Pakuranga (New Zealand electorate)

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Pakuranga electorate boundaries used since the 2008 election Pakuranga electorate, 2014.svg
Pakuranga electorate boundaries used since the 2008 election

Pakuranga is a New Zealand Parliamentary electorate. It gave the Social Credit Party one of its few MPs when Neil Morrison held the seat from 1984 to 1987, but otherwise the electorate seat has been held by the National Party since 1972. Its current MP is Simeon Brown who has held the electorate since the 2017 general election.

New Zealand electorates voting district for elections to the New Zealand Parliament

An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.

Social Credit Party (New Zealand)

The New Zealand Social Credit Party was a political party which served as the country's "third party" from the 1950s through into the 1980s. The party held a number of seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives, although never more than two at a time. It has since renamed itself the New Zealand Democratic Party, and was for a time part of the Alliance.

Neil Joseph Morrison was a New Zealand politician of the Social Credit Party.

Contents

Population centres

Pakuranga is one of 64 general electorates used in New Zealand general elections. It covers part of eastern Auckland around the eponymous suburb of Pakuranga. Other population centres include Farm Cove, Half Moon Bay, Bucklands Beach, parts of Highland Park and parts of Howick.

Auckland Metropolitan area in North Island, New Zealand

Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. The Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions.

Pakuranga

Pakuranga is a south-eastern suburb of Auckland, in northern New Zealand. Pakuranga covers a series of low ridges and previously swampy flats, now drained, that lie between the Pakuranga Creek and Tamaki River, two estuarial arms of the Hauraki Gulf. It is located to the north of Manukau and 15 kilometres southeast of the Auckland CBD.

The suburb of Farm Cove is located in eastern Auckland, New Zealand. The suburb is in the Howick ward, one of the thirteen administrative divisions of Auckland city. In Farm Cove, there are two main schools; Wakaaranga Primary School and Farm Cove Intermediate. There is also a small public kindergarten, located behind Wakaaranga Primary school. The Rotary Walkway Reserve runs through Farm Cove.

The boundaries of the Pakuranga electorate were last adjusted in the 2007 redistribution. Initially, the Representation Commission proposed substantial changes, but after hearing objections mainly about Pakuranga, Manukau East, and Manurewa, the shape of the Pakuranga electorate reverted to almost the boundaries prior to the review. [1] No boundary adjustments were undertaken in the subsequent 2013/14 redistribution. [2]

Manurewa (New Zealand electorate) New Zealand electorate

Manurewa is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in southern Auckland. Louisa Wall has represented the electorate since the 2011 election.

History

Pakuranga was first contested at the 1963 election, and won by future Labour Party frontbencher Bob Tizard. It was captured by National in 1972, and has stayed with National since, save for a brief interlude – the New Zealand Party's presence on the ballot paper in 1984 split the centre-right vote and handed the seat to Social Credit's Neil Morrison.

1963 New Zealand general election

The 1963 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of New Zealand Parliament's 34th term. The results were almost identical to those of the previous election, and the governing National Party remained in office.

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.

Bob Tizard New Zealand politician

Robert James Tizard was a Labour politician from New Zealand. He served as Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Finance, Minister of Health and Minister of Defence.

With the introduction of mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation in 1996 the seat was expanded to absorb most of the neighbouring seat of Howick. Its boundaries have remained largely unchanged since; an attempt in 2007 to resurrect a seat around Howick by pulling the Pakuranga boundaries across the Tamaki River and adding Panmure, Point England and Glen Innes from Auckland City was abandoned in the face of strenuous local objection. Instead, Howick was renamed Botany and centred on the rapid-growth areas of Flat Bush, Botany Downs and Dannemora.

Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received. The constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both.

Howick (New Zealand electorate) former New Zealand electorate

Howick is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, which existed for one parliamentary term from 1993 to 1996, and was held by Trevor Rogers. In 1995, Rogers defected from National to the Right of Centre party.

