West Germanic languages

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West Germanic
Originally between the Rhine, Alps, Elbe, and North Sea; today worldwide
Linguistic classification Indo-European
ISO 639-5 gmw
Linguasphere 52-AB & 52-AC
Glottolog west2793
Germanic languages in Europe.png
Extent of Germanic languages in present day Europe

North Germanic languages


West Germanic languages

Dots indicate areas where multilingualism is common.

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages). The West Germanic branch is classically subdivided into three branches: Ingvaeonic, which includes English and Frisian, Istvaeonic, which includes Dutch and its close relatives, and Irminonic, which includes German and its close relatives and variants.


English is by far the most-spoken West Germanic language, with more than 1 billion speakers worldwide. Within Europe, the three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch. Frisian, spoken by about 450,000 people, constitutes a fourth distinct variety of West Germanic. The language family also includes Afrikaans, Yiddish, Luxembourgish, and Scots, which are closely related to Dutch, German and English respectively. Additionally, several creoles, patois, and pidgins are based on Dutch, English, or German.


Origins and characteristics

The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic. [1] In some cases, their exact relation was difficult to determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, so that some individual varieties have been difficult to classify. This is especially true for the unattested Jutish language; today, most scholars classify Jutish as a West Germanic variety with several features of North Germanic. [2]

Until the late 20th century, some scholars claimed that all Germanic languages remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration Period, others hold that speakers of West Germanic dialects like Old Frankish and speakers of Gothic were already unable to communicate fluently by around the 3rd century AD. As a result of the substantial progress in the study of Proto-West Germanic in the early 21st century, there is a growing consensus that East and West Germanic indeed have been mutually unintelligible at that time, [3] whereas West and North Germanic remained partially intelligible. [4]

Dialects with the features assigned to the western group formed from Proto-Germanic in the late Jastorf culture (ca. 1st century BC). The West Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological, morphological and lexical innovations or archaisms not found in North and East Germanic. Examples of West Germanic phonological particularities are: [5]

A relative chronology of about 20 sound changes from Proto-Northwest Germanic to Proto-West Germanic (some of them only regional) has been published by Don Ringe in 2014. [17]

A phonological archaism of West Germanic is the preservation of grammatischer Wechsel in most verbs, particularly in Old High German. [18] This implies the same for West Germanic, [19] whereas in East and North Germanic many of these alternations (in Gothic almost all of them) had been levelled out analogically by the time of the earliest texts.

A common morphological innovation of the West Germanic languages is the development of a gerund. [20]

Common morphological archaisms of West Germanic include:

Furthermore, the West Germanic languages share many lexemes not existing in North Germanic and/or East Germanic – archaisms [26] as well as common neologisms. [27] [28]

Existence of West Germanic proto-language

Up until the 1990s, several scholars doubted that there was a Proto-West-Germanic proto-language common to the West Germanic languages and no others, but others maintained that Proto-West-Germanic did exist. [29] Today, there is a growing consensus on what Don Ringe stated in 2012, that "these [phonological and morphological] changes amount to a massive evidence for a valid West Germanic clade". [30]

After East Germanic broke off (an event usually dated to the 2nd or 1st century BC), the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germanic languages, divided into four main dialects: [31] [ obsolete source ] North Germanic, and the three groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely

  1. North Sea Germanic, ancestral to Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon
  2. Weser-Rhine Germanic, ancestral to Old Dutch and present as a substrate or superstrate in some of the Central Franconian and Rhine Franconian dialects of Old High German
  3. Elbe Germanic, ancestral to the Upper German and most Central German dialects of Old High German, and the extinct Langobardic language.

Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian (because of the characteristic features of its daughter languages, Anglo-Saxon/Old English and Old Frisian), linguists know almost nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic". In fact, both terms were coined in the 1940s to refer to groups of archaeological findings, rather than linguistic features. Only later were the terms applied to hypothetical dialectal differences within both regions. Even today, the very small number of Migration Period runic inscriptions from the area, many of them illegible, unclear or consisting only of one word, often a name, is insufficient to identify linguistic features specific to the two supposed dialect groups.

