Buri tribe

Last updated
Map of the Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing the location of the Buri in the northern Carpathian Mountains Roman Empire 125.png
Map of the Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing the location of the Buri in the northern Carpathian Mountains

The Buri were a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus, where they initially "close the back" of the Marcomanni and Quadi of Bohemia and Moravia. It is said that their speech and customs were like those of the Suebi. Such a statement implies that the Buri had recently come from the direction of the Baltic Sea, as other Germanic settlers in Bohemia and Moravia were newcomers, having driven out the Celtic Boii and taken their lands. In Tacitus, the Buri are not linked to the Lugii.

Ptolemy, however, mentions the Lougoi Bouroi (transliterated by the scholars into Latin Lugi Buri) dwelling in what is today southern Poland between the Elbe, the modern Sudetes, and the upper Vistula. They are distinct from the Silingi (Vandals), who are on the upper Oder. Tacitus and Ptolemy together imply that the Buri may have entered Moravia from Suebia with the Marcomanni and Quadi and then moved into the upper Vistula region, where they allied themselves with the Lugii there.

The fate of the Buri seems tied to that of the Danubian tribes, as they joined the Marcomanni-inspired invasion of the empire in the 2nd century AD, going against the emperor, Marcus Aurelius (Julius Capitolinus, Life of Marcus Aurelius). The latter became a tougher adversary than the Germans had suspected and so many tribes, including the Buri, made a separate peace. They were well rewarded by the Romans for doing so, but they then had to face the vengeance of their old allies (Cassius Dio, Books 72-73).

After the death of Marcus, and further Germanic unrest, the Buri petitioned his son, Commodus, for peace. At this point they were destitute, having spent their resources on war. As they now met the empire's qualifications for financial aid; to wit, being destitute and potentially dangerous, they received it. The Marcomanni were enjoined from seeking retaliation. Since they themselves were now destitute and seeking terms, they complied, as far as we know.

The Buri now bow off stage. Very likely, their destiny was like that of the other Germanic peoples along the Danube; that is, they either merged with other tribes in Silesia, or they left their homes to join others in their migrations.

A contingent of the Buri accompanied the Suebi in their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and established themselves in modern northern Portugal in the 5th century. [1] They settled in the region between the rivers Cávado and Homem, in the area known as Terras de Bouro (Lands of the Buri). [2]

See also

Notes

  1. Domingos Maria da Silva, "De Buricis (Acerca dos Búrios)", Bracara Augusta, 36, 1982, pp. 237-68.
  2. Domingos Maria da Silva, Os Búrios, Terras de Bouro, Câmara Municipal de Terras de Bouro, 2006. (in Portuguese)

Related Research Articles

Marcomanni Historical ethnical group

The Marcomanni were a group of early Germanic peoples that eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire. According to Tacitus and Strabo, they were Suebian.

Suebi Historical ethnic grouping of Germanic tribes

The Suebi were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names such as the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, and Lombards. New groupings formed later such as the Alamanni and Bavarians and two kingdoms in the Migration Period were simply referred to as Suebian.

Irminones

The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones, were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st century AD expanding into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. Notably this included the large sub-group of the Suevi, that itself contained many different tribal groups, but the Irminones also for example included the Chatti.

Quadi

The Quadi were an early Germanic people who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire. The only known information about the Germanic tribe the Romans called the 'Quadi' comes through reports of the Romans themselves, whose empire had its border on the River Danube just to the south of the Quadi. They associated the Quadi with their neighbours the Marcomanni, and described both groups as having entered the region after the Celtic Boii had left it deserted. The Quadi are thought to have been an important part of the Suebian group who crossed the Rhine with the Vandals and Alans in the 406 Crossing of the Rhine, and later founded a kingdom in northwestern Iberia.

Lugii

The Lugii were a large tribal confederation mentioned by Roman authors living in ca. 100 BC–300 AD in Central Europe, north of the Sudetes mountains in the basin of upper Oder and Vistula rivers, covering most of modern south and middle Poland.

Hermunduri Germanic tribe, who occupied an inland area near the Elbe river (first to third centuries AD)

The Hermunduri, Hermanduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, or Hermonduli were an ancient Germanic tribe, who occupied an inland area near the Elbe river, around what is now Thuringia, Bohemia, Saxony, and Franconia in northern Bavaria, from the first to the third century. At times, they apparently moved to the Danube frontier with Rome. The Thuringii may have been the descendants of the Hermunduri. Claudius Ptolemy mentions neither tribe in his geography but instead the Teuriochaemae, who may also be connected to both.

