Christchurch Central

Last updated

Christchurch Central electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election Christchurch Central electorate, 2014.svg
Christchurch Central electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Christchurch Central is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the South Island city of Christchurch. The electorate was established for the 1946 election and, until 2011 had always been won by the Labour Party. Since 2008, the incumbent was Brendon Burns but the election night results for the 2011 election resulted in a tie; the special vote results combined with a judicial recount revealed a 47-vote majority for Nicky Wagner, the National list MP based in the electorate. Wagner significantly increased her winning margin in the 2014 election after having declared the electorate "unwinnable" for National earlier in the year following a boundary review. At the 2017 election Wagner lost the seat to Labour's Duncan Webb, who retained it at the 2020 election.

Contents

Population centres

Christchurch Central electorate boundaries for the 2008 and 2011 elections Christchurch central electorate 2008.png
Christchurch Central electorate boundaries for the 2008 and 2011 elections

The 1941 New Zealand census had been postponed due to World War II, so the 1946 electoral redistribution had to take ten years of population growth and movements into account. The North Island gained a further two electorates from the South Island due to faster population growth. The abolition of the country quota through the Electoral Amendment Act, 1945 reduced the number and increased the size of rural electorates. None of the existing electorates remained unchanged, 27 electorates were abolished, eight former electorates were re-established, and 19 electorates were created for the first time, including Christchurch Central. [1]

As the name suggests, the electorate covers the Christchurch Central City, plus several inner suburbs to the north and east of the central city. Since the 2008 election, the following suburbs, in alphabetical order, are at least partially located in the electorate: Avonside, Central City, Edgeware, Linwood, Mairehau, Merivale, North Linwood, Northcote, Papanui, Phillipstown, Redwood, Richmond, Shirley, St Albans, Sydenham, and Waltham. [2] In the 2013/14 redistribution, the electorate lost Mairehau and Shirley to Christchurch East and gained more of Sydenham and Beckenham from Port Hills and more of Redwood from Waimakariri. [3]

History

The Christchurch Central electorate was created in 1946. [4] Labour held the seat for the next 65 years, though a high turnout for the Alliance saw Tim Barnett's 1996 majority come in at under a thousand. The incumbent, Brendon Burns, had a majority in the 2008 election of also just under one thousand. [5]

The first representative was Robert Macfarlane, who had earlier represented the Christchurch South electorate. He held Christchurch Central until the 1969 election, when he retired. He was succeeded by Bruce Barclay, who died in office in 1979. This caused the 1979 by-election held on 18 August, which was won by Geoffrey Palmer. Palmer eventually went on to become Prime Minister. [6]

Palmer retired at the 1990 election and was succeeded by Lianne Dalziel. At the 1996 election, i.e. with the advent of MMP, Dalziel did not contest an electorate but stood as a list candidate only. Tim Barnett succeeded her and held the electorate until the 2008 election, when he retired. Brendon Burns succeeded Barnett.

The election night results for the 2011 election resulted in a tie; Burns and Nicky Wagner of the National Party received 10,493 votes each. The outcome of the election thus depended on the special votes. [7] This was the first time a tie result had been achieved since 1928. [8] When the final vote count was announced on 10 December, Wagner was declared the winner with a majority of 45 over Burns, making the result the second-smallest majority after Waitakere. Due to the closeness of the results a judicial recount was held where Wagner's majority increased by 2 votes to 47. [9] [10]

When draft electoral boundary changes were released, Wagner declared the electorate "unwinnable" for National. Although she was expected to not contest the 2014 general election, she announced at the end of January 2014 that she would try to defend her seat. [11] Labour chose Tony Milne as their candidate for Christchurch Central. [12] Wagner had a 2,420 majority over Milne. [13] The Labour Party chose Duncan Webb as its candidate for the 2017 general election. He is a prominent lawyer and earthquake claims advocate. [14] Webb narrowly won the seat in 2017, and massively increased his majority at the 2020 election amid that year's Labour landslide.

Members of Parliament

Christchurch Central has been represented by eight MPs. Since its creation in 1946 until the 2011 general election it had been a safe seat for the Labour Party. It was then held by the National Party until the 2017 general election when it swung back to Labour.

Key  Labour     Alliance     NZ First     National   

ElectionWinner
1946 election Robert Macfarlane
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election Bruce Barclay
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1979 by-election Geoffrey Palmer
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election Lianne Dalziel
1993 election
1996 election Tim Barnett
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election Brendon Burns
2011 election Nicky Wagner
2014 election
2017 election Duncan Webb
2020 election

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Christchurch Central electorate.