Evidence that East Germanic split off before the split between North and West Germanic comes from a number of linguistic innovations common to North and West Germanic, [5] including:

Under that view, the properties that the West Germanic languages have in common separate from the North Germanic languages are not necessarily inherited from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language but may have spread by language contact among the Germanic languages spoken in Central Europe, not reaching those spoken in Scandinavia or reaching them much later. Rhotacism, for example, was largely complete in West Germanic while North Germanic runic inscriptions still clearly distinguished the two phonemes. There is also evidence that the lowering of ē to ā occurred first in West Germanic and spread to North Germanic later since word-final ē was lowered before it was shortened in West Germanic, but in North Germanic the shortening occurred first, resulting in e that later merged with i. However, there are also a number of common archaisms in West Germanic shared by neither Old Norse nor Gothic. Some authors who support the concept of a West Germanic proto-language claim that, not only shared innovations can require the existence of a linguistic clade, but also that there are archaisms that cannot be explained simply as retentions later lost in the North or East, because this assumption can produce contradictions with attested features of the other branches.

The debate on the existence of a Proto-West-Germanic clade was recently (2006) summarized:

That North Germanic is... a unitary subgroup [of Proto-Germanic] is completely obvious, as all of its dialects shared a long series of innovations, some of them very striking. That the same is true of West Germanic has been denied, but I will argue in vol. ii that all the West Germanic languages share several highly unusual innovations that virtually force us to posit a West Germanic clade. On the other hand, the internal subgrouping of both North Germanic and West Germanic is very messy, and it seems clear that each of those subfamilies diversified into a network of dialects that remained in contact for a considerable period of time (in some cases right up to the present). [33]

The reconstruction of Proto-West-Germanic

Several scholars have published reconstructions of Proto-West-Germanic morphological paradigms [34] and many authors have reconstructed individual Proto-West-Germanic morphological forms or lexemes. The first comprehensive reconstruction of the Proto-West-Germanic language was published in 2013 by Wolfram Euler, [35] followed in 2014 by the study of Don Ringe and Ann Taylor. [36]

Dating Early West Germanic

(Pre-)Old English an other West Germanic languages around 580 CE 2022 04 16 - MAP West Germanic - cc. 580 CE - END.png
(Pre-)Old English an other West Germanic languages around 580 CE

If indeed Proto-West-Germanic existed, it must have been between the 2nd and 7th centuries. Until the late 2nd century AD, the language of runic inscriptions found in Scandinavia and in Northern Germany were so similar that Proto-North-Germanic and the Western dialects in the south were still part of one language ("Proto-Northwest-Germanic"). After that, the split into West and North Germanic occurred. By the 4th and 5th centuries the great migration set in. By the end of the 6th century, the area in which West Germanic languages were spoken, at least by the upper classes, had tripled compared to the year 400. This caused an increasing disintegration of the West Germanic language and finally the formation of the daughter languages. [37]

It has been argued that, judging by their nearly identical syntax, the West Germanic dialects were closely enough related to have been mutually intelligible up to the 7th century. [38] Over the course of this period, the dialects diverged successively. The High German consonant shift that occurred mostly during the 7th century AD in what is now southern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland can be considered the end of the linguistic unity among the West Germanic dialects, although its effects on their own should not be overestimated. Bordering dialects very probably continued to be mutually intelligible even beyond the boundaries of the consonant shift.

Middle Ages

The approximate extent of the continental West Germanic languages in the early 10th century:
Old Dutch
Old High German
Old Frisian
Old Saxon
Line marking the boundaries of the continental West Germanic dialect continuum. Historical West Germanic language area.png
The approximate extent of the continental West Germanic languages in the early 10th century:
  Old Dutch
   Old Saxon
   Line marking the boundaries of the continental West Germanic dialect continuum.

