Invercargill is an electorate of the New Zealand Parliament that has existed since 1866. Since the 2020 election, the electorate's representative is Penny Simmonds of the National Party.
The electorate covers Invercargill city and the surrounding rural area, including Stewart Island / Rakiura. In 1996 a boundary redistribution resulted in the abolition of the Awarua electorate and merged with Invercargill following re-drawing of boundaries due to the introduction of mixed-member proportional voting (MMP). Minor but steady population decline in the Southland region has generally resulted in Invercargill expanding northwards. The 2013 redistribution, however, has left Invercargill unchanged.The 2020 redistribution added a large area around Clifden and Tuatapere.
The electorate was established in 1866 when it separated from the Wallace electorate.
The first representative was William Wood, who won the 1866 election.Wood retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1870. William Henderson Calder succeeded Wood in the 1871 election and he resigned in March 1873. The resulting 1873 by-election was won by John Cuthbertson, who served until the end of the parliamentary term in 1875.
Cuthbertson was defeated by George Lumsden in the 1875 election. Lumsden resigned in June 1878,which caused the 1878 by-election. Henry Feldwick was the successful candidate and he commenced his first of three terms for the electorate. At the 1879 election, Feldwick was defeated by James Walker Bain, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1881. At the 1881 election, Feldwick was again the successful candidate, only to be defeated again at the 1884 election, on that occasion by Joseph Hatch. At the 1887 election, Feldwick defeated Hatch and commenced his third and final term for the Invercargill electorate, serving until the end of the parliamentary term in 1890.
James Whyte Kelly defeated Feldwick in the 1890 election. Kelly became a member of the Liberal Party and served for three parliamentary terms,but broke away from the Liberal Party and became an Independent Liberal in 1895. For the 1899 election, the Josiah Hanan of the Liberal Party challenged Kelly, with Hanan being successful. Hanan served the electorate until 1925, when he retired.
The 1925 election was narrowly won by the former Prime Minister Sir Joseph Ward standing for the Liberal Party, who beat James Hargest of the Reform Party with 4957 votes to 4798; a third contender, Patrick Hickey, stood for the Labour Party.Until 1919, Ward had for many years represented Awarua. Ward, a former leader of the Liberal Party, contested the election under the "Liberal" label, despite the fact that the remnants of the Liberal Party were now calling themselves by different names. In 1928, Ward helped form the United Party and won the 1928 election. He died on 8 July 1930, which caused the 1930 by-election won by his son Vincent Ward, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1931.
Vincent Ward was succeeded by James Hargest in the 1931 election. At the end of the parliamentary term in 1935, Hargest successfully contested the Awarua electorate.He was succeeded in the Invercargill electorate by William Denham of the Labour Party, who held the electorate for three terms from 1935 until his defeat in the 1946 election by Ralph Hanan of the National Party. Hanan was re-elected seven times and died in office on 24 July 1969; the need to hold a by-election before the general election on 29 November was avoided by a special act, the By-election Postponement Act 1969.
The successful candidate in the 1969 general election was John Chewings, who was defeated at the end of the parliamentary term at the 1972 election by Labour's J. B. Munro. At the next election in 1975, Munro was in turn beaten by National's Norman Jones. Jones retired at the end of his fourth term in August 1987 and died shortly thereafter on 19 November.
Jones was succeeded by National's Rob Munro in the 1987 election. Munro served two parliamentary terms before being beaten by Labour's Mark Peck in the 1993 election. Peck retired after four parliamentary terms in 2005 and was succeeded by National's Eric Roy in the 2005 election. Roy retired after three parliamentary terms and was succeeded in 2014 by Sarah Dowie.
Labour National NZ FirstUnited
|1866 election||William Wood|
|1871 election||William Henderson Calder|
|1873 by-election||John Cuthbertson|
|1875 election||George Lumsden|
|1878 by-election||Henry Feldwick|
|1879 election||James Walker Bain|
|1881 election||Henry Feldwick (2nd time)|
|1884 election||Joseph Hatch|
|1887 election||Henry Feldwick (3rd time)|
|1890 election||James Whyte Kelly|
|1899 election||Josiah Hanan|
|1925 election||Joseph Ward|
|1930 by-election||Vincent Ward|
|1931 election||James Hargest|
|1935 election||William Denham|
|1946 election||Ralph Hanan|
|1969 election||John Chewings|
|1972 election||J. B. Munro|
|1975 election||Norman Jones|
|1987 election||Rob Munro|
|1993 election||Mark Peck|
|2005 election||Eric Roy|
|2014 election||Sarah Dowie|
|2020 election||Penny Simmonds|
Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Invercargill electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.
