Last updated
Map of the Roman empire and contemporary indigenous Europe in AD 125, showing the location of the Rugii, who lived in the proximity of the Lemovii. Roman Empire 125.png
Map of the Roman empire and contemporary indigenous Europe in AD 125, showing the location of the Rugii, who lived in the proximity of the Lemovii.

The Lemovii were a Germanic tribe, only once named by Tacitus in the late 1st century. [1] [2] He noted that they lived near the Rugii and Goths and that they had short swords and round shields. [1] [2]


The Oksywie culture is associated with parts of the Rugii and Lemovii. [2] Also, the Plöwen group (German : Plöwener Gruppe) of the Uecker-Randow region is associated with the Lemovii. [3]

The archaeological Dębczyn group might comprise the remnants of the Lemovii, probably identical with Widsith's Glommas, who are believed to have been the neighbors of the Rugii, a tribe dwelling at the Baltic Sea coast in today's Pomerania region before the migration period. [4] [5] Both "Lemovii" and "Glommas" translate to "the barking". [5] Germanic sagas report a battle on the isle of Hiddensee between king Hetel (Hethin, Heodin of the Glommas) and Rugian king Hagen, following the abduction of Hagen's daughter Hilde by Hetel. [4] Yet, there are also other hypotheses about the location of the Lemovii, and that their identification as Glommas, though probable, is not certain. [4]

The Lemovii have also been equated with Jordanes' Turcilingi, together with the Rugii with Ptolemy's Rhoutikleioi, also with Ptolemy's Leuonoi and with the Leonas of the Widsith. [5]

See also

Related Research Articles


The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany, in the area possibly near present-day Hanover, during the first centuries BC and AD. Ethnically, Pliny the Elder groups them with their neighbours, the Suebi and Chatti, as well as the Hermunduri, as Hermiones, one of the Germanic groupings said to descend from an ancestor named Mannus. They led an important war against the Roman Empire. Subsequently, they were probably absorbed into the late classical Germanic tribal groups such as the Saxons, Thuringians, Franks, Bavarians and Allemanni.

Rugii historical ethnical group

The Rugii, also Rugians, Rygir, Ulmerugi, or Holmrygir were an East Germanic tribe who migrated from southwest Norway to Pomerania around 100 AD, and from there to the Danube River valley. They were allies of Attila until his death in 453, and settled in what is now Austria after the defeat of the Huns at Nedao in 453.

The Lentienses were a 4th-century Germanic tribe associated with the Alemanni, in the region between the river Danube in the North, the river Iller in the East, and Lake Constance in the South, in what is now southern Germany. They were reported to be one of the most rebellious tribes at the time. There are only two mentions of the Lentienses, both by the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus (330–395).


The names Varini (Tacitus), Varinnae, Ούίρουνοι or Viruni (Ptolemy), Varni or Οὐάρνων (Procopius), Wærne/Werne (Widsith) and Warnii probably refer to a little-known Germanic tribe. The name supposedly meant "defenders", "living by the river". They originally lived in northern Germany, but may have moved to the west during the Migration Era. In English they were called Werns or Warns. They are often called Warni and Warini in Modern English. The earliest mention of this tribe appears in Tacitus' Germania, where he wrote:

(Original Latin) "Reudigni deinde et Aviones et Anglii et Varini et Eudoses et Suardones et Nuithones fluminibus aut silvis muniuntur. Nec quicquam notabile in singulis, nisi quod in commune Nerthum, id est Terram matrem, colunt eamque intervenire rebus hominum, invehi populis arbitrantur. ..." --Tacitus, Germania, 40.

(English translation) "There follow in order the Reudignians, and Aviones, and Angles, and Varinians, and Eudoses, and Suardones and Nuithones; all defended by rivers or forests. Nor in one of these nations does aught remarkable occur, only that they universally join in the worship of Herthum (Nerthus); that is to say, the Mother Earth."--Tacitus, Germania, 40, translated 1877 by Church and Brodribb.

Agri Decumates

The Agri Decumates or Decumates Agri were a region of the Roman Empire's provinces of Germania superior and Raetia; covering the Black Forest, Swabian Jura, and Franconian Jura areas between the Rhine, Main, and Danube rivers; in present southwestern Germany, including present Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Freiburg im Breisgau, and Weißenburg in Bayern. The only ancient reference to the name comes from Tacitus' book Germania. However the later geographer Claudius Ptolemy does mention "the desert of the Helvetians" in this area.

Dębczyn culture archaeological culture

The Dębczyn culture is an archeological culture in Pomerania from the 3rd to 6th centuries. It was derived from the neighboring Wielbark culture with influences from the Elbe region. The culture was superseded as the result of the later migrations of West Slavs, in particular of the Pomeranians.

Germanische Altertumskunde Online, formerly called Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, is a German encyclopedia of the study of Germanic history and cultures, as well as the cultures that were in close contact with them.