During the Early Middle Ages, the West Germanic languages were separated by the insular development of Old and Middle English on one hand, and by the High German consonant shift on the continent on the other.

The High German consonant shift distinguished the High German languages from the other West Germanic languages. By early modern times, the span had extended into considerable differences, ranging from Highest Alemannic in the South (the Walliser dialect being the southernmost surviving German dialect) to Northern Low Saxon in the North. Although both extremes are considered German, they are not mutually intelligible. The southernmost varieties have completed the second sound shift, whereas the northern dialects remained unaffected by the consonant shift.

Of modern German varieties, Low German is the one that most resembles modern English. The district of Angeln (or Anglia), from which the name English derives, is in the extreme northern part of Germany between the Danish border and the Baltic coast. The area of the Saxons (parts of today's Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony) lay south of Anglia. The Angles and Saxons, two Germanic tribes, in combination with a number of other peoples from northern Germany and the Jutland Peninsula, particularly the Jutes, settled in Britain following the end of Roman rule in the island. Once in Britain, these Germanic peoples eventually developed a shared cultural and linguistic identity as Anglo-Saxons; the extent of the linguistic influence of the native Romano-British population on the incomers is debatable.

The varieties of the continental West Germanic dialect continuum around 1900. ):
Low Franconian or Netherlandic
Low Saxon or Low German
Central German
High German West Germanic dialect continuum (according to Wiesinger, Heeroma & Konig).png
The varieties of the continental West Germanic dialect continuum around 1900. ):

Family tree

Grouping of the main Germanic languages, including historical dialects, according to Friedrich Maurer. Einteilung der Germanen nach Maurer.en.svg
Grouping of the main Germanic languages, including historical dialects, according to Friedrich Maurer.

Note that divisions between subfamilies of continental Germanic languages are rarely precisely defined; most form dialect continua, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and more separated ones not.

Comparison of phonological and morphological features

The following table shows a list of various linguistic features and their extent among the West Germanic languages, organized roughly from northwest to southeast. Some may only appear in the older languages but are no longer apparent in the modern languages.

Old EnglishOld FrisianOld SaxonOld DutchOld Central
Old Upper
Palatalisation of velarsYesYesPartialNoNoNo
Unrounding of front rounded vowelsø but not yYesNoSouthwesternNoNo
Loss of intervocalic *-h-YesYesDevelopingYesDevelopingNo
Class II weak verb ending *-(ō)ja-YesYesSometimesNoNoNo
Merging of plural forms of verbsYesYesYesNoNoNo
Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law YesYesYesRareNoNo
Loss of the reflexive pronoun YesYesMost dialectsMost dialectsNoNo
Loss of final *-z in single-syllable wordsYesYesYesYesNoNo
Reduction of weak class III to four relicsYesYesYesYesNoNo
Monophthongization of *ai, *auYesYesYesUsuallyPartialPartial
Diphthongization of *ē, *ōNoNoRareYesYesYes
Final-obstruent devoicing NoNoNoYesDevelopingNo
Loss of initial *h- before consonantNoNoNoYesYesDeveloping
Loss of initial *w- before consonantNoNoNoNoMost dialectsYes
High German consonant shift NoNoNoNoPartialYes


The original vowel system of West Germanic was similar to that of Proto-Germanic; note however the lowering of the long front vowels.

Monophthong phonemes of West Germanic
Front Central Back
unrounded unrounded rounded
short long shortlongshortlong
Close iu
Mid eo
Open æ:a

The consonant system was also essentially the same as that of Proto-Germanic. Note, however, the particular changes described above, as well as West Germanic gemination.



