2011 New Zealand general election

Last updated
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  2008 26 November 2011 (2011-11-26) [1] 2014  

All 120 seats (plus one overhang seat) in the New Zealand House of Representatives
61 seats are needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout2,278,989 (74.21%) Decrease2.svg5.25%
 First partySecond partyThird party
 
John Key headshot.jpg
Phil Goff.jpg
Metiria Turei and Russel Norman crop.jpg
Leader John Key Phil Goff Russel Norman &
Metiria Turei
Party National Labour Green
Leader since 27 November 2006 11 November 2008 2006 / 2009
Leader's seat Helensville Mount Roskill List
Last election58 seats, 44.93%43 seats, 33.99%9 seats, 6.72%
Seats before58429
Seats won593414
Seat changeIncrease2.svg1Decrease2.svg8Increase2.svg5
Popular vote1,058,638614,936247,370
Percentage47.31%27.48%11.06%
SwingIncrease2.svg2.38%Decrease2.svg6.51%Increase2.svg4.34%

 Fourth partyFifth partySixth party
 
Winston Peters cropped.PNG
Tariana and Pita at Maori Party Launch 2005.jpg
Hone Harawira (cropped).jpg
Leader Winston Peters Tariana Turia &
Pita Sharples
Hone Harawira
Party NZ First Māori Mana
Leader since18 July 1993
(party foundation)
7 July 2004
(party foundation)
30 April 2011
(party foundation)
Leader's seatList Te Tai Hauāuru /
Tāmaki Makaurau
Te Tai Tokerau
Last election0 seats, 4.07%5 seats, 2.39%(not yet founded)
Seats before041
Seats won831
Seat changeIncrease2.svg8Decrease2.svg1Steady2.svg0
Popular vote147,54431,98224,168
Percentage6.59%1.43%1.08%
SwingIncrease2.svg2.52%Decrease2.svg0.96%Increase2.svg1.08%

 Seventh partyEighth party
 
Don.Brash.jpg
Peter Dunne.jpg
Leader Don Brash Peter Dunne
Party ACT United Future
Leader since28 April 20112000
(party foundation)
Leader's seat(outside Parliament) Ōhariu
Last election5 seats, 3.65%1 seat, 0.87%
Seats before51
Seats won11
Seat changeDecrease2.svg4Steady2.svg0
Popular vote23,88913,443
Percentage1.07%0.60%
SwingDecrease2.svg2.58%Decrease2.svg0.27%

Prime Minister before election

John Key
National

Subsequent Prime Minister

John Key
National

The 2011 New Zealand general election on Saturday 26 November 2011 [1] determined the membership of the 50th New Zealand Parliament.

50th New Zealand Parliament

The 50th New Zealand Parliament was elected at the 2011 general election. It had 121 members, and was in place from December 2011 until September 2014, followed by the 2014 general election. The first sitting of the 50th Parliament was held on 20 December 2011, where members were sworn in and Lockwood Smith was elected Speaker of the House. This was followed by the speech from the throne on 21 December. John Key continued to lead the Fifth National Government. Following the resignation of Smith, David Carter was elected Speaker.

Contents

One hundred and twenty-one MPs were elected to the New Zealand House of Representatives, 70 from single-member electorates, including one overhang seat, and 50 from party lists. New Zealand since 1996 has used the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) voting system, giving voters two votes: one for a political party and the other for their local electorate MP. A referendum on the voting system was held at the same time as the election, [2] with voters voting by majority to keep the MMP system. [3]

New Zealand House of Representatives Sole chamber of New Zealand Parliament

The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.

New Zealand electorates voting district for elections to the New Zealand Parliament

An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.

Overhang seats can arise in elections under the traditional mixed member proportional (MMP) system, when a party's share of the nationwide party votes entitles it to fewer seats than the number of constituencies it won.

A total of 3,070,847 people were registered to vote in the election, with over 2.2 million votes cast and a turnout of 74.21% [4] – the lowest turnout since 1887. [5] The incumbent National Party, led by John Key, gained the plurality with 47.3% of the party vote and 59 seats, two seats short of holding a majority. The opposing Labour Party, led by Phil Goff, lost ground winning 27.5% of the vote and 34 seats, while the Green Party won 11.1% of the vote and 14 seats – the biggest share of the party vote for a minor party since 1996. New Zealand First, having won no seats in 2008 due to its failure to either reach the 5% threshold or win an electorate, made a comeback with 6.6% of the vote entitling them to eight seats.

Voter turnout percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election

Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, and the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are often among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion.

