All 99 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
50 seats were needed for a majority
The 1993 New Zealand general election was held on 6 November 1993 to determine the composition of the 44th New Zealand Parliament. Voters elected 99 members to the House of Representatives, up from 97 members at the 1990 election. The election was the last general election to use the first-past-the-post electoral system, with all members elected from single-member electorates.
The election saw the governing National Party, led by Jim Bolger, win a second term in office, despite a major swing away from National in both seats and votes. The opposition Labour Party, despite a slight drop in their support, managed to make gains in terms of seats. The new Alliance and New Zealand First parties gained significant shares of the vote, but won few seats.
Before the election, the National Party governed with 64 seats, while the opposition Labour Party held only 29. The 1990 election had been a major victory for the National Party, with the unpopular Fourth Labour Government being decisively defeated. The Labour Party had become unpopular for its ongoing economic reforms, which were based around liberalisation, privatisation, and the removal of tariffs and subsidies. The National Party was somewhat divided as to the merits of the reforms, with conservatives generally opposed and neoliberals generally in favour. The party had fought the 1990 election saying that the Labour government's program was too radical, and was being carried out without any thought of the social consequences – Jim Bolger spoke about "the Decent Society", promising a return to a more moderate and balanced platform. Once in government, however, the key Minister of Finance role was taken not by a moderate but by Ruth Richardson, who wished to expand, not end, the economic reforms. Many of the voters who had felt betrayed by Labour's reforms now felt betrayed by the National Party as well, a fact which contributed to the rise of minor parties.
The Alliance, the largest "third party", was a broad coalition of five smaller groups – the NewLabour Party (a Labour splinter), the Democrats (a social credit party), the Greens (an environmentalist party), Mana Motuhake (a Māori party), and the Liberal Party (a National splinter). The Alliance held three seats in Parliament – one belonged to Jim Anderton, who had been re-elected under a NewLabour banner in the seat he had formerly held for Labour, while the other two belonged to the National MPs who formed the Liberal Party. In its first electoral test, the 1992 by-election in Tamaki, the Alliance had performed well, taking second place. Another smaller group was New Zealand First, a party established by former National MP Winston Peters. Peters had broken with his party after a number of policy disputes with its leadership, and resigned from parliament to contest his seat as an independent. After being overwhelmingly re-elected, Peters established New Zealand First to promote his views. Peters was the party's sole MP.
Another consequence of dissatisfaction with both major parties was the referendum conducted alongside the 1993 election. The culmination of the larger decade-long New Zealand electoral reform process, the referendum was held following the September 1992 indicative referendum, which saw 85% of voters voting for change from the existing First Past The Post (FPP) system, and 70% choosing the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) as its preferred replacement: a proportional system which would make it easier for smaller parties to win seats. It asked voters to choose whether to keep the existing FPP system or change to MMP, with 53.9% of voters opting to change to MMP.
While National and Labour usually stood candidates in every seat, National was one candidate short as their Southern Maori candidate apparently did not apply in time.
The election was held on 6 November. 2,321,664 people were registered to vote, and 85.2% turned out. This turnout was almost exactly the same as for the previous election, although slightly less than what would be seen for the following one.
Preliminary results based on election night counts saw the country facing its first hung parliament since 1931, with no party gaining the 50 seats required for a majority. The National Party won 49 seats, a drop of 15 from before the election, and Labour had won 46 seats, with the balance of power held with the Alliance and New Zealand First, which won two seats each.This led to Jim Bolger saying on public television, "bugger the pollsters" as he had been led to expect a comfortable National victory by the polls showing that National would win easily. Labour leader Mike Moore delivered a speech later described by political scientist Jack Vowles as "damaging" and "more appropriate for a decisive Labour win than a narrow defeat."
On election night result with the two major parties tied, the Governor-General Dame Catherine Tizard asked Sir David Beattie to form a committee, along with three retired appeal court judges, to decide whom to appoint as prime minister.However National won one more seat and was returned to power when the official count saw the seat of Waitaki swing from Labour to National, giving National 50 seats and Labour 45 seats. Labour's Sir Peter Tapsell agreed to become speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives (so that National would not lose a vote in the house). Hence National had a majority of one seat.
The 1993–1996 parliamentary term would see a number of defections from both major parties, meaning that National would eventually be forced to make alliances to retain power.
|party||votes||% of votes||seats|
|minor parties and independents||10,747||0.56||+0.34||0||–|
|total registered electors||2,321,664|
a Increase over Alliance's constituent member parties' (Greens, NewLabour, Democrats and Mana Motuhake) combined vote share in 1990.
b Increase of one over Alliance's constituent party, NewLabour's result in 1990.