The noun paradigms of Proto-West Germanic have been reconstructed as follows: [44]

CaseNouns in -a- (m.)
*dagă (day)
Nouns in -ja-
*harjă (army)
Nouns in -ija-
*hirdijă (herder)
Nouns in -a- (n.)
*joką (yoke)
Nouns in -ō-
*gebu (gift)
Nouns in -i-
*gasti (guest)
Nouns in -u-
*sunu (son)
Nouns in -u- (n.)
*fehu (cattle)
Nominative*dagă*dagō, -ōs*harjă*harjō, -ōs*hirdijă*hirdijō, -ijōs*joką*joku*gebu*gebō*gasti*gastī*sunu*suniwi, -ō*fehu(?)
Dative*dagē*dagum*harjē*harjum*hirdijē*hirdijum*jokē*jokum*gebē*gebōm*gastim*suniwi, -ō*sunum*fehiwi, -ō

West Germanic vocabulary

The following table compares a number of Frisian, English, Scotch, Yola, Dutch, Limburgish, German and Afrikaans words with common West Germanic (or older) origin. The grammatical gender of each term is noted as masculine (m.), feminine (f.), or neuter (n.) where relevant.

West FrisianEnglishScotsYolaDutchLimburgishGermanAfrikaans Old English Old High German Proto-West-Germanic [45] Proto-Germanic
kaamcombkaimkhime / rackkam m.kâmpKamm m.kamcamb m.camb m.kąbă [see inscription of Erfurt-Frienstedt], *kambă m.*kambaz m.
deidaydaydeidag m.daagTag m.dagdæġ m.tag m.*dagă m.*dagaz m.
reinrainrainrhyneregen m.rengel, raegeRegen m.reënreġn m.regan m.*regnă m.*regnaz m.
weiwayweywei / wyeweg m.weegWeg m.wegweġ m.weg m.*wegă m.*wegaz m.
neilnailnailnielnagel m.nieëgelNagel m.naelnæġel m.nagal m.*naglă m.*naglaz m.
tsiischeesecheesecheesekaas m.kieësKäse m.kaasċēse, ċīese m.chāsi, kāsi m.*kāsī m.*kāsijaz m. (late Proto-Germanic, from Latin cāseus)
tsjerkechurchkirkchourchkerk f.kêrkKirche f.kerkċiriċe f.chirihha, *kirihha f.*kirikā f.*kirikǭ f. (from Ancient Greek kuriakón "belonging to the lord")
sibbesibling [note 1] sibsibbe (dated) / meanysibbe f.-Sippe f.-sibb f. "kinship, peace"sippa f., Old Saxon: sibbiasibbju, sibbjā f.*sibjō f. "relationship, kinship, friendship"
kaai f.keykeykei / kiesleutel m.slueëtelSchlüssel m.sleutelcǣġ(e), cǣga f. "key, solution, experiment"sluzzil m.*slutilă m., *kēgă f.*slutilaz m. "key"; *kēgaz, *kēguz f. "stake, post, pole"
ha westhave beenhae(s)/hiv beenha binben geweestbin geweis(t)bin gewesenwas gewees
twa skieptwo sheeptwa sheeptwye zheeptwee schapen n.twieë schäöpzwei Schafe n.twee skapetwā sċēap n.zwei scāfa n.*twai skēpu n.*twai(?) skēpō n.
hawwehavehaehahebbenhebbe, höbbehabenhethabban, hafianhabēn*habbjană*habjaną
breabreadbreidbreedbrood n.mik, broeëdBrot n.broodbrēad n. "fragment, bit, morsel, crumb" also "bread"brōt n.*braudă m.*braudą n. "cooked food, leavened bread"
hierhairhairhaarhaar n.haorHaar n.haarhēr, hǣr n.hār n.*hǣră n.*hērą n.
earearluglugoor n.oeërOhr n.oorēare n. < pre-English *ǣoraōra n.*aura < *auza n.*auzǭ, *ausōn n.
doardoordoordherdeur f.dueërTür f.deurduru f.turi f.*duru f.*durz f.
swietsweetsweetsweetzoetzeutsüßsoetswētes(w)uozi (< *swōti)*swōtŭ*swōtuz
wietwetweetweatenatnaatnassnatwǣtnaz (< *nat)*wǣtă / *nată*wētaz / *nataz
eacheyeeeei / ieeoog n.ougAuge n.oogēage n. < pre-English *ǣogaouga n.*auga n.*augō n.
dreamdreamdreamdreemdroom m.draumTraum m.droomdrēam m. "joy, pleasure, ecstasy, music, song"troum m.*draumă m.*draumaz (< *draugmaz) m.
stienstonestanesthoansteen m.steinStein m.steenstān m.stein m.*staină m.*stainaz m.
bedbedbedbedbed n.bedBett n.bedbedd n.betti n.*baddjă n.*badją n.