New Zealand National Party Major New Zealand political party

The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.

John Key 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand

Sir John Phillip Key is a New Zealand former politician who served as the 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 2008 to 2016 and as Leader of the New Zealand National Party from 2006 to 2016. After resigning from both posts in December 2016 and leaving politics, Key was appointed to board of director and chairmanship roles in New Zealand corporations.

National's confidence and supply partners in the 49th Parliament meanwhile suffered losses. ACT New Zealand won less than a third of the party vote it received in 2008, reducing from five seats to one. The Māori Party was reduced from five seats to three, as the party vote split between the Māori Party and former Māori Party MP Hone Harawira's Mana Party. United Future lost party votes, but retained their one seat in Parliament.

ACT New Zealand New Zealand political party

ACT New Zealand, usually known as ACT, is a right-wing, classical-liberal political party in New Zealand. According to former party leader Rodney Hide, ACT stands for "individual freedom, personal responsibility, doing the best for our natural environment and for smaller, smarter government in its goals of a prosperous economy, a strong society, and a quality of life that is the envy of the world".

Māori Party New Zealand political party promoting indigenous rights

The Māori Party is an indigenous rights-based centre-left political party in New Zealand. Tariana Turia founded the party in 2004 after resigning from the governing centre-left Labour Party, for whom she was a minister, over the foreshore and seabed ownership controversy. She and Pita Sharples, a high-profile academic, became the first co-leaders.

Hone Harawira New Zealand politician

Hone Pani Tamati Waka Nene Harawira is a New Zealand Māori activist and former parliamentarian. He was elected to the New Zealand Parliament for the Māori electorate of Te Tai Tokerau in the 2005 general election as the Māori Party candidate. His resignation caused the Te Tai Tokerau by-election, held on 25 June 2011, which he won with a majority of 1117. As Leader of the Mana Movement and Member of Parliament for Te Tai Tokerau, he sat on the front bench in the New Zealand House of Representatives until losing the seat in the 2014 general election.

Following the election, National reentered into confidence and supply agreements with ACT and United Future on 5 December 2011, [6] [7] and with the Māori Party on 11 December 2011, [8] to form a minority government with a seven-seat majority (64 seats to 57) and give the Fifth National Government a second term in office.

In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.

A minority government, minority cabinet or minority parliament is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament. It is sworn into office, with or without the formal support of other parties, to enable a government to be formed. Under such a government, legislation can only be passed with the support of enough other members of the legislature to provide a majority, encouraging multi-partisanship. In bicameral parliaments, the term relates to the situation in chamber whose confidence is considered most crucial to the continuance in office of the government.

The Fifth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand for three parliamentary terms from 19 November 2008 to 26 October 2017. John Key served as National Leader and Prime Minister until December 2016, after which Bill English assumed the premiership until the National Government's defeat following the October 2017 government-forming negotiations.

Background

Election date and other key dates

The election date was set as Saturday 26 November 2011, as predicted by the media. [9] Breaking with tradition, Prime Minister John Key announced the election date in February. Traditionally, the election date is a closely guarded secret, announced as late as possible. The date follows the tradition of holding the general election on the last Saturday of November unless the schedule is interrupted by a snap election or to circumvent holding a by-election.

The Governor-General must issue writs for an election within seven days of the expiration or dissolution of Parliament. [10] Under section 17 of the Constitution Act 1986, Parliament expires three years "from the day fixed for the return of the writs issued for the last preceding general election of members of the House of Representatives, and no longer." The writs for the previous general election were returnable on 27 November 2008. [11] As a result, the 49th Parliament would have expired, if not dissolved earlier, on 27 November 2011. As that day was a Sunday, the last available working day was 25 November 2011. Consequently, the last day for issuance of writs of election was 2 December 2011. Except in some circumstances (such a recount or the death/incapacitation of an electorate candidate), the writs must be returned within 50 days of their issuance with the last possible working day being 20 January 2012. [12] Because polling day must be a Saturday, [12] the last possible polling date for the election was 7 January 2012, allowing time for the counting of special votes. [13] The Christmas/New Year holiday period made the last realistic date for the election Saturday 10 December 2011. The Rugby World Cup 2011 was hosted by New Zealand between 9 September and 23 October 2011, and ruled out all the possible election dates in this period. This left two possible windows for the general election: on or before 2 September and 29 October to 10 December.