The Helisii were one of the tribal states of the Lugii, a Germanic tribe. They were attested by the Roman historian Tacitus ; this brief reference is the only mention of them as such in history.

Varisci

The Varisci were a Germanic tribe, the presumed prior inhabitants of a medieval district, Provincia Variscorum, the same as the Vogtland district of Saxony in Germany. They do not appear under that name exactly in ancient history, however, but rather come on stage boldly and abruptly in the Germania of Tacitus as the Naristi, with manuscript variants of Narisci and Varisti. Perhaps the historical name of the mediaeval province is to be regarded as the final authority, but there are other possibilities:

The Baemi (Bæmi), Bemi or Baimoi, were a Germanic tribe who are only known by their mention in Ptolemy's Geography. He described them as a large tribe living on the north side of the Danube, near the Luna forest, and the Quadi, and with the Gambreta forest of the Marcomanni to their northwest. This would place them in or around modern Slovakia, Moravia and Lower Austria.

The Banochaemae, Baenochaemae, Bainochaimai or Bonochamae were a Germanic tribe recorded only in the Geography of Claudius Ptolemy.

The Gutones were a Germanic people who were reported by Roman era writers in the 1st and 2nd centuries to have lived in what is now Poland. The most accurate description of their location, by the geographer Ptolemy, placed them east of the Vistula river.

Marcomannic Wars War between Roman Empire and Germanic peoples (166-180)

The Marcomannic Wars were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about 166 until 180 AD. These wars pitted the Roman Empire against, principally, the Germanic Marcomanni and Quadi and the Sarmatian Iazyges; there were related conflicts with several other Germanic, Sarmatian and Gothic peoples along both sides of the whole length of the Roman Empire's northeastern European border, the river Danube. The struggle against the Germans and Sarmatians occupied the major part of the reign of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, and it was during his campaigns against them that he started writing his philosophical work Meditations.

Burs (Dacia)

The Burs were a Dacian tribe living in Dacia in the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D., with their capital city at Buridava.

Terras de Bouro Municipality in Norte, Portugal

Terras de Bouro is a municipality in the district of Braga in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 7,253, in an area of 277.46 km².

The Victohali were a Germanic people of Late Antiquity. In Greek their name is Biktoa or Biktoloi. They crossed the Danube with the Marcomanni and Quadi during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161–180). According to the chapters attributed to "Julius Capitolinus" in the unreliable Historia Augusta:

.. . now not only were the Victuali and Marcomanni throwing everything into confusion, but other tribes, who had been driven on by the more distant barbarians and had retreated before them, were ready to attack Italy if not peaceably received.

Slovakia in the Roman era

Slovakia was partly occupied by Roman legions for a short period of time. Marcomannia was a proposed province of the Roman Empire that Emperor Marcus Aurelius planned to establish in this territory. It was inhabited by the Germanic tribes of Marcomanni and Quadi, and lay in the western parts of the modern states and Slovakia and the Czech Republic (Moravia). Part of the area was occupied by the Romans under Marcus Aurelius between 174 AD and 180 AD. His successors abandoned the project, but the people of the area became steadily Romanized during the next two centuries. The Roman influence was disrupted with the invasions of Attila starting around 434 AD and as Slavic people later began to move into the area.

Ancient Portugal

This article covers the history of ancient Portugal, the period between Prehistoric Iberia and County of Portugal.400AD veterans

Gotini

The Gotini, who are generally equated to the Cotini in other sources, were a Gaulish tribe living during Roman times in the mountains approximately near the modern borders of the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia.

Roman fort, MuĊĦov

The Roman fort is an archaeological site located in Mušov, Czech Republic, of a Roman army camp on the Dyje-Svratka-Jihlava confluence. It was intended to become the capital of the proposed Marcomannia province (Moravia).

Elbe Germanic peoples

The Elbe Germanii or Elbe Germanic peoples were Germanic tribes whose settlement area, based on archaeological finds, lay either side of the Elbe estuary on both sides of the river and which extended as far as Bohemia and Moravia, clearly the result of a migration up the Elbe river from the northwest in advance of the main Migration Period until the individual groups ran into the Roman Danube Limes around 200 AD.