Other words, with a variety of origins:

West FrisianEnglishScotsDutchLimburgishGermanAfrikaans Old English Old High German Proto-West-Germanic [45] Proto-Germanic


hynderhorseponypaard n.
ros n. (dated)


Pferd n. / Ross n.perdhors n. eoh m.(h)ros n. / pfarifrit n. / ehu- (in compositions)*hrussă n. / *ehu m.*hrussą n., *ehwaz m.

Note that some of the shown similarities of Frisian and English vis-à-vis Dutch and German are secondary and not due to a closer relationship between them. For example, the plural of the word for "sheep" was originally unchanged in all four languages and still is in some Dutch dialects and a great deal of German dialects. Many other similarities, however, are indeed old inheritances.


  1. Original meaning "relative" has become "brother or sister" in English.

Related Research Articles

Frisian languages Group of Germanic languages

The Frisian languages are a closely related group of West Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. The Frisian languages are the closest living language group to the Anglic languages; the two groups make up the Anglo-Frisian languages group and together with the Low German dialects these form the North Sea Germanic languages. However, modern English and Frisian are not mutually intelligible, nor are Frisian languages intelligible among themselves, due to independent linguistic innovations and foreign influences.

Frisians Germanic ethnic group native to coastal regions of Germany and the Netherlands

The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal regions of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany. They inhabit an area known as Frisia and are concentrated in the Dutch provinces of Friesland and Groningen and, in Germany, East Frisia and North Frisia. The Frisian languages are spoken by more than 500,000 people; West Frisian is officially recognised in the Netherlands, and North Frisian and Saterland Frisian are recognised as regional languages in Germany.

Germanic languages Branch of the Indo-European language family

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania and Southern Africa. The most widely spoken Germanic language, English, is also the world's most widely spoken language with an estimated 2 billion speakers. All Germanic languages are derived from Proto-Germanic, spoken in Iron Age Scandinavia.

Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, by Anglo-Norman as the language of the upper classes. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, since during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English in England and Early Scots in Scotland.

Low Franconian Language family

Low Franconian, Low Frankish, Netherlandic is a linguistic category used to classify a number of historical and contemporary West Germanic varieties closely related to, and including, the Dutch language. Most dialects and languages included within the category are spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany, as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia.

Proto-Germanic language Ancestor of the Germanic languages

Proto-Germanic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

Old Frisian was a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries along the North Sea coast, roughly between the mouths of the Rhine and Weser rivers. The Frisian settlers on the coast of South Jutland also spoke Old Frisian, but there are no known medieval texts of this area. The language of the earlier inhabitants of the region between the Zuiderzee and Ems River is attested in only a few personal names and place-names. Old Frisian evolved into Middle Frisian, spoken from the 16th to the 19th century.

Low German West Germanic language of northern Germany and the northeastern Netherlands

Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language variety spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the Netherlands. The dialect of Plautdietsch is also spoken in the Russian Mennonite diaspora worldwide.

North Sea Germanic Group of West Germanic languages

North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages that consists of Old Frisian, Old English, and Old Saxon, and their descendants.

