1960 New Zealand general election

Last updated

1960 New Zealand general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1957 26 November 1960 (1960-11-26) 1963  

All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout1,170,503 (89.8%)
 First partySecond party
  Keith Holyoake (crop).jpg Walter Nash (ca 1940s).jpg
Leader Keith Holyoake Walter Nash
Party National Labour
Leader since 13 August 1957 17 January 1951
Leader's seat Pahiatua Hutt
Last election39 seats, 44.2%41 seats, 48.3%
Seats won4634
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 7Decrease2.svg 7
Popular vote557,046508,179
Percentage47.6%43.4%
SwingIncrease2.svg 3.4%Decrease2.svg 4.9%

1960 New Zealand general election - Results.svg
Results of the election.

Prime Minister before election

Walter Nash
Labour

Subsequent Prime Minister

Keith Holyoake
National

The 1960 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 33rd term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the National Party, putting an end to the short second Labour government.

Contents

Background

The Labour Party had won the 1957 election by a narrow margin, beginning New Zealand's second period of Labour government. However, the new administration soon lost its narrow lead in public opinion, with its financial policies being the principal cause of dissatisfaction. The so-called "Black Budget", introduced by finance minister Arnold Nordmeyer, increased taxes substantially, with particularly large increases for alcohol and tobacco taxes; Labour became widely seen as both miserly and puritanical. The government defended its tax increases as a necessary measure to avert a balance of payments crisis, but the opposition, led by Keith Holyoake, made substantial gains out of the issue throughout the parliamentary term. [1]

Both parties crafted narratives on the history of the balance of payments crisis in the lead up to the election. Holyoake tried to argue that overseas funds had not fallen as much as Nash said in 1957, and that Labour had produced a panic budget. Moreover, the over-importing was due to a fear of import controls if Labour should win. Nash continued to stress that National had produced the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression and that Labour had averted further disaster by its action. Coincidentally, at the begging of the election another drop in overseas funds occurred, but neither party commented much about it. [2]

Labour's main policy platform was on industrialization particularly with new cotton mills in Nelson. Nash constantly repeated the theme people in New Zealand had 'never been so well off' and pamphlets stated 'everyone, everywhere, will again be better off', closely mirroring British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's winning slogan in 1959, 'You've never had it so good'. [3] National's campaign promised to lower taxes, reduce import controls and abolish compulsory unionism. [4]

A very thorough study of the election by three political scientists concluded that National's preparations for the election, organization, and publicity were much better than Labour's which was the main reason for the result with little substantial differences between the parties in policy. [5] National's party organisation recognised their win was mostly due to public mood against Labour and many traditional Labour voters not bothering to vote. As a result Labour's vote share had fallen more than National's had risen. [6]

MPs retiring in 1960

Five National MPs and four Labour MPs intended to retire at the end of the 32nd Parliament.

PartyNameElectorate
National James Roy Clutha
Duncan Rae Eden
Jack Watts Fendalton
Sidney Walter Smith Hobson
Jimmy Maher Otaki
Labour Bill Anderton Auckland Central
Phil Holloway Heretaunga
Joe Cotterill Wanganui
Jim Kent Westland

The election

The date for the main 1960 election was 26 November. 1,310,742 people were registered to vote, and turnout was 89.8%. This turnout was slightly lower than what had been recorded in the previous elections. The number of seats being contested was 80, a number which had been fixed since 1902.

Results

The 1960 election saw the governing Labour Party defeated by a twelve-seat margin, having previously held a two-seat majority. National won a total of 46 seats to Labour's 34 seats, and formed the second National government. [7] In the popular vote, National won 47.59% to Labour's 43.42%. [8]

The Social Credit Party won 8.62% of the vote, but no seats. [9] Three of their candidates missed the nomination deadline, and the opening address of the party leader P. H. Matthews was not noteworthy.

Three new National members of parliament were called the Young Turks: Peter Gordon, Duncan MacIntyre and Robert Muldoon. [10] The other new National MPs were Esme Tombleson, Bill Brown, Harry Lapwood, Logan Sloane, Bert Walker, and Dan Riddiford. [11]

Paddy Blanchfield, Ron Bailey, Norman Douglas and George Spooner entered parliament for Labour.