ElectionWinner
1996 election Ron Mark
Liz Gordon
1999 election
2005 election Nicky Wagner
2008 election
2017 election


Election results

2020 election

2020 general election: Christchurch Central [15]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Duncan Webb 23,93159.28+11.8121,68153.22+12.65
National Dale Stephens9,83324.36−14.917,92119.45−19.49
Green Chrys Horn2,5666.36+0.785,16812.69+2.95
ACT Abigail Johnson1,0712.652,5076.15+5.72
Legalise Cannabis Michael Britnell7041.74+0.882570.63+0.33
NZ First Mark Arneil5441.35-1.768622.12−3.09
New Conservative Benjamin Price4301.074781.17+0.91
Advance NZ Carole Church3550.883250.80
ONE Ken Webb1430.35920.23
Independent Hayden Laurie930.23
Opportunities  8872.19−1.29
Māori  1420.35−0.03
Outdoors  240.06+0.01
Sustainable NZ  240.06
Vision NZ  220.05
Social Credit  200.05+0.04
TEA  110.03
Heartland  20.005
Informal votes699312
Total Valid votes40,36940,735
Turnout 40,735????
Labour holdMajority14,09834.92+26.72

2017 election

2017 general election: Christchurch Central [16]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Duncan Webb 16,63147.47+8.5414,54140.57+14.31
National Red x.svgN Nicky Wagner 13,76039.27−6.9513,95638.94−5.72
Green Peter Richardson1,9575.58−2.853,4929.74−6.08
NZ First Phil Robinson1,0913.11−0.641,8695.21−1.98
Opportunities Doug Hill8792.501,2463.47
Legalise Cannabis Janine Shufflebotham3040.861080.30−0.18
United Future Ian Gaskin800.22450.12−0.05
ACT  1550.43−0.06
Māori  1390.38−0.08
Conservative  940.26−2.85
Outdoors  210.05
Ban 1080  210.05−0.03
People's Party  160.04
Mana  110.03−1.00 [lower-alpha 1]
Internet  80.02−1.01 [lower-alpha 2]
Democrats  50.01−0.08
Informal votes331111
Total Valid votes35,03335,838
Turnout 36,22081.01 [17] +2.51
Labour gain from National Majority2,8718.20+15.49

2014 election

2014 general election: Christchurch Central [18]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Nicky Wagner 15,34646.22+1.6915,30144.66+0.03
Labour Tony Milne12,92638.93−5.438,99526.25−3.15
Green David Moorhouse2,8008.43−0.145,41915.82−0.44
NZ First George Abraham1,2453.75+3.752,4627.19+2.23
Conservative Michael Cooke5981.80+0.181,0653.11+1.37
ACT Toni Severin 1220.37−0.041670.49−0.29
Māori Lenis Davidson1090.33+0.331570.46−0.04
Democrats Robin Columbus570.17+0.17300.09+0.06
Internet Mana  3531.03+0.67 [lower-alpha 3]
Legalise Cannabis  1650.48−0.16
United Future  790.23−0.31
Civilian  400.12+0.12
Ban 1080  270.08+0.08
Independent Coalition  30.01+0.01
Focus  10.00+0.00
Informal votes281108
Total Valid votes33,20334,264
Turnout 34,48078.01+6.32
National holdMajority2,4207.29+7.12

2011 election

2011 general election: Christchurch Central [19]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Nicky Wagner 12,06444.53+3.6112,50644.63+7.05
Labour Red x.svgN Brendon Burns 12,01744.36+0.528,24029.40-9.96
Green David Moorhouse2,3218.57+0.144,55616.26+5.09
Conservative Michael Cooke4391.62+1.624871.74+1.74
Independent Luke Chandler1380.51+0.51
ACT Toni Severin 1100.41-1.092190.78-1.93
NZ First  1,3914.96+1.83
Legalise Cannabis  1800.64+0.08
United Future  1510.54-0.18
Māori  1390.50-0.20
Mana  1000.36+0.36
Alliance  240.09-0.04
Libertarianz  220.08+0.01
Democrats  90.03-0.02
Informal votes532237
Total Valid votes27,08928,024
National gain from Labour Majority470.17+3.08

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 39,419 [20]

2008 election

2008 general election: Christchurch Central [21]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Brendon Burns 14,07843.83-8.7412,99939.36-8.95
National Nicky Wagner 13,14340.9211.6512,40937.58+7.07
Green Jan McLauchlan2,7088.43+1.783,68811.17+1.47
Progressive Somnath Bagchi5981.86-1.346972.11+0.25
Legalise Cannabis Michael Britnell4871.521870.57+0.20
ACT Toni Severin 4821.50+0.498972.72+1.66
Kiwi Andrew Beaven3531.102180.66
Workers Party Byron Clark [lower-alpha 4] 1640.51+0.24330.10
Alliance Greg Kleis1030.32410.12+0.01
NZ First  1,0363.14-0.90
United Future  2390.72-2.32
Māori  2300.700.36
Bill and Ben  1870.57
Family Party  870.26
Pacific  310.09
Libertarianz  210.06+0.04
Democrats  160.05+0.00
RONZ  50.02+0.00
RAM  20.01
Informal votes306119
Total Valid votes32,11633,023
Labour holdMajority9352.91-20.38

2005 election

2005 general election: Christchurch Central [22]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Tim Barnett 17,68552.5716,65248.31
National Nicky Wagner 9,84929.2810,51530.51
Green Natalie Cutler-Welsh2,2366.653,3429.70
Progressive Megan Woods 1,0773.206431.87
NZ First Kevin Gardener1,0223.041,3914.04
United Future John van Buren7612.261,0483.04
ACT Shirley Marshall3401.013641.06
Destiny Anita Breach3381.011440.42
Māori Darryl Gregory1880.561160.34
Anti-Capitalist Alliance Byron Clark900.27
Communist League Annalucia Vermunt530.16
Legalise Cannabis  1250.36
Alliance  400.12
Christian Heritage  370.11
Democrats  150.04
99 MP  100.03
Libertarianz  90.03
Direct Democracy  70.02
RONZ  50.01
Family Rights  40.01
One NZ  20.01
Informal votes410193
Total Valid votes33,63934,469
Labour holdMajority7,836

2002 election

2002 general election: Christchurch Central [23]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Tim Barnett 17,19056.213,85343.4
National Nicky Wagner 6,83722.45,33817.0
Green Matt Morris1,7915.93,47911.1
United Future Stephen Russell1,1603.82,1186.8
Christian Heritage Vic Pollard8742.94301.4
ACT Anthony Watson7622.51,8455.9
Progressive Fleur Churton7612.59303.0
Alliance Liz Gordon 6352.15981.9
Legalise Cannabis Jeanette Saxby4691.53271.0
Communist League Appu Baskaran990.3
NZ First  2,1066.7
ORNZ  2800.9
One NZ  160.1
Mana Māori  10<0.1
NMP  3(0.1
Informal votes516135
Total Valid votes30,57831,333
Labour holdMajority10,353

1999 election

1999 general election: Christchurch Central [24] [25]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Tim Barnett 17,22952.8013,407
National John Stringer7,82523.988,887
Alliance Liz Gordon 2,6908.243,369
Green Diana Pennell1,6585.082,421
ACT Katherine Sillars9512.911,731
Christian Heritage John Bryant6892.11695
NZ First John Ballantyne6411.96880
Future NZ Daryl Gregory4811.47423
McGillicuddy Serious Cecil G. Murgatroyd 2320.7156
Independent David Ball1320.40
Communist League Ruth Gray510.16
National Democrats Anton Foljambe440.13
Dominion WorkersClifford Mundy90.03
Legalise Cannabis  584
United NZ  154
Libertarianz  132
South Island  69
Animals First  58
Natural Law  17
Mauri Pacific  7
One NZ  7
Republican  7
Mana Māori  6
NMP  4
Freedom Movement2
People's Choice Party 2
Informal votes267
Total Valid votes32,918
Labour holdMajority9,404

1996 election

1996 general election: Christchurch Central [26] [27] [28]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Tim Barnett 9,68932.289,96732.79
National Kerry Sullivan9,03630.109,35530.77
Alliance Liz Gordon 6,37721.254,37214.38
NZ First Ron Mark 3,06710.222,4348.01
ACT Matthew Ball9533.181,5174.99
Progressive Greens Gillian Baillie3861.291060.35
United NZ Jacinta Grice2240.752260.74
Natural Law Raymond Cain1120.37660.22
Independent David Christopher Ball1020.34
Communist League Patrick Brown690.23
Christian Coalition  1,1623.82
Legalise Cannabis  9313.06
McGillicuddy Serious  1020.34
Animals First  850.28
Green Society 190.06
Superannuitants & Youth 160.05
Mana Māori  110.04
Ethnic Minority Party 100.03
Conservatives 80.03
Libertarianz  70.02
Advance New Zealand 30.01
Asia Pacific United 10.00
Te Tawharau 10.00
Informal votes47692
Total Valid votes30,01530,399
Labour holdMajority6532.18