Tamaki River river in New Zealand

The Tamaki River or Tamaki Estuary is mostly an estuarial arm and harbour of the Hauraki Gulf, within the city of Auckland in New Zealand. It extends south for 15 kilometres (9 mi) from its mouth between the suburb of Saint Heliers and the long thin peninsula of Bucklands Beach, which reaches its end at Musick Point. The inlet extends past the suburbs of Glendowie, Wai o Taiki Bay, Point England, Glen Innes, Tamaki, Panmure, and Otahuhu to the west, and Bucklands Beach, Halfmoon Bay, Farm Cove, Sunnyhills and Pakuranga to the east.

Pakuranga is considered a safe National seat, with Maurice Williamson being easily re-elected at every election to 2014 after ousting Morrison in 1987. [3] In the 2014 election, Williamson had a majority of 12,867 votes over his nearest challenger, Barry Kirker of the Labour Party. [4]

Maurice Williamson New Zealand politician

Maurice Donald Williamson is a New Zealand diplomat and former politician who represented Pakuranga in the House of Representatives as a member of the National Party. He held several ministerial portfolios both inside and outside the cabinet: Transport, Communications, Broadcasting, Local Government, Research Science and Technology, Building and Construction, Customs, Small Business, Statistics and Land Information.

1987 New Zealand general election

The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 42nd sitting of the New Zealand Parliament. The governing New Zealand Labour Party, led by Prime Minister David Lange, was re-elected for a second term, although the Opposition National Party made gains. The election also saw the elimination of the Democratic Party from Parliament, leaving Labour and National as the only parties represented.

2014 New Zealand general election

The 2014 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 20 September 2014 to determine the membership of the 51st New Zealand Parliament.

Williamson announced in July 2016 that he would not stand for Parliament at the 2017 general election [5] and the seat was won by Simeon Brown, retaining it for the National Party.

Members of Parliament

Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at a general election.

Key

  Labour     National     Independent     Social Credit     NZ First   

ElectionWinner
1963 election Bob Tizard
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election Gavin Downie
1975 election
1978 election Pat Hunt
1981 election
1984 election Neil Morrison
1987 election Maurice Williamson
1990 election
1993 election
1996 election
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election Simeon Brown

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Pakuranga electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

ElectionWinner
2002 election Pita Paraone
2005 election

Election results

2017 election

2017 general election: Pakuranga [6]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Simeon Brown 22,66363.98+4.2322,14961.69+1.45
Labour Barry Kirker7,77721.95−0.098,87224.71+8.79
NZ First Suzanne Kelly2,0395.752,3696.59−0.50
Green Guy Hunt2,0185.691,3403.73−2.60
Māori Carrie Stoddart-Smith4191.181240.34+0.03
Opportunities  4361.21
ACT  2720.75−2.20
Conservative  830.23−5.34
Legalise Cannabis  690.19−0.12
People's Party  320.08
Outdoors  180.05
United Future  160.04−0.19
Ban 1080  90.02−0.01
Internet  90.02−0.59
Mana  60.01−0.61
Democrats  30.008−0.012
Informal votes50696
Total Valid votes35,42235,903
National holdMajority14,886

2014 election

2014 general election: Pakuranga [7]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Maurice Williamson 20,38859.75−6.1120,85460.24−2.56
Labour Barry Kirker7,52122.04+0.255,51115.92−2.70
Conservative Andrew Craig3,46510.15+4.951,9305.57+2.02
ACT Jamie Whyte 2,0305.95+3.351,0212.95+1.16
NZ First  2,4567.09+1.42
Green  2,1926.33+0.12
Internet Mana  2140.62+0.50 [lower-alpha 1]
Legalise Cannabis  1090.31−0.03
Māori  1080.31−0.02
United Future  780.23−0.23
Civilian  160.05+0.05
Ban 1080  110.03+0.03
Democrats  80.02±0.00
Independent Coalition  80.02+0.02
Focus  40.01+0.01
Informal votes721101
Total Valid votes34,12534,621
Turnout 34,62174.76+4.77
National holdMajority12,86737.71−6.35

2011 election

2011 general election: Pakuranga [8]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Maurice Williamson 20,69465.86+4.2820,47162.80+3.10
Labour Sunny Kaushal6,84821.79+0.176,06818.62-3.66
Conservative Lance Gedge1,6345.20+5.201,1563.55+3.55
NZ First Helen Jane Mulford1,4304.55+1.261,8475.67+2.18
ACT Chris Simmons8162.60-3.745851.79-5.39
Green  2,0246.21+2.61
United Future  1490.46-0.50
Legalise Cannabis  1120.34+0.12
Māori  1090.33+0.03
Mana  400.12+0.12
Alliance  200.06+0.02
Libertarianz  90.03-0.01
Democrats  50.02+0.004
Informal votes1,041202
Total Valid votes31,42232,595
National holdMajority13,84644.06+4.10

