All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 29th term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the opposition National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.
The 29th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. It opened in 1950, following the 1949 general election. It was dissolved in 1951 in preparation for the 1951 general election. The governing Labour Party had been defeated in the election by the National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
The Labour Party had formed its first ministry after winning the 1935 election, and had remained in power (with gradually decreasing majorities) since then. The National Party, formed by a merger of the parties which Labour had originally ousted, gradually increased its power in Parliament; the ineffectual Adam Hamilton was replaced by Sidney Holland, and internal disputes were gradually resolved. The Prime Minister, Peter Fraser, was increasingly weary. Ongoing shortages after World War II also eroded public support for the government. The National Party's decision not to repeal Labour's social welfare policies also increased its appeal.
In constitutional usage in Commonwealth realms and in some other systems, a ministry is a collective body of government ministers headed by a prime minister or premier, and also referred to as the head of government. It is described by the Oxford Dictionary as "a period of government under one prime minister". Although the term "cabinet" can in some circumstances be a synonym, a ministry can be a broader concept which might include office-holders who do not participate in cabinet meetings. Other titles can include "administration" or "government" to describe similar collectives.
The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 25th term. It resulted in the Labour Party's first electoral victory, with Michael Joseph Savage becoming the first Labour Prime Minister. The governing coalition, consisting of the United Party and the Reform Party, suffered a major defeat, attributed by many to their handling of the Great Depression. The year after the election, United and Reform took their coalition further, merging to form the modern National Party.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
The date for the main elections was a Wednesday 30 November. Elections to the four Māori electorates were held the day before—the 1949 elections were the last in which Māori voted on a different day. 1,113,852 people were registered to vote, although rolls for the Māori seats were "woefully inadequate." Voter turnout for the elections is disputed, given the problems with the Māori roll—some sources place it at 93.5 percent, while others estimate 92.9 percent. Regardless, the turnout was relatively high for the time. The number of seats being contested was 80, a number which had been fixed since 1902.
In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; there are currently seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, and the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are often among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion.
The 1949 election saw the governing Labour Party defeated by a twelve-seat margin. It has previously held a four-seat majority. Labour won a total of 34 seats, as opposed to National's 46. The popular vote was considerably closer—Labour won 47.2 percent to National's 51.9 percent. No seats were won by minor party candidates or by independents.
John A. Lee stood for Grey Lynn as the sole Democratic Labour candidate and got 2,627 votes, coming third.
John Alfred Alexander Lee was a New Zealand politician and writer. He is one of the more prominent avowed socialists in New Zealand's political history.
Grey Lynn is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, in the city of Auckland. It existed from 1902 to 1978, and was represented by nine Members of Parliament.
The Democratic Labour Party (DLP) was a left-wing political party in New Zealand in the 1940s. It was a splinter from the larger Labour Party, and was led by the prominent socialist John A. Lee.
|Party||Candidates||Total votes||Percentage||Seats won||change|
The table below shows the results of the 1949 general election:
