightly undulating, in some places there are moraine hills elevations and sandy gravel embankments. In deep dykes and depressions is about 600 lakes with surface higher than 1 kilometre, under ice formation there are layers of rock-salt and potassium, under the Tertiary Period there are lignite and ceramic clay. In Kuyavia there are black fertile soils, thanks to which Kuyavia is called “the granary of Poland”.
The episcopal see of Kuyavia was probably Kruszwica, and later Włocławek (after the episcopal See in the early 12th century). The capital of this Duchy, and - from the late 14th century - the residences of the Voivode governors were Inowrocław, Brześć Kujawski, and Radziejów as the seat of the shared regional Sejmik council of the two voivodeships. Today, the biggest center of Kuyavia is Bydgoszcz,however it is often considered non-kujavian. Also the southern part of Toruń (Podgórz) lies in the historical region.
Some ethnographers and historians, for example Oskar Kolberg and Zygmunt Gloger, count the lands of Dobrzyń and Chełmno north-east of the Vistula as parts of the Kuyavia region.
The Linear Pottery culture existed in the area.The earliest solid evidence of cheese-making, dating to 5,500 BC, was found in Kuyavia.
The beginnings of the state in Kuyavia are connected with the tribal state of the West Slavic Goplans. The Goplans, which some researchers identify with the Mazowszanie-Kłobianie or simply with the Kuyavians, had created a country with the main centers in Kruszwica on the northern shore of Lake Gopło. During the 10th century, their territory was conquered by another West Slavic tribe, the Polans settling in the adjacent Greater Polish land around Poznań and Gniezno and upon the death of Duke Mieszko I of Poland in 992, the Kuyavia lands were part of his Civitas Schinesghe as circumscribed in the Dagome iudex papal regesta.
According to Andrzej Bańkowski, the Polans had moved into the region of Greater Poland after they had to leave together with the Morawianie, their former Pannonian territories, conquered by the Avars. According to some sources, during the war with the Goplans, the Polans were supported by a Great Moravian army. As a result of occupation of the Goplans’ territory, the lands of Kuyavia were under the strong influence of the Pannonian culture and they lost their primary Masovian spirit.
When the name Cuiavia arose for the first time in the 1136 Bull of Gniezno, it referred to the lands east of Greater Poland around Kruszwica and Włocławek, bordering with the Vistula river. The bull confirmed the position of the Bishopric of Kuyavia at Włocławek as a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Gniezno.
In the times of the Polish fragmentation upon the 1138 Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty, Kuyavia at first became part of the Duchy of Masovia under Bolesław IV the Curly and his son Leszek; it was claimed by the Polish High Duke Casimir II the Just in 1186, contested by his elder brother Mieszko III the Old and his son Bolesław. Casimir's son Duke Konrad I of Masovia in 1233 created the Duchy of Kuyavia for his second son Casimir I. When Casimir's elder brother Duke Bolesław I of Masovia died in 1248, he took the occasion and took Dobrzyń Land east of the Vistula River from the heritage of his younger brother Siemowit I. Upon Casimir's death 1267, the Duchy of Kuyavia was divided by his sons Leszek II the Black (d. 1288), Ziemomysł (d. 1287) and Władysław I the Elbow-high into the two separate duchies of Inowrocław and Brześć-Kujawy.
In 1306 Ziemomysł's son Casimir II swore allegiance to his uncle Władysław I, who began to re-unite the Lands of the Polish Crown under his rule. The duchy was devastated during the Polish–Teutonic War of 1326–32, culminating in the 1331 Battle of Płowce, but was finally restored by the Teutonic Knights in the 1343 Treaty of Kalisz. With the death of Casimir's son Władysław the White in 1388, the Kuyavian line of the Piast dynasty became extinct. After the union of Polish lands in the 14th century, the division into provinces and counties was introduced. That division finalized in the 15th century, existed until the dissolution of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795. Kuyavia was divided into the two administrative divisions of Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship and Inowrocław Voivodeship. The voivodeship of Brześć-Kujawy was further divided into five powiats: Brześć, Kowal, Kruszwica, Przedecz and Radziejów, while the Inowrocław province was divided into the Bydgoszcz and Inowrocław powiats and Dobrzyń Land east of the Vistula.