The table below shows the results of the 1993 general election by electorate:
National Labour Alliance NZ First Independent
|Albany||Don McKinnon||3,651||Jill Jeffs|
|Auckland Central||Richard Prebble||Sandra Lee||1,291||Richard Prebble|
|Avon||Larry Sutherland||5,643||Marie Venning|
|Awarua||Jeff Grant||Eric Roy||2,236||Olivia Scaletti-Longley|
|Birkenhead||Ian Revell||104||Ann Hartley|
|Christchurch Central||Lianne Dalziel||6,189||Andrew Rowe|
|Christchurch North||Mike Moore||6,024||Lee Morgan|
|Clutha||Robin Gray||4,117||Jeff Buchanan|
|Dunedin North||Pete Hodgson||3,794||Hugh Perkins|
|Dunedin West||Clive Matthewson||4,477||Ollie Turner|
|East Coast Bays||Murray McCully||4,516||Heather-Anne McConachy|
|Eastern Bay of Plenty||New electorate||Tony Ryall||806||Diane Collins|
|Eastern Hutt||Paul Swain||4,718||Peter MacMillan|
|Eden||Christine Fletcher||3,394||Verna Smith|
|Far North||New electorate||John Carter||3,425||Maryanne Baker|
|Fendalton||Philip Burdon||4,982||Tony Day|
|Franklin||New electorate||Bill Birch||3,543||Judy Bischoff|
|Gisborne||Wayne Kimber||Janet Mackey||1,068||Wayne Kimber|
|Glenfield||Peter Hilt||1,983||Ann Batten|
|Hamilton East||Tony Steel||Dianne Yates||80||Tony Steel|
|Hamilton West||Grant Thomas||Martin Gallagher||449||Grant Thomas|
|Hastings||Jeff Whittaker||Rick Barker||2,571||Cynthia Bowers|
|Hauraki||New electorate||Warren Kyd||1,870||Jeanette Fitzsimons|
|Hawkes Bay||Michael Laws||3,143||Peter Reynolds|
|Henderson||New electorate||Jack Elder||2,130||David Jorgensen|
|Heretaunga||Peter McCardle||832||Heather Simpson|
|Hobson||Ross Meurant||2,697||Frank Grover|
|Horowhenua||Hamish Hancock||Judy Keall||2,347||Hamish Hancock|
|Howick||New electorate||Trevor Rogers||5,754||James Clarke|
|Invercargill||Rob Munro||Mark Peck||1,174||Rob Munro|
|Island Bay||Elizabeth Tennet||5,422||Chris Shields|
|Kaimai||Robert Anderson||372||Peter Brown|
|Kaipara||Lockwood Smith||2,958||Rosalie Steward|
|Kapiti||Roger Sowry||1,038||Rob Calder|
|King Country||Jim Bolger||4,506||Murray Simpson|
|Lyttelton||Gail McIntosh||Ruth Dyson||677||David Carter|
|Manawatu||Hamish MacIntyre||Jill White||164||Gray Baldwin|
|Māngere||David Lange||5,958||Len Richards|
|Manurewa||George Hawkins||4,014||Mark Chalmers|
|Marlborough||Doug Kidd||2,548||Ron Howard|
|Matakana||New electorate||Graeme Lee||893||John Neill|
|Matamata||John Luxton||5,977||John Pemberton|
|Miramar||Graeme Reeves||Annette King||2,595||Graeme Reeves|
|Mount Albert||Helen Clark||4,656||Vanessa Brown|
|Napier||Geoff Braybrooke||4,926||Colleen Pritchard|
|Nelson||John Blincoe||2,007||Margaret Emerre|
|New Lynn||Jonathan Hunt||1,598||Cliff Robinson|
|New Plymouth||John Armstrong||Harry Duynhoven||3,126||John Armstrong|
|North Shore||Bruce Cliffe||4,723||Joel Cayford|
|Onehunga||Grahame Thorne||Richard Northey||407||Grahame Thorne|
|Onslow||New electorate||Peter Dunne||1,065||George Mathew|
|Otago||Warren Cooper||3,220||Janet Yiakmis|
|Otara||Trevor Rogers||Taito Phillip Field||5,981||Shane Frith|
|Pahiatua||John Falloon||5,178||Margo Martindale|
|Pakuranga||Maurice Williamson||5,460||Heather MacKay|
|Palmerston North||Steve Maharey||3,764||Barbara Stones|
|Panmure||Judith Tizard||3,277||Bruce Jesson|
|Papakura||John Robertson||484||Nancy Hawks|
|Papatoetoe||Ross Robertson||5,977||Jim Wild|
|Pencarrow||Sonja Davies||Trevor Mallard||2,641||Rosemarie Thomas|
|Porirua||Graham Kelly||6,713||Lagi Sipeli|
|Raglan||Simon Upton||4,540||Bill Harris|
|Rakaia||New electorate||Jenny Shipley||4,540||John Howie|
|Rangiora||Jim Gerard||4,469||Maureen Little|
|Rangitīkei||Denis Marshall||3,422||Bob Peck|
|Remuera||Doug Graham||8,619||Mary Tierney|
|Roskill||Gilbert Myles||Phil Goff||2,205||Allan Spence|