|Arch Hill||Bill Parry||5,174||Gordon Frederick Smith|
|Ashburton||Richard Geoffrey Gerard||2,385||William Erle Rose|
|Auckland Central||Bill Anderton||2,799||Leonard Bradley|
|Avon||John Mathison||4,593||G W Kinzett|
|Awarua||George Richard Herron||3,179||Neville Pickering|
|Bay of Plenty||Bill Sullivan||3,680||Thomas Godfrey Santon|
|Brooklyn||Peter Fraser||2,956||Mrs Berta S. Burns|
|Buller||Jerry Skinner||2,206||Phil McDonald|
|Central Otago||William Bodkin||3,906||Thomas Augustus Rodgers|
|Christchurch Central||Robert Macfarlane||3,637||Kevin John Marlow|
|Clutha||James Roy||3,231||John Edward Keenan|
|Dunedin Central||Phil Connolly||989||David Murdoch|
|Dunedin North||Robert Walls||668||Richard Brickell|
|Eden||Wilfred Fortune||2,259||Pat Curran|
|Egmont||Ernest Corbett||4,539||Brian Edgar Richmond|
|Fendalton||Sidney Holland||4,076||R T Newman|
|Franklin||Jack Massey||5,481||John Parsons|
|Gisborne||David Coleman||Reginald Keeling||489||Harry Dudfield|
|Grey Lynn||Fred Hackett||4,203||John Leon Faulkner|
|Hamilton||Hilda Ross||1,605||John Granville|
|Hastings||Ted Cullen||Sydney Jones||982||Ted Cullen|
|Hauraki||Andrew Sutherland||3,944||Percival Peacock|
|Hawke's Bay||Cyril Harker||3,442||Dick Beattie|
|Hobson||Sidney Walter Smith||5,068||William Edmund Lane|
|Hurunui||William Gillespie||2,535||Arthur J. Smith|
|Hutt||Walter Nash||2,273||H L Heatley|
|Invercargill||Ralph Hanan||1,159||William Denham|
|Island Bay||Robert McKeen||2,770||Herbert Edward Childs|
|Karori||Charles Bowden||3,585||Ethel Harris|
|Lyttelton||Terry McCombs||978||R R Beauchamp|
|Manawatu||Matthew Oram||3,433||Basil A. Rodgers|
|Marlborough||Tom Shand||1,862||J H Wilson|
|Marsden||Alfred Murdoch||3,276||Douglas L. Ross|
|Miramar||Bob Semple||1,315||Cuthbert Taylor|
|Mornington||Wally Hudson||4,185||Geoffrey Stephens|
|Mount Albert||Warren Freer||931||Reginald Frank Judson|
|Mount Victoria||Jack Marshall||1,808||Nathan Seddon|
|Napier||Tommy Armstrong||721||William Tucker|
|Nelson||Edgar Neale||1,373||R C A Marshall|
|New Plymouth||Ernest Aderman||1,517||Clarence Robert Parker|
|North Shore||Martyn Finlay||Dean Eyre||1,344||Martyn Finlay|
|Oamaru||Arnold Nordmeyer||Thomas Hayman||694||Arnold Nordmeyer|
|Onehunga||Arthur Osborne||2,300||Alan A. Coates|
|Onslow||Harry Ernest Combs||1,927||John S. Meadowcroft|
|Otahuhu||Charles Petrie||Leon Götz||1,275||Alexander Boyd Dixon|
|Otaki||James Joseph Maher||374||John Capstick|
|Pahiatua||Keith Holyoake||4,507||G P O'Leary|
|Palmerston North||Ormond Wilson||Blair Tennent||518||Ormond Wilson|
|Parnell||Duncan Rae||960||Frederick Schramm|
|Patea||William Sheat||1,841||Frederick William Finer|
|Petone||Michael Moohan||2,527||Norm Croft|
|Piako||William Goosman||6,266||Gilbert Parsons Kenah|
|Ponsonby||Ritchie Macdonald||2,278||Brian Kingston|
|Raglan||Alan Baxter||Hallyburton Johnstone||1,022||Alan Baxter|
|Rangitikei||Edward Gordon||3,310||E R De Malmanche|
|Remuera||Ronald Algie||5,079||Hugh Watt|
|Riccarton||Angus McLagan||2,707||Harry Lake|
|Rodney||Clifton Webb||4,546||Arthur Leaming|
|Roskill||Frank Langstone||John Rae||1,415||James Freeman|
|St Albans||Jack Watts||1,142||George Manning|
|St Kilda||Fred Jones||331||Gerald Lyon|
|Selwyn||John McAlpine||1,327||Alan Sharp|
|Sydenham||Mabel Howard||5,643||Oliver G. Moody|
|Tamaki||Tom Skinner||Eric Halstead||1,095||Tom Skinner|
|Tauranga||Frederick Doidge||4,595||Hillary Joseph Pickett|
|Timaru||Clyde Carr||832||Jack Lockington|
|Waikato||Geoffrey Sim||5,923||John Ronald Burfitt|
|Waimarino||Paddy Kearins||202||Arthur Herbert MacPherson|
|Waimate||David Campbell Kidd||1,767||Roy Davison|
|Wairarapa||Garnet Mackley||Bert Cooksley||963||George Anders Hansen|
|Waitakere||Rex Mason||930||Robert Tapper|
|Waitomo||Walter Broadfoot||5,079||Frank Kitts|
|Wallace||Tom Macdonald||4,511||Herman Victor Freeman|
|Wanganui||Joseph Cotterill||1,019||E V O'Keefe|
|Wellington Central||Charles Henry Chapman||575||Will Appleton|
|Westland||Jim Kent||2,744||Patrick Joseph O'Regan|
|Eastern Maori||Tiaki Omana||3,211||Turi Carroll|
|Northern Maori||Tapihana Paraire Paikea||2,029||James Henare|
|Southern Maori||Eruera Tirikatene||687||Huro Nathanial Bates|
|Western Maori||vacant||Iriaka Matiu Ratana||6,317||Hoeroa Marumaru|
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