Elbe Germanic Theoretical Germanic protolanguage

Elbe Germanic, also called Irminonic, is a term introduced by the German linguist Friedrich Maurer (1898–1984) in his book, Nordgermanen und Alemanen, to describe the unattested proto-language, or dialectal grouping, ancestral to the later Alemannic, Lombardic, Thuringian and Bavarian dialects. During Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, its supposed descendants had a profound influence on the neighboring West Central German dialects and, later, in the form of Standard German, on the German language as a whole.

Weser-Rhine Germanic

Weser-Rhine Germanic is a term introduced by the German linguist Friedrich Maurer for the group of prehistoric West Germanic dialects ancestral to Low Franconian and Rhine Franconian, and ultimately to Dutch and the West Central German dialects. It is a replacement for the older term Istvaeonic, with which it is essentially synonymous. The term Rhine-Weser-Germanic is sometimes preferred.

Early history of Pomerania

After the glaciers of the Ice Age in the Early Stone Age withdrew from the area, which since about 1000 AD is called Pomerania, in what are now northern Germany and Poland, they left a tundra. First humans appeared, hunting reindeer in the summer. A climate change in 8000 BC allowed hunters and foragers of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture to continuously inhabit the area. These people became influenced by farmers of the Linear Pottery culture who settled in southern Pomerania. The hunters of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture became farmers of the Funnelbeaker culture in 3000 BC. The Havelland culture dominated in the Uckermark from 2500 to 2000 BC. In 2400 BC, the Corded Ware culture reached Pomerania and introduced the domestic horse. Both Linear Pottery and Corded Ware culture have been associated with Indo-Europeans. Except for Western Pomerania, the Funnelbeaker culture was replaced by the Globular Amphora culture a thousand years later.

The Gustow group is an archaeological culture of the Roman Iron Age in Western Pomerania. The Gustow group is associated with the Germanic tribe of the Rugii.

The Rugini were a tribe in Pomerania. They were only mentioned once, in a list of yet to mission tribes drawn by monk Bede in his Historia ecclesiastica of the early 8th century:

Sunt autem Fresones, Rugini, Danai, Hunni, Antiqui Saxones, Boructuari; sunt alii perplures hisdem in partibus populi paganis adhuc ritibus servientis.

The Prissani or Pyritzans were a medieval tribe in Pomerania. They were first mentioned as "Prissani" with 70 civitas by the Bavarian Geographer, ca. 845. They are associated with the Pomeranians, and were based in the lower Oder region around the modern town of Pyrzyce (Pyritz). The mention in the Bavarian Geographer is the only written record referring to the tribe.


Mattium was the ancient "capital" or principal settlement of the Chatti. Its exact location is unknown, though following the description of Tacitus it is generally assumed to be somewhere in the wider neighbourhood of Fritzlar in northern Hesse (Germany).

Hariulfus Burgundian prince

Hariulf was a Burgundian prince during the 4th century.

Numerus Batavorum

The numerus Batavorum, also called the cohors Germanorum, Germani corporis custodes, Germani corpore custodes,, Imperial German Bodyguard or Germanic bodyguard was a personal, imperial guards unit for the Roman emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty composed of Germanic soldiers. Although the Praetorians may be considered the Roman Emperor's main bodyguard, the Germanic bodyguards were a unit of more personal guards recruited from distant parts of the Empire, so they had no political or personal connections with Rome or the provinces.

The Latin name Abnoba Mons is the name of a mountain range that was already known to ancient authors Pliny and Tacitus. The name has been traditionally, primarily associated in historical research with the Black Forest. Ptolemy used the toponym in his A.D. 150 publication, Geographia, as a mountain range lying within Germania magna (ὄρη) with its southern extent at 31° 49' and its northern extremity at 31° 52'. The geographer clearly did not restrict this name to present day Black Forest, but to an entire mountain chain.

Elbe Germanic peoples

The Elbe Germanii or Elbe Germanic peoples were Germanic tribes whose settlement area, based on archaeological finds, lay either side of the Elbe estuary on both sides of the river and which extended as far as Bohemia and Moravia, clearly the result of a migration up the Elbe river from the northwest in advance of the main Migration Period until the individual groups ran into the Roman Danube Limes around 200 AD.

The Gambrivii were a Germanic tribe. They are first mentioned by Strabo in Geographica as the Gamabrivii. He writes that they were connected to the Chatti, the Chattuari and the Cherusci. This means that they probably lived near the Weser.



  1. 1 2 The Works of Tacitus: The Oxford Translation, Revised, With Notes, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008, p.836, ISBN   0-559-47335-4
  2. 1 2 3 J. B. Rives on Tacitus, Germania, Oxford University Press, 1999, p.311, ISBN   0-19-815050-4
  3. Horst Keiling, Archäologische Funde von der frührömischen Kaiserzeit bis zum Mittelalter aus den mecklenburgischen Bezirken, Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Schwerin, 1984, p.8
  4. 1 2 3 Johannes Hoops, Herbert Jankuhn, Heinrich Beck, Rosemarie Muller, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, 2nd edition, Walter de Gruyter, 2001, pp.158,159, ISBN   3-11-016950-9
  5. 1 2 3 Johannes Hoops et al, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, Walter de Gruyter, pp.258-259, ISBN   3-11-016950-9