1993 election

1993 general election: Christchurch Central [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Lianne Dalziel 9,841 55.21 +6.69
National Andrew Rowe3,65220.49
Alliance Michael Vercoe3,50119.64
Christian Heritage Tony Le Cren4132.32+0.06
McGillicuddy Serious Kieran Kelly2401.35
Natural Law Glenda Martin1260.71
Communist League Carmen Bain520.29
Majority6,18934.72
Informal votes7644.11
Turnout 18,58982.61+3.70
Registered electors 22,502

1990 election

1990 general election: Christchurch Central [30]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Lianne Dalziel 8,487 48.52
National Ross Gluer4,71826.97
NewLabour Sidonie Bradbury-Moore1,96311.22
Green Ruth Gardner1,5418.81
Christian Heritage Tony Le Cren3962.26
Democrats Joe Pounsford1640.93-2.27
McGillicuddy Serious Shane Dion Murphy1010.57
Social Credit Neville Minchington940.53
Communist League Brigid Rotheram270.15
Majority3,76921.54
Turnout 17,49178.91-3.33
Registered electors 22,163

1987 election

1987 general election: Christchurch Central [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Geoffrey Palmer 11,836 65.28 +1.92
National Graham Burnett5,03127.75
Democrats Joe Pounsford5573.07+0.06
Breakfast PartyJames Daniels2351.29
Socialist Action Felicity Brereton1961.08
Wizard PartyDavid Hanlon1190.65
Values Stephen Symons850.46
NZ Party Lynn Yeoman700.38
Majority6,80537.53-2.72
Turnout 18,12982.24-7.32
Registered electors 22,043

1984 election

1984 general election: Christchurch Central [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Geoffrey Palmer 13,394 63.36 +0.11
National Tony Willy4,88623.11
NZ Party Murray Ludemann2,0729.80
Social Credit Joe Pounsford6623.13
Independent Suzanne Sadler1230.58
Majority8,50840.25-0.94
Turnout 21,13789.56+4.46
Registered electors 23,599

1981 election

1981 general election: Christchurch Central [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Geoffrey Palmer 10,793 63.25 -0.95
National Ian Wilson3,76522.06
Social Credit Peter Admore2,42614.21
Communist League W E C Iversen780.45
Majority7,02841.19-4.64
Turnout 17,06285.10+49.10
Registered electors 20,048

1979 by-election

1979 Christchurch Central by-election [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Geoffrey Palmer 6,149 64.20 +3.03
Social Credit Terry Heffernan 1,75918.37+9.02
National David Duncan1,63417.06-8.55
Tory Suzanne Sadler260.27
Economic EuthenicsTubby Hansen100.10
Majority4,39045.83+10.27
Turnout 9,57836.00
Registered electors 26,605
Labour hold Swing +11.58

1978 election

1978 general election: Christchurch Central [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Bruce Barclay 10,229 61.17 +8.21
National Gwen Clucas4,28225.60
Social Credit R M Gyde1,5649.35
Values Robin Duff 6163.68
Socialist Action M W Gourley300.17
Majority5,94735.56+17.32
Turnout 16,72152.32-18.19
Registered electors 31,956

1975 election

1975 general election: Christchurch Central [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Bruce Barclay 8,630 52.96 -7.96
National T G B Armitage5,65734.71
Values Robin Duff 1,4158.68
Social Credit A C Easterbrook5553.40
Imperial British Conservative C P Whealleans370.22
Majority2,97318.24-12.94
Turnout 16,29470.51-14.49
Registered electors 23,107

1972 election

1972 general election: Christchurch Central [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Bruce Barclay 9,971 60.92 +2.87
National Barbara Beaven4,86829.74
Social Credit Ray Thomas7004.27
Values Diane Roberts6934.23
Socialist Unity Arnold James Cox680.41
New Democratic Cairn George Jensen660.40
Majority5,10331.18+8.72
Turnout 16,36685.00-1.61
Registered electors 19,252

1969 election

1969 general election: Christchurch Central [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Bruce Barclay 8,801 58.05
National Colin Knight 5,39535.58
Social Credit Stan Fitchett9646.35
Majority3,40622.46
Turnout 15,16086.61+6.79
Registered electors 17,502