As a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 the Kingdom of Prussia took a considerable part of Inowrocław and the western part of Brześć-Kujawy as part of the Netze District. After the Second Partition of 1793 the whole of Kuyavia was taken by Prussia and incorporated into the South Prussia province. Upon the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit, it was part of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw and administrated within the Bydgoszcz Department.
In 1815 under the provisions of the Congress of Vienna, Kuyavia was divided between the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland remaining in a personal union with the Russian Empire) and the Kingdom of Prussia. While the Brześć-Kujawy province (counties: Aleksandrów, Radziejów and Włocławek) remained with the Masovia Governorate of Congress Poland, Inowrocław (Hohensalza) was incorporated into the Prussian Grand Duchy of Posen. That division outlasted the 1871 unification of Germany until the end of World War I.
In times of Second Polish Republic, from 1918, the western part of Kuyavia belonged to Poznański province, and the other part, eastern, belonged to the Warsaw province. In 1938 almost all Kuyavia became a part of Pomeranian province. In 1934 the Muzeum Nadgoplańskie in Kruszwica was built. It was opened in 1939, and it had valuable collection of ethnographical objects, inter alia: furniture and clothing. During World War II almost all of Kuyavia was in the borders of Warta District “Warthegau”,except the region of Bydgoszcz that was joined to the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (German: Gau Danzig-Westpreußen).
In the years 1945-1975 Kuyavia was in the borders of Bydgoszcz province. Włocławek province was created in 1975, and the western part of Kuyavia remained in Bydgoszcz province. In 1999 almost the whole of Kuyavia was joined to the Kuyavian-Pomeranian province. Furthermore, small parts of the region were included in the borders of Masovia (regions between the border of the province and Skrwa Lewa River) and Greater Poland province (Przedecz, Wierzbinek).
|City||Population (2015)||Voivodeship in 1750||Voivodeship in 2016||City rights||Additional information|
|1.||Bydgoszcz||359,428||Inowrocław||Kuyavian-Pomeranian||1346||Former royal city of Poland, part of the Bydgoszcz–Toruń metropolitan area.|
|2.||Włocławek||114,885||Brześć Kujawski||Kuyavian-Pomeranian||1255||Historical capital of Kuyavia.|
|3.||Inowrocław||75,001||Inowrocław||Kuyavian-Pomeranian||1237/38||Spa town, former voivodeship capital.|
|4.||Solec Kujawski||15,642||Inowrocław||Kuyavian-Pomeranian||1325||Part of the Bydgoszcz–Toruń metropolitan area.|
|5.||Aleksandrów Kujawski||12,515||Inowrocław||Kuyavian-Pomeranian||1919||Part of the Bydgoszcz–Toruń metropolitan area.|
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, also known as Cuiavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship or simply Kujawsko-Pomorskie, or Kujawy-Pomerania Province is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided. It was created on 1 January 1999 and is situated in mid-northern Poland, on the boundary between the two historic regions from which it takes its name: Kuyavia and Pomerania. Its two chief cities, serving as the province's joint capitals, are Bydgoszcz and Toruń.
Władysław I Łokietek, in English known as the "Elbow-high" or Ladislaus the Short was King of Poland from 1320 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years. He was a member of the royal Piast dynasty, the son of Duke Casimir I of Kuyavia, and great-grandson of High-Duke Casimir II the Just.
The Duchy of Greater Poland was a district principality in Greater Poland that was a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Poland. It was formed in 1138 from the territories of the Kingdom of Poland, following its fragmentation started by the testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth. In 1177, the state broke had separated into the duchies of Poznań, Gniezno and Kalisz, and united again in 1279, lasting in that form until 1320, when it was incorporated back into the Kingdom of Poland. Its capital was Poznań.
Bolesław the Pious was a Duke of Greater Poland during 1239–1247, Duke of Kalisz during 1247–1249, Duke of Gniezno during 1249–1250, Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz during 1253–1257, Duke of whole Greater Poland and Poznań during 1257–1273, in 1261 ruler over Ląd, regent of the Duchies of Mazovia, Płock and Czersk during 1262–1264, ruler over Bydgoszcz during 1268–1273, Duke of Inowrocław during 1271–1273, and Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz from 1273 until his death.
Inowrocław is a city in north-central Poland with a total population of 72,561 in December 2019. It is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, previously in the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is one of the largest and historically most significant cities within Kuyavia.
Noteć is a river in central Poland with a length of 391 km (243 mi) and a basin area of 17,302 km2 (6,680 sq mi). It is the largest tributary of the Warta river and lies completely within Poland.
Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland, from the 14th century to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793. It was part of the historic Kujawy region and the Greater Polish prowincja. Originally, its name was Brzesc Voivodeship, but after the 1569 Union of Lublin, it was renamed into Brzesc Kujawski Voivodeship, to distinguish it from Lithuanian Brest Litovsk Voivodeship.
Inowrocław Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from the 14th century to the First Partition of Poland in 1772. Together with the neighbouring Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship it was part of the Kuyavia region and the Greater Polish prowincja.
Duchy of Masovia was a district principality and a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Poland, existing during the Middle Ages. The state was centered in Mazovia in the northeastern Kingdom of Poland, and during its existence, its capital was located in the Płock, Czersk and Warsaw. It was formed in 1138 from the territories of the Kingdom of Poland, following its fragmentation, that was started by the testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth. The country existed in the years: 1138–1275, 1294–1310, 1370–1381, and 1495–1526, between that time, going through fragmentations of its territory into smaller duchies and its unification. The states formed during its fragmentation were duchies of Kuyavia, Dobrzyń, Czersk, Płock, Warsaw, Rawa and Belz. In 1526, the country was incorporated into the Kingdom of Poland.
Brześć Kujawski, often anglicized to Kuyavian Brest, is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland. Once a royal seat of Kuyavia, the town has been the seat of one of two small duchies into which Kuyavia has been temporarily divided. According to a census done on 31 December 2010, the town has a population of 4,603.
Dobrzyń Land is a historic region, with the capital in the town of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, in central-northern Poland, within the Greater Poland, between Mazovia and Prussia. It lies northeast of the Vistula River, south of the Drwęca, and west of the Skrwa. The territory approximately corresponds with the present-day powiats of Lipno, Rypin, and half of Golub-Dobrzyń within the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, although it encompasses parts of other counties as well. Totally, it has about 3,000 km2 and 200,000 inhabitants.
Przedecz is a historic town in Koło County in the Greater Poland Voivodeship of Poland, with 1,779 inhabitants (2006).
Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the lowest rank of territorial official who could sit in the Senate of Poland. Their numbers varied over time and with the shifting borders of the Commonwealth.
Ziemomysł of Inowrocław, was a Polish prince, member of the House of Piast, duke of Inowrocław during 1267-1271 and 1278–1287, and ruler over Bydgoszcz during 1267-1269 and 1278–1287.
Casimir I of Kuyavia was a Polish prince and a member of the House of Piast. He was Duke of Kujawy after 1233, ruler over Ląd from 1239-1261, ruler over Wyszogród after 1242, Duke of Sieradz from 1247-1261, Duke of Łęczyca after 1247, and Duke of Dobrzyń after 1248.
Bolesław I of Masovia, was Polish prince member of the Polish House of Piast, Duke of Sandomierz during 1229-1232, Duke of Dobrzyń during 1233-1247 and Duke over whole Masovia during 1247-1248.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska, is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief and largest city is Poznań followed by Kalisz, the oldest city in Poland.
Siemowit of Dobrzyń, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Brześć Kujawski during 1267–1288, Duke of Dobrzyń during 1288–1293, 1295–1303 and 1305–1312, during 1293–1295 in captivity in Lithuania, during 1303–1305 deposed, after 1306 hereditary vassal of the Kingdom of Poland.
Przemysł of Inowrocław, was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Inowrocław during 1287-1314, after 1300 vassal of King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, Duke of Dobrzyń during 1303-1305, after 1306 vassal of the Kingdom of Poland, Governor of the Duchy of Pomerelia during 1306-1309, after 1314 ruler over Bydgoszcz and Wyszogród, Duke of Inowrocław after 1320/24, in 1327 he exchange Inowrocław for Sieradz.
IV liga Cuyavia-Pomerania group is one of the groups of IV liga, the 5th level of Polish football league system. The league was created in season 2000/2001 after introducing new administrative division of Poland. Until the end of the 2007/08 season IV liga was placed at 4th tier of league system but this was changed with the formation of the Ekstraklasa as the top-level league in Poland.
The clubs from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship compete in this group. The winner of the league is promoted to III liga group II. The bottom teams are relegated to the groups of Liga okręgowa from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. These groups are Cuyavia-Pomerania I and Cuyavia-Pomerania II.
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