Old Saxon Germanic language spoken from the 8th to 12th centuries

Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German. It is a West Germanic language, closely related to the Anglo-Frisian languages. It is documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it gradually evolved into Middle Low German. It was spoken throughout modern northwestern Germany, primarily in the coastal regions and in the eastern Netherlands by Saxons, a Germanic tribe that inhabited the region of Saxony. It partially shares Anglo-Frisian's Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law which sets it apart from Low Franconian and Irminonic languages, such as Dutch, Luxembourgish and German.

Frankish language West Germanic language spoken by the Franks from the 5th to 9th century

Frankish, also known as Old Franconian or Old Frankish, was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks from the 5th to 9th century.

A-mutation is a metaphonic process supposed to have taken place in late Proto-Germanic.

High German consonant shift Series of sound changes affecting some West Germanic languages

In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases. It probably began between the third and fifth centuries and was almost complete before the earliest written records in High German were produced in the eighth century. From Proto-Germanic, the resulting language, Old High German, can be neatly contrasted with the other continental West Germanic languages, which for the most part did not experience the shift, and with Old English, which remained completely unaffected.

Anglo-Frisian languages Group of West Germanic languages

The Anglo-Frisian languages are the Anglic and Frisian varieties of the West Germanic languages.

Northwest Germanic is a proposed grouping of the Germanic languages, representing the current consensus among Germanic historical linguists. It does not challenge the late 19th-century tri-partite division of the Germanic dialects into North Germanic, West Germanic and East Germanic, but proposes additionally that North and West Germanic remained as a subgroup after the southward migration of the East Germanic tribes, only splitting into North and West Germanic later. Whether this subgroup constituted a unified proto-language, or simply represents a group of dialects that remained in contact and close geographical proximity, is a matter of debate, but the formulation of Ringe and Taylor probably enjoys widespread support:

There is some evidence that North and West Germanic developed as a single language, Proto-Northwest Germanic, after East Germanic had begun to diverge. However, changes unproblematically datable to the PNWGmc period are few, suggesting that that period of linguistic unity did not last long. On the other hand, there are some indications that North and West Germanic remained in contact, exchanging and thus partly sharing further innovations, after they had begun to diverge, and perhaps even after West Germanic had itself begun to diversify.

Dutch is a West Germanic language, that originated from the Old Frankish dialects.

Old Dutch Set of Franconian dialects

In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century. Old Dutch is mostly recorded on fragmentary relics, and words have been reconstructed from Middle Dutch and Old Dutch loanwords in French.

Weser-Rhine Germanic Language group

Weser-Rhine Germanic is a term introduced by the German linguist Friedrich Maurer for the group of prehistoric West Germanic dialects ancestral to Dutch and to the West Central German dialects. It is a replacement for the older term Istvaeonic, with which it is essentially synonymous. The term Rhine-Weser-Germanic is sometimes preferred.

Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law Sound change law in the familys language evolution

In historical linguistics, the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law is a description of a phonological development that occurred in the Ingvaeonic dialects of the West Germanic languages. This includes Old English, Old Frisian, and Old Saxon, and to a lesser degree Old Dutch.