1966 election

1966 general election: Christchurch Central [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Macfarlane 6,771 49.32 -2.92
National Fred Francis5,36239.06
Social Credit Lola Thompson1,45510.60+3.11
Communist Jack Locke1381.00-0.26
Majority1,40910.26-2.98
Turnout 13,72679.82-4.10
Registered electors 17,196

1963 election

1963 general election: Christchurch Central [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Macfarlane 7,552 52.24 -1.52
National David John Patchett5,63738.99
Social Credit Lola Thompson1,0847.49
Communist Jack Locke1831.26+0.21
Majority1,91513.24-2.09
Turnout 14,45683.92-0.69
Registered electors 17,225

1960 election

1960 general election: Christchurch Central [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Macfarlane 6,786 53.76 -7.01
National Tom Flint4,85138.43
Social Credit W Green8516.74
Communist Jack Locke1331.05-0.01
Majority1,93515.33-12.90
Turnout 12,62184.61-4.62
Registered electors 14,916

1957 election

1957 general election: Christchurch Central [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Macfarlane 8,763 60.77 +6.84
National Colin McLachlan 4,69232.54
Social Credit W J Campbell8115.62
Communist Jack Locke1531.06
Majority4,07128.23+3.30
Turnout 14,41989.23+3.15
Registered electors 16,158

1954 election

1954 general election: Christchurch Central [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Macfarlane 7,345 53.93 -8.79
National Oliver G. Moody3,95029.00
Social Credit Albert E. Willyams2,18516.04
Communist Alec Ostler1371.00
Majority3,39524.93-0.89
Turnout 13,61786.08+3.61
Registered electors 15,819

1951 election

1951 general election: Christchurch Central [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Macfarlane 6,901 62.72 -1.81
National Alma Schumacher4,10337.28
Majority2,79825.42-5.50
Turnout 11,00482.47-6.90
Registered electors 13,343

1949 election

1949 general election: Christchurch Central [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Macfarlane 7,589 64.53 -1.96
National Kevin Marlow3,95233.60
Communist Alec Ostler2181.85-0.56
Majority3,63730.92-4.49
Turnout 11,75989.37+0.40
Registered electors 13,157

1946 election

1946 general election: Christchurch Central [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Macfarlane 8,300 66.49
National Alan J. Wills3,88031.08
Communist Alec Ostler3022.41
Majority4,42035.41
Turnout 12,48288.97
Registered electors 14,028

Table footnotes

  1. 2017 Mana Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with the Internet Party in the 2014 election
  2. 2017 Internet Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with Mana Party in the 2014 election
  3. 2014 Internet Mana swing is relative to the votes for Mana in 2011; it shared a party list with Internet in the 2014 election.
  4. Byron Clark contested the seat in the 2005 election for the same party, which was then called the Anti-Capitalist Alliance.

Notes

  1. McRobie 1989, pp. 91–96.
  2. "Electorate Boundaries". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
  3. Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 10. ISBN   978-0-477-10414-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  4. Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. p. 156.
  5. New Zealand Parliament — Brendon Burns MP
  6. "Geoffrey Palmer". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 9 July 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  7. "Unprecedented dead heat in ChCh central". The Press . 26 November 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  8. "Nail-biting dead heat in Christchurch". 27 November 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  9. "Election results to declare new Govt". The New Zealand Herald . 10 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  10. Chapman, Kate (14 December 2011). "Recount confirms Christchurch central seat". Stuff . Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  11. Conway, Glenn (30 January 2014). "Wagner to defend Chch Central seat". The Press . Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  12. Robinson, Shelley (8 March 2014). "Tony Milne to run for Chch Central". The Press . Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  13. Mathewson, Nicole; Stylianou, Georgina; Fulton, Tim (21 September 2014). "Election 2014: Canterbury decides". The Press . Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  14. Stylianou, Georgina (4 May 2016). "Claims advocate to seek election". The Press . p. A7. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  15. "OChristchurch Central - Official Result". Electoral Commission. n.d. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  16. "Official Count Results -- Christchurch Central (2017)". Electoral Commission. 7 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  17. "Party Votes and Turnout by Electorate". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  18. "Official Count Results – Christchurch Central". Electoral Commission. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  19. Christchurch Central results, 2011
  20. "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 11 November 2011. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  21. Official Count Results – Christchurch Central 2008
  22. "Official Count Results – Christchurch Central". Electoral Commission. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  23. 2002 election results
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  29. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. pp. 12, 161.
  30. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990. p. 17.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Norton 1988, p. 206.
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Norton 1988, p. 205.
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