1949 nz parliament.svg
Election results
PartyCandidatesTotal votesPercentageSeats wonChange
National 80557,04647.646+7
Labour 80508,17943.434−7
Social Credit 79100,9058.6-±0
Communist 182,4230.21-±0
Others71,9500.2-±0
Total2691,170,50380

Votes summary

Popular Vote
National
47.60%
Labour
43.40%
Social Credit
8.60%
Others
0.40%
Parliament seats
National
57.50%
Labour
42.50%

The table below shows the results of the 1960 general election:

Key

  National     Labour     Social Credit   

Electorate results for the 1960 New Zealand general election [12]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
General electorates
Ashburton Geoff Gerard 2,558George Glassey
Auckland Central Bill Anderton Norman Douglas 1,846Ray Presland
Avon John Mathison 4,216 Lorrie Pickering
Awarua Gordon Grieve 3,000J P Wyatt
Bay of Plenty Percy Allen 2,411Thomas Godfrey Santon
Buller Jerry Skinner 1,546Ernie King
Christchurch Central Robert Macfarlane 1,935Tom Flint
Clutha James Roy Peter Gordon 3,863Joseph Fahey
Dunedin Central Phil Connolly 842Norman Scurr
Dunedin North Ethel McMillan 2,475 Brenda Bell
Eden Duncan Rae John Rae 1,902Russell Gordon Penney
Egmont William Sheat 3,933J W Watson
Fendalton Jack Watts Harry Lake 2,722 Bill Rowling
Franklin Alfred E. Allen 5,197Howard Preston
Gisborne Reginald Keeling Esme Tombleson 291 Reginald Keeling
Grey Lynn Fred Hackett 4,596Brian Zouch
Hamilton Lance Adams-Schneider 2,583Sir Basil Arthur
Hastings Ted Keating Duncan MacIntyre 300 Ted Keating
Hauraki Arthur Kinsella 2,635 Albert Clifford Tucker
Hawkes Bay Cyril Harker 3,682J G Woolf
Heretaunga Phil Holloway Ron Bailey 2,576Vere Hampson-Tindale
Hobson Sidney Walter Smith Logan Sloane 1,401 Vernon Cracknell
Hurunui William Gillespie 2,731Arthur Adcock
Hutt Walter Nash 2,349George Barker
Invercargill Ralph Hanan 1,926Oliver James Henderson
Island Bay Arnold Nordmeyer 1,791Fairlie Curry
Karori Jack Marshall 4,313 Olive Smuts-Kennedy
Lyttelton Norman Kirk 260Jim Hay
Manawatu Blair Tennent 3,120Leonard Thomas Fischer
Manukau Leon Götz 245Cyril Stamp
Marlborough Tom Shand 1,747Robert William Hope
Marsden Don McKay 4,351John Swanson Reid
Miramar Bill Fox 467Bernard Lyons
Mornington Wally Hudson 2,246George Robert Thorn
Mount Albert Warren Freer 1,676Clarice Anderson
Napier Jim Edwards 1,405William John Gunn
Nelson Stan Whitehead 1,767Colin Wilson Martin
New Plymouth Ernest Aderman 1,693 Ron Barclay
North Shore Dean Eyre 1,817Peter Lawrence Smith
Onehunga Hugh Watt 4,705Paul Brian Phillips
Onslow Henry May 790Maida Clark
Otago Central John George 4,344 Brian MacDonell
Otahuhu James Deas 2,774Thomas Tucker
Otaki Jimmy Maher Allan McCready 2,044Thomas William Cameron
Pahiatua Keith Holyoake 4,934Kingsley McKane
Palmerston North Philip Skoglund Bill Brown 133 Philip Skoglund [nb 1]
Patea Roy Jack 2,304David Costello Valley
Petone Mick Moohan 2,918Dick Martin
Piako Stan Goosman 5,376Henry Uttinger
Ponsonby Ritchie Macdonald 4,744Neil McLaughlan
Raglan Douglas Carter 1,371 Alan Baxter
Rangitikei Norman Shelton 3,889Shaun Alex Cameron
Remuera Ronald Algie 6,109 Barry Gustafson
Riccarton Mick Connelly 2,022Deena V. Sergel [13]
Rodney Jack Scott 4,157 Phil Amos
Roskill Arthur Faulkner 1,374Geoffrey Taylor
Rotorua Ray Boord Harry Lapwood 358 Ray Boord
Selwyn John McAlpine 2,839John Palmer
St Albans Neville Pickering Bert Walker 298 Neville Pickering
St Kilda Bill Fraser 835 Jim Barnes
Stratford Thomas Murray 4,388H M St George
Sydenham Mabel Howard 4,793 Derek Quigley
Tamaki Bob Tizard Robert Muldoon 1,148 Bob Tizard
Tauranga George Walsh 5,239D C Goodfellow
Timaru Clyde Carr 357 Ronald Erle White
Waikato Geoffrey Sim 3,041Arthur John Ingram
Waipa Hallyburton Johnstone 3,241Bob Reese
Wairarapa Bert Cooksley 2,088Allan Goldsmith
Waitakere Rex Mason 3,709John Herbert Wilkinson
Waitaki Thomas Hayman 1,972Les McKay
Waitemata Norman King 1,249Jolyon Firth
Waitomo David Seath 3,951Duncan Barclay McLaren
Wallace Brian Talboys 5,736E Harris
Wanganui Joe Cotterill George Spooner 160E J Crotty
Wellington Central Frank Kitts Dan Riddiford 381 Frank Kitts
Westland Jim Kent Paddy Blanchfield 3,844D A Hogg
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Tiaki Omana 3,025 Arnold Reedy [14]
Northern Maori Tapihana Paikea 3,372George Russell Harrison
Southern Maori Eruera Tirikatene 3,947Ngarangi Whakaupoko Tutaki
Western Maori Iriaka Rātana 4,666 Pei Te Hurinui Jones

Table footnotes:

  1. Skoglund was first on election night, but lost after special votes were counted

Bibliography

Notes

  1. Gustafson 1986, p. 80.
  2. Sinclair 1976, p. 350.
  3. Sinclair 1976, pp. 349–50.
  4. Gustafson 1986, p. 82.
  5. Sinclair 1976, p. 349.
  6. Gustafson 1986, p. 90.
  7. Wilson 1985, p. 288.
  8. Wilson 1985, p. 290.
  9. Wilson 1985, pp. 288, 290.
  10. "Obituary: Duncan MacIntyre". The New Zealand Herald . 16 June 2001. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  11. Gustafson 1986, p. 85.
  12. Norton 1988.
  13. Gustafson 1986, p. 386.
  14. Gustafson 1986, p. 383.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Keith Holyoake</span> Prime minister of New Zealand in 1957

Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake, was the 26th prime minister of New Zealand, serving for a brief period in 1957 and then from 1960 to 1972, and also the 13th governor-general of New Zealand, serving from 1977 to 1980. He is the only New Zealand politician to date to have held both positions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Walter Nash</span> Prime minister of New Zealand from 1957 to 1960

Sir Walter Nash was a New Zealand politician who served as the 27th prime minister of New Zealand in the Second Labour Government from 1957 to 1960. He is noted for his long period of political service, having been associated with the New Zealand Labour Party since its creation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1975 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

The 1975 New Zealand general election was held on 29 November to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament. It was the first general election in New Zealand where 18- to 20-year-olds and all permanent residents of New Zealand were eligible to vote, although only citizens were able to be elected.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1972 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

The 1972 New Zealand general election was held on 25 November to elect MPs to the 37th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Labour Party, led by Norman Kirk, defeated the governing National Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1969 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

The 1969 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of Parliament's 36th term. It saw the Second National Government headed by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake of the National Party win a fourth consecutive term.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1946 New Zealand general election</span>

The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 28th term. It saw the governing Labour Party re-elected, but by a substantially narrower margin than in the three previous elections. The National Party continued its gradual rise.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1951 New Zealand general election</span>

The 1951 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 30th term. The First National Government was re-elected, with the National Party increasing its parliamentary majority over the opposition Labour Party. This was the last time until the 2020 election that a party was elected to majority government of New Zealand by receiving a majority of the vote.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1954 New Zealand general election</span>

The 1954 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 31st term. It saw the governing National Party remain in office, but with a slightly reduced majority. It also saw the debut of the new Social Credit Party, which won more than eleven percent of the vote but failed to win a seat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1957 New Zealand general election</span>

The 1957 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 32nd term. It saw the governing National Party narrowly defeated by the Labour Party. The 1957 elections marked the beginning of the second Labour government, although this administration was to last only a single term.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1963 New Zealand general election</span>

The 1963 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of New Zealand Parliament's 34th term. The results were almost identical to those of the previous election, and the governing National Party remained in office.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1966 New Zealand general election</span>

The 1966 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 35th term. It saw the governing National Party win a third consecutive term in office. It was also the first time since the 1943 election that a minor party won a seat in Parliament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jerry Skinner</span> New Zealand politician

Clarence Farrington Skinner, commonly known as Jerry or Gerry Skinner, was a Labour politician from New Zealand, the third deputy prime minister of New Zealand between 1957 and 1960, and a minister from 1943 to 1949 and 1957 to 1960 in the First and Second Labour governments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dean Eyre</span> New Zealand politician

Dean Jack Eyre was a New Zealand politician of the National Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">30th New Zealand Parliament</span>

The 30th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1951 general election on 1 September of that year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">31st New Zealand Parliament</span>

The 31st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1954 general election on 13 November of that year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">32nd New Zealand Parliament</span>

The 32nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1957 general election on 30 November of that year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">33rd New Zealand Parliament</span>

The 33rd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1960 general election on 26 November of that year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">34th New Zealand Parliament</span> Parliament elected 30 November 1963

The 34th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1963 general election on 30 November of that year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">35th New Zealand Parliament</span>

The 35th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1966 general election on 26 November of that year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">36th New Zealand Parliament</span>

The 36th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1969 general election on 29 November of that year.

References