  1. Hawkins, John A. (1987). "Germanic languages". In Bernard Comrie (ed.). The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–76. ISBN   0-19-520521-9.
  2. Euler (2013): p.21, Seebold (1998): p.13
  3. Euler (2013): p.219, 224
  4. Euler (2013): p.224
  5. 1 2 Robinson, Orrin W. (1992). Old English and Its Closest Relatives. Stanford University Press. ISBN   0-8047-2221-8.
  6. Euler (2013): p. 53, Ringe / Tayler (2014): p. 104
  7. Stiles (1985): p. 91-94, with references.
  8. Ringe/Taylor (2014): p. 73, 104
  9. 1 2 3 P. Stiles (2013): p. 15
  10. Euler (2013): p. 61
  11. Crist, Sean: An Analysis of *z loss in West Germanic. Linguistic Society of America, Annual Meeting, 2002
  12. Euler (2013): p. 53
  13. Ringe/Taylor (2014): p. 43
  14. Euler (2013): p.53
  15. Ringe/Taylor (2014): p. 50-54
  16. Euler (2013): p.54
  17. Ringe/Taylor (2014): 104.
  18. Stiles (2013): p. 24ff, Euler (2013): p. 49
  19. Euler (2013): p.230
  20. Euler (2013): p. 61, 133, 171, 174
  21. Euler (2013): p. 67, 70, 74, 76, 97, 113 etc.
  22. Euler (2013): p. 168-178
  23. Euler (2013): p. 170-173
  24. Meid, Wolfgang (1971). "Das germanische Präteritum", Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft, p. 13; Euler, Wolfram/Badenheuer, Konrad (2009), "Sprache und Herkunft der Germanen", pp. 168–171, London/Berlin: Inspiration Un Ltd.
  25. Euler (2013): p. 138-141
  26. Euler (2013): p. 179-193
  27. Euler (2013): p. 194-200
  28. Ringe/Taylor (2014): p. 126-138
  29. Robinson (1992): p. 17-18
  30. Don Ringe (2012): Cladistic Methodology and West Germanic - Yale Linguistics, p. 6
  31. Kuhn, Hans (1955–56). "Zur Gliederung der germanischen Sprachen". Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur. 86: 1–47.
  32. However, see Cercignani, Fausto, Indo-European ē in Germanic, in «Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung», 86/1, 1972, pp. 104–110.
  33. Ringe, Don. 2006: A Linguistic History of English. Volume I. From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press, p. 213-214.
  34. H. F. Nielsen (1981, 2001), G. Klingenschmitt (2002) and K.-H. Mottausch (1998, 2011)
  35. Wolfram Euler: Das Westgermanische – von der Herausbildung im 3. bis zur Aufgliederung im 7. Jahrhundert — Analyse und Rekonstruktion (West Germanic: From its Emergence in the 3rd Century to its Split in the 7th Century: Analyses and Reconstruction). 244 p., in German with English summary, London/Berlin 2013, ISBN   978-3-9812110-7-8.
  36. Ringe, Donald R. and Taylor, Ann (2014). The Development of Old English – A Linguistic History of English, vol. II, 632p. ISBN   978-0199207848. Oxford.
  37. Euler (2013): p. 20-34, 229, 231
  38. Graeme Davis (2006:154) notes "the languages of the Germanic group in the Old period are much closer than has previously been noted. Indeed it would not be inappropriate to regard them as dialects of one language. They are undoubtedly far closer one to another than are the various dialects of modern Chinese, for example. A reasonable modern analogy might be Arabic, where considerable dialectical diversity exists but within the concept of a single Arabic language." In: Davis, Graeme (2006). Comparative Syntax of Old English and Old Icelandic: Linguistic, Literary and Historical Implications. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN   3-03910-270-2.
  39. Map based on: Meineke, Eckhard & Schwerdt, Judith, Einführung in das Althochdeutsche, Paderborn/Zürich 2001, pp. 209.
  40. W. Heeringa: Measuring Dialect Pronunciation Differences using Levenshtein Distance. University of Groningen, 2009, pp. 232–234.
  41. Peter Wiesinger: Die Einteilung der deutschen Dialekte. In: Werner Besch, Ulrich Knoop, Wolfgang Putschke, Herbert Ernst Wiegand (Hrsg.): Dialektologie. Ein Handbuch zur deutschen und allgemeinen Dialektforschung, 2. Halbband. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1983, ISBN 3-11-009571-8, pp. 807–900.
  42. Werner König: dtv-Atlas Deutsche Sprache. 19. Auflage. dtv, München 2019, ISBN 978-3-423-03025-0, pp. 230.
  43. C. Giesbers: Dialecten op de grens van twee talen. Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 2008, pp. 233.
  44. Ringe and Taylor. The Development of Old English. Oxford University Press. pp. 114–115.
  45. 1 2 sources: Ringe, Don / Taylor, Ann (2014) and Euler, Wolfram (2013), passim.