|Rotorua||Paul East||429||Keith Ridings|
|Selwyn||Ruth Richardson||888||Ron Mark|
|St Albans||David Caygill||3,425||Raewyn Dawson|
|St Kilda||Michael Cullen||5,071||Leah McBey|
|Sydenham||Jim Anderton||7,476||Greg Coyle|
|Tāmaki||Clem Simich||7,951||Richard Green|
|Taranaki||Roger Maxwell||4,871||Stephen Wood|
|Tarawera||Max Bradford||4,155||Gordon Dickson|
|Tasman||Nick Smith||4,059||Geoff Rowling|
|Tauranga||Winston Peters||Winston Peters||7,924||John Cronin|
|Te Atatū||Brian Neeson||Chris Carter||1,388||Laila Harré|
|Timaru||Maurice McTigue||Jim Sutton||2,940||Maurice McTigue|
|Titirangi||Marie Hasler||Suzanne Sinclair||340||Marie Hasler|
|Tongariro||Ian Peters||Mark Burton||1,951||Ian Peters|
|Waikaremoana||Roger McClay||4,021||Gregg Sheehan|
|Waikato||Rob Storey||2,286||Susan Moore|
|Waipa||Katherine O'Regan||3,730||John Kilbride|
|Wairarapa||Wyatt Creech||2,229||Peter Teahan|
|Waitakere||New electorate||Brian Neeson||3,180||Barbara Hutchinson|
|Waitaki||Alec Neill||53||Bruce Albiston|
|Waitotara||Peter Gresham||4,545||K F Lehmstedt|
|Wallace||Bill English||5,578||Lesley Soper|
|Wanganui||Cam Campion||Jill Pettis||3,371||Gael Donoghue|
|Wellington-Karori||New electorate||Pauline Gardiner||480||Chris Laidlaw|
|West Coast||Margaret Moir||Damien O'Connor||2,920||Margaret Moir|
|Western Hutt||Joy Quigley||1,542||Vern Walsh|
|Whangarei||John Banks||1,587||Mark Furey|
|Yaldhurst||Margaret Austin||2,997||David Watson|
|Eastern Maori||Peter Tapsell||6,666||Alamein Kopu|
|Northern Maori||Bruce Gregory||Tau Henare||416||Bruce Gregory|
|Southern Maori||Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan||6,340||Jules Parkinson|
|Western Maori||Koro Wētere||3,777||Ricky Taiaroa|
Based on the 1991 New Zealand census, an electoral redistribution was carried out; the last one had been carried out in 1987 based on the previous census in 1986.This resulted in the abolition of nine electorates, and the creation of eleven new electorates. Through an amendment in the Electoral Act in 1965, the number of electorates in the South Island was fixed at 25, so the new electorates increased the number of the North Island electorates by two. In the South Island, one electorate was abolished (Ashburton), and one electorate was recreated (Rakaia). In the North Island, five electorates were newly created (Eastern Bay of Plenty, Far North, Howick, Matakana, and Wellington-Karori), five electorates were recreated (Franklin, Hauraki, Henderson, Onslow, and Waitakere), and eight electorates were abolished (Bay of Islands, Clevedon, Coromandel, East Cape, Maramarua, Ohariu, Wellington Central, and West Auckland).
In many cases an MP from an abolished seat stood for, and was elected to a new one that broadly covered their previous electorate.
|Abolished Electorate||MP relocated||New Electorate|
|Bay of Islands||John Carter||Far North|
|East Cape||Tony Ryall||Eastern Bay of Plenty|
|West Auckland||Jack Elder||Henderson|
|One MP from an abolished electorate failed to win a new electorate|
|Wellington Central|| Pauline Gardiner ||Wellington-Karori|
| Chris Laidlaw |
|Due to boundary changes, two MPs moved to safer new electorates|
|Marginal Electorate||MP relocated||New Electorate|
|Te Atatu||Brian Neeson||Waitakere|
The seats of Gisborne, Hamilton East, Hamilton West, Hastings, Horowhenua, Invercargill, Lyttelton, Manawatu, Miramar, New Plymouth, Onehunga, Otara, Roskill, Te Atatu, Timaru, Titirangi, Tongariro, Wanganui and West Coast were won from the National Party by Labour challengers. Six of these seats (Gisborne, Hastings, Lyttelton, Miramar, New Plymouth & the West Coast) had been won by National in 1990, so were one-term National seats.
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