Key dates of the election were: [14]

2 February 2011Prime Minister John Key announces election to be held on 26 November
6 October 2011Last sitting day for the 49th Parliament
20 October 2011Governor-General Jerry Mateparae dissolves the 49th Parliament
26 October 2011Writ Day - Governor-General issues formal direction to the Electoral Commission to hold the election.
Electoral roll closes for printing (all people enrolling after this date must cast special declaration votes).
2 November 2011Details of candidates for election and polling places released.
9 November 2011Advance and overseas voting begins.
25 November 2011Advance voting ends. Overseas voting ends 4:00pm local time.
26 November 2011Election Day - polling places open 9:00am to 7:00pm. Preliminary results released progressively after 7:00pm.
10 December 2011Official results released
15 December 2011Writ for election returned; official declaration of elected members

However, as the recount of the Waitakere was not completed in time for the writ to be returned on 15 December, the return of the writ was delayed to 17 December 2011.

49th Parliament, 2008–2011

Following the 2008 general election, National Party leader and Prime Minister John Key announced a confidence and supply agreement with ACT, the Māori Party and United Future to form the Fifth National Government. These arrangements gave the National-led government a majority of 16 seats, with 69 on confidence-and-supply in the 122-seat Parliament.

Labour, Greens and the Progressives are all in opposition, although only the Labour and Progressive parties formally constitute the formal Opposition; the Greens have a minor agreement with the government but are not committed to confidence and supply support.

At the 2008 election, the National Party had 58 seats, the Labour Party 43 seats, Green Party 9 seats, ACT and Māori Party five each, and Progressive and United Future one each. During the Parliament session, two members defected from their parties – Chris Carter was expelled from Labour in August 2010, and Hone Harawira left the Māori Party in February 2011. Carter continued as an independent, while Harawira resigned from parliament to recontest his Te Tai Tokerau electorate in a by-election under his newly formed Mana Party. Two MPs resigned from Parliament before the end of the session, John Carter of National and Chris Carter, but as they resigned within 6 months of an election, their seats remained vacant.

At the dissolution of the 49th parliament on 20 October 2011, National held 57 seats, Labour 42 seats, Green 9 seats, ACT 5 seats, Māori 4 seats, and Progressive, United Future and Mana one each.

Marginal seats in 2008

At the 2008 election, the following seats were won by a majority of less than 1000 votes:

ElectorateMember of ParliamentIncumbent partyMajoritySecond placeSecond party
New Plymouth Jonathan Young National 105 Harry Duynhoven Labour
Waimakariri Clayton Cosgrove Labour 390 Kate Wilkinson National
Waitakere Paula Bennett National 632 Lynne Pillay Labour
Rimutaka Chris Hipkins Labour 753Richard Whiteside National
Hauraki-Waikato Nanaia Mahuta Labour 888 Angeline Greensill Māori
Christchurch Central Brendon Burns Labour 935 Nicky Wagner National
West Coast-Tasman Chris Auchinvole National 971 Damien O'Connor Labour

MPs retiring in 2011

Nineteen MPs, including all five ACT MPs and the sole Progressive MP, intended to retire at the end of the 49th Parliament. One of the ACT MPs, John Boscawen, contested Tāmaki, but did not expect to win and was not on the party list. National MP Allan Peachey died three weeks before the election.

PartyNameElectorate
ACT Roger Douglas (List) [15]
Rodney Hide Epsom [16] [17]
Heather Roy (List) [18]
Hilary Calvert (List) [19]
John Boscawen (List) [20]
Green Sue Kedgley (List) [21] [22]
Keith Locke (List) [23]
Progressive Jim Anderton Wigram [24]
Labour Ashraf Choudhary (List) [25]
George Hawkins Manurewa [26]
Pete Hodgson Dunedin North [27]
Lynne Pillay (List) [28]
Mita Ririnui (List) [29]
National John Carter Northland [30]
Sandra Goudie Coromandel [31]
Wayne Mapp North Shore [32]
Simon Power Rangitīkei [33]
Allan Peachey Tāmaki [34]
Georgina te Heuheu (List) [35]

Electorate boundaries

Advance voting in campervans in Christchurch. Campervans were used as many of the polling stations used at previous elections are unavailable due to the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes. Christchurch polling place 01.jpg
Advance voting in campervans in Christchurch. Campervans were used as many of the polling stations used at previous elections are unavailable due to the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes.

Electorates in the election were the same as at the 2008 election.

Electorates and their boundaries in New Zealand are reviewed every five years after the New Zealand census. The last review took place in 2007, following the 2006 census. The next review is not due until 2014, following the 2013 census (the 2011 census was cancelled due to the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake).