|1996 election||Eric Roy|
|2017 election||Liz Craig|
|2020 general election: Invercargill|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|New Conservative||Joshua Honiss||757||1.88||—||862||2.14||–1.92|
|NZ First||Joshua Gunn||735||1.83||–7.23||1,218||3.02||−5.70|
|Advance NZ||Kurt Rohloff||417||1.04||—||406||1.01||—|
|Social Credit||Winsome Aroha||206||0.51||—||81||0.20||+0.08|
|Total Valid votes||35,462||35,990|
|2017 general election: Invercargill|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Ria Bond||3,214||9.06||+1.64||3,139||8.72||−2.39|
|Total Valid votes||35,462||35,990|
|2014 general election: Invercargill|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Ria Bond||2,526||7.42||+7.42||3,806||11.11||+4.27|
|Democrats||Stephnie de Ruyter||333||0.98||−0.67||95||0.28||−0.12|
|Total Valid votes||34,045||34,266|
|2011 general election: Invercargill|
|Democrats||Stephnie de Ruyter||521||1.65||+1.65||129||0.40||+0.22|
|Total Valid votes||31,650||32,355|
Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 45,014
|2008 general election: Invercargill|
|United Future||Maureen Smith||258||0.74||-0.70||319||0.91||-2.31|
|Bill and Ben||413||1.18||–|
|Total Valid votes||34,687||35,052|
|2005 general election: Invercargill|
|United Future||Ralph Kennard||453||1.4||1,024||3.22|
|Māori Party||Gina Haremate-Crawford||163||0.52||106||0.33|
|Direct Democracy||Craig Guy||65||0.21||11||0.03|
|Total Valid votes||31,451||31,805|
|National gain from Labour||Majority||2,052||6.52|
|2002 general election: Invercargill|
|Progressive||Stephnie de Ruyter||1,006||3.37||-1.61||760||2.52|
|United Future||Vince Smith||806||2.70||1,851||6.14|
|Christian Heritage||Mervyn Lemuel Clayton||235||0.79||301||1.00||-1.63|
|Mana Māori Movement||2||0.01||-0.02|
|Total Valid votes||29,829||30,152|
|1999 general election: Invercargill|
|Alliance||Stephnie de Ruyter||1,567||4.98||3,132||9.91||+0.15|
|Green||Craig William Carson||689||2.19||974||3.08|
|Christian Heritage||Russell Zwies||536||1.70||832||2.63|
|NZ First||Allan Wise||488||1.55||875||2.77||-9.12|
|Mana Māori Movement||8||0.03||+0.02|
|The People's Choice||5||0.02|
|Total Valid votes||31,481||31,595|
|1996 general election: Invercargill|
|National||N Eric Roy||11,148||35.39||10,825||34.26|
|NZ First||Owen Horton||2,302||7.31||3,757||11.89|
|McGillicuddy Serious||Anthony Hobbs||200||0.63||105||0.33|
|United NZ||Stuart Jordan||111||0.35||153||0.48|
|Natural Law||Jacque Hughes||87||0.28||49||0.16|
|Superannuitants & Youth||11||0.03|
|Advance New Zealand||6||0.02|
|Mana Māori Movement||4||0.01|
|Asia Pacific United||2||0.01|
|Ethnic Minority Party||1||0.00|
|Total Valid votes||31,502||31,594|
|NZ First||K Kawe||393||2.02|
|Christian Heritage||H Macann||242||1.24|
|Natural Law||Rhonda-Lisa Comins||48||0.24|
|Social Credit||H M Thompson||334||1.45|
|Legalise Marijuana||K Dreaver||319||1.38|
|NZ Party||Maurice Coughlan||1,721||8.23|
|Social Credit||Joe Radich||801||3.83||-12.67|
|Independent||G J Gilbert||56||0.26|
|Social Credit||Joe Radich||3,382||16.50||+2.71|
|Social Credit||Joe Radich||2,760||13.79|
|Values||R J Thomson||175||0.87|
|Labour||J. B. Munro||7,180||38.87||-9.81|
|Social Credit||N G Green||1,045||5.65|
|Labour||J. B. Munro||8,125||48.68|
|Social Credit||M L Patterson||855||5.12|
|Independent Labour||W F Manson||251||1.50|
|Liberal Reform||H W I Le Page||60||0.35|
|New Democratic||J Murphy||39||0.23|
|Social Credit||D L Steele||1,728||10.73||+6.15|
|Social Credit||D L Steele||2,611||16.88||+11.69|
|Labour||Oliver James Henderson||5,945||37.85||-3.62|
|Liberal||Ronald MacGregor Hutton-Potts||1,064||6.77|
|Social Credit||D L Steele||815||5.19||+1.02|
|Labour||Oliver James Henderson||6,202||41.47|
|Social Credit||D L Steele||624||4.17|
|Labour||Thomas Francis Doyle||6,898||45.53|
|Social Credit||Leslie G. Russell||673||4.44||-14.87|
|Social Credit||Leslie G. Russell||2,657||19.31|
|Labour||F G Spurdle||6,085||42.57|
|Democratic Labour||L. Assheton Harbord||523||3.60|
|Independent||George Edward Thompson Dorman||174||1.22|
|Independent Liberal||William McChesney||2,595||19.30||-15.30|
|Liberal–Labour||James Whyte Kelly||2,189||47.18||-2.07|
|Liberal–Labour||James Whyte Kelly||2,237||49.25||-17.98|
|Conservative||William Benjamin Scandrett||646||14.22|
|Liberal–Labour||James Whyte Kelly||2,423||67.23||+25.48|
|Liberal–Labour||James Whyte Kelly||633||41.75|
|Conservative||James Walker Bain||517||34.10|
|Independent||James Walker Bain||219||48.78||+48.78|
|Independent||William Henderson Calder||142||61.21||+61.21|
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