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 45,912 [9]

2008 election

2008 general election: Pakuranga [10]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Maurice Williamson 21,43061.5821,09959.70
Labour Brian Kelly7,52421.627,87222.27
ACT Andrew Jollands2,2056.342,5417.19
Green Zachary Dorner1,4804.251,2733.60
NZ First Pita Paraone 1,1463.291,2313.48
United Future Quentin Todd4091.183380.96
Progressive Jeffrey Ly3541.022650.75
Kiwi Brian Hilder2520.721230.35
Family Party  1860.53
Bill and Ben  1370.39
Māori  1060.30
Legalise Cannabis  790.22
Pacific  380.11
Alliance  150.04
Libertarianz  130.04
Workers Party  120.03
RAM  60.02
Democrats  40.01
RONZ  40.01
Informal votes32980
Total Valid votes34,80035,342
National holdMajority13,90639.96

2005 election

2005 general election: Pakuranga [11]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Maurice Williamson 19,15954.0319,17353.28
Labour Michael Wood 9,57727.0110,81030.31
Independent Steve Baron1,8075.10
NZ First Pita Paraone 1,3983.5421055.85
ACT Bronny Jacobson1,2163.431,3543.76
United Future Ian McInnes8332.358782.44
Progressive Ly Meng5601.582970.83
Destiny David Jesze4881.382060.57
Christian Heritage Ewen McQueen 3731.05800.22
Direct Democracy Kevin Moore490.14110.03
Green  9072.52
Māori  730.20
Legalise Cannabis  360.10
Libertarianz  140.04
Alliance  130.04
RONZ  70.02
99 MP  60.02
One NZ  60.02
Family Rights  50.01
Democrats  40.01
Informal votes35988
Total Valid votes35,46035,983
National holdMajority9,58227.02

2002 election

2002 general election: Pakuranga [12]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Maurice Williamson 14,01043.428,47026.02
Labour Michael Wood 9,45429.3010,37531.87
ACT Andrew Jollands2,4197.504,71214.47
NZ First Pita Paraone 2,0016.203,85911.85
United Future Ian McInnes1,4614.532,5437.88
Green David Rose1,0403.221,1733.60
Christian Heritage Jonothan Ko8762.714261.31
Progressive Meng Ly4781.483961.22
Alliance Paul Protheroe1580.491920.58
ORNZ  2040.63
Legalise Cannabis  930.28
One NZ  200.06
NMP  40.01
Mana Māori  0.00
Informal votes37884
Total Valid votes32,26632,553
National holdMajority4,556

1999 election

Refer to Candidates in the New Zealand general election 1999 by electorate#Pakuranga for a list of candidates.

1993 election

1993 general election: Pakuranga [13]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Maurice Williamson 9,619 48.01 -16.24
Labour Heather Mackay4,15920.75
Alliance Denis Wilkins3,20315.98
NZ First David Moore2,39911.97
Christian Heritage John Starrenburg3671.83
McGillicuddy Serious Sasquatch2011.00
Natural Law Anne Brigid870.43
Majority5,46027.25-17.64
Turnout 20,03584.04-0.84
Registered electors 23,838

1990 election

1990 general election: Pakuranga [14]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Maurice Williamson 13,006 64.25 +20.89
Labour Paul Charles Grant3,92019.36
Green Peter Whitmore2,21110.92
NewLabour Sandy Gauntlett4202.07
Democrats Richard John Pittams3121.54
Social Credit Colin Bernard Nicholls1660.82
McGillicuddy Serious Greg Pittams1240.61
Blokes Liberation FrontPaul Brunton500.24
Independent Elaine Wills310.15
Majority9,08644.89-35.16
Turnout 20,24084.88-5.76
Registered electors 23,843

1987 election

1987 general election: Pakuranga [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Maurice Williamson 8,987 43.36
Democrats Neil Morrison 6,96933.62-1.85
Labour B V M Wilson4,70022.67
Independent S Bogrich700.33
Majority2,0189.73
Turnout 20,72690.64-4.48
Registered electors 22,866

1984 election

1984 general election: Pakuranga [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Social Credit Neil Morrison 8,271 35.47 -2.22
National Pat Hunt 8,09934.73-6.19
NZ Party Jo Grierson3,80416.31
Labour G Williams3,10113.30
Independent J R Marriott390.16-0.29
Majority1720.73
Turnout 23,31495.12+3.77
Registered electors 24,510

1981 election

1981 general election: Pakuranga [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Pat Hunt 9,908 40.92 +4.42
Social Credit Neil Morrison 9,12537.69+23.71
Labour Peter Turner5,06620.92
Independent J R Marriott1100.45
Majority7833.23-6.88
Turnout 24,20991.35+15.53
Registered electors 26,501

1978 election

1978 general election: Pakuranga [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Pat Hunt 7,615 36.50
Labour E J Smith5,50426.38
Independent Gavin Downie 4,45521.35
Social Credit Neil Morrison 2,91813.98+8.79
Values M H T Walker2691.28
Majority2,11110.11
Turnout 20,86175.82-11.58
Registered electors 27,513

1975 election

1975 general election: Pakuranga [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Gavin Downie 14,192 58.23 +6.79
Labour Geoff Braybrooke 7,17629.44
Values Maurice Jenner1,3495.53
Social Credit Neil Morrison 1,2655.19
Independent B J Curtis3561.46
AlphaC V Filmer190.07
World Socialist M H Gribble120.04
Majority7,01628.79+18.84
Turnout 24,36987.40-3.40
Registered electors 27,881

1972 election

1972 general election: Pakuranga [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Gavin Downie 9,310 51.44
Labour J B Irwin7,50841.48
Social Credit B J Southon1,1536.37
New Democratic F J Collins1260.69
Majority1,8029.95
Turnout 18,09790.80+0.66
Registered electors 19,930

1969 election

1969 general election: Pakuranga [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Bob Tizard 9,030 51.20 -0.45
National N W Holmes7,77744.09
Social Credit James Robinson6923.92
Independent E V Posa800.45
Communist Rita Smith 400.22
Independent Joseph Erwin Moosman170.09-0.30
Majority1,2537.10-5.33
Turnout 17,63690.14+4.24
Registered electors 19,563

1966 election

1966 general election: Pakuranga [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Bob Tizard 9,380 51.65 -2.27
National Victor David Thompson7,12139.21
Social Credit Thomas Rayne Wreaks1,5888.74+4.31
Independent Joseph Erwin Moosman710.39
Majority2,25912.43-0.51
Turnout 18,16085.90-1.45
Registered electors 21,139

1963 election

1963 general election: Pakuranga [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Bob Tizard 8,394 53.92
National Roland Mainwaring Neville-White6,37940.97
Social Credit Thomas Rayne Wreaks6904.43
Communist Rita Smith 1040.66
Majority2,01512.94
Turnout 15,56787.35
Registered electors 17,821

Table footnotes

  1. 2014 Internet Mana swing is relative to the votes for Mana in 2011; it shared a party list with Internet in the 2014 election.

Notes

  1. Report of the Representation Commission 2007 (PDF). Representation Commission. 14 September 2007. pp. 8, 13. ISBN   978-0-477-10414-2 . Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  2. Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 9. ISBN   978-0-477-10414-2 . Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  3. "Hon Maurice Williamson". New Zealand Parliament . Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  4. "Official Count Results – Pakuranga". Electoral Commission. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  5. Jones, Nicholas (26 July 2016). "National and Pakuranga MP Maurice Williamson to leave Parliament". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  6. "Official Count Results – Pakuranga". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  7. "Official Count Results – Pakuranga (2014)". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  8. "Official Count Results – Pakuranga (2011)". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  9. "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  10. Archived 12 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  11. [ dead link ]
  12. "Official Count Results – Pakuranga". Electionresults.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  13. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. p. 80.
  14. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990. p. 85.
  15. 1 2 3 Norton 1988, p. 307.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Norton 1988, p. 306.

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References