Election procedures

On 17 September 2010, Justice Minister Simon Power announced the government was introducing legislation making this the first election where voters would be able to re-enrol completely on-line. Enrolments on-line beforehand still required the election form to be printed, signed, and sent by post. [36]

Voters in the Christchurch region were encouraged to cast their votes before election day if they had doubt about being able to get to a polling booth on election day or to avoid long queues, as many traditional polling booths are unavailable due to the earthquakes. Nineteen advance voting stations were made available, with three of them campervans, which are usually only used in rural areas of New Zealand. The Christchurch Central electorate, for example, has 33 polling stations in 2011 compared to 45 in 2008. [37]

Contesting parties and candidates

At the close of nominations, 544 individuals had been nominated to contest the election, down from 682 at the 2008 election. Of those, 91 were list-only, 73 were electorate-only (43 from registered parties, 17 independents, and 13 from non-registered parties), and 380 contested both list and electorate. [38]

Political parties registered with the Electoral Commission on Writ Day can contest the general election as a party, allowing it to submit a party list to contend the party vote, and have a party election expenses limit in addition to individual candidate limits. At Writ Day, sixteen political parties were registered to contend the general election. [39] At the close of nominations, thirteen registered parties had put forward a party list to the Commission to contest the party vote, down from nineteen in 2008. [38] [40]

PartyLeader(s)Party vote %
(2008 election)
Seats
(October 2011)
Electorate
candidates
Party list
candidates
Parties with seats in the 49th Parliament
ACT Don Brash 3.65550 55
Green Russel Norman / Metiria Turei 6.72959 61
Labour Phil Goff 33.994270 65
Mana Hone Harawira [a] 121 20
Māori Pita Sharples / Tariana Turia 2.39411 17
National John Key 44.935763 65
United Future Peter Dunne 0.87119 15
Other parties
Alliance Andrew McKenzie / Kay Murray 0.085 14
Conservative Colin Craig [a] 52 30
Democrats Stephnie de Ruyter 0.0514 24
Legalise Cannabis Michael Appleby 0.4118 28
Libertarianz Richard McGrath0.059 27
NZ First Winston Peters 4.0731 33
^[a]  Party was founded after the 2008 election

The Kiwi Party, the New Citizen Party and the Progressive Party were registered, but did not contend the election under their own banners. The Kiwi Party and the New Citizen Party stood candidates for the Conservative Party. [41]

In addition to the registered parties and their candidates, thirteen candidates from nine non-registered parties contested electorates. The Human Rights Party contested Auckland Central, the Communist League Manukau East and Mount Roskill, the Nga Iwi Morehu Movement contested Hauraki-Waikato and Te Tai Hauauru, the Pirate Party contested Hamilton East and Wellington Central, the Sovereignty Party contested Clutha-Southland and Te Tai Hauauru, Economic Euthenics contested Wigram, New Economics contested Wellington Central, Restore All Things In Christ contested Dunedin South, and the Youth Party contested West Coast-Tasman.

Seventeen independent candidates also contested the electorates in thirteen electorates: Christchurch Central, Coromandel, Epsom (two), Hamilton West (two), New Plymouth, Ōtaki, Rangitikei (two), Rongotai, Tāmaki (two), Tauranga, Waitaki, Wellington Central, and Ikaroa-Rawhiti

Campaigning

Epsom and the Tea Tape scandal

On 11 November, National Party leader John Key met with John Banks, the ACT candidate for Epsom, over a cup of tea at a cafe in Newmarket to send a signal to Epsom voters about voting tactically. [42] The National Party passively campaigned for Epsom voters to give their electorate vote to ACT while giving their party vote to National. This would allow ACT to bypass the 5% party vote threshold and enter Parliament by winning an electorate seat, thereby providing a coalition partner for National. However, in October and November 2011, polls of the Epsom electorate vote taken by various companies showed that the National candidate for Epsom, Paul Goldsmith, [43] was leading in the polls and likely to win the seat. During the meeting, the two politicians' discussion was recorded by a device left on the table in a black pouch. The recording tapes were leaked to The Herald on Sunday newspaper, and subsequently created a media frenzy over the content of the unreleased tapes. [44]

Debates

TVNZ held three party leaders' debates: two between the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition, and one between the leaders of the smaller parties. [45] TV3 hosted a single debate between the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. [46]

DateHostLeadersPresenter / Moderator
30 October TVNZ Don Brash, Metiria Turei, Hone Harawira, Pita Sharples, Peter Dunne Paul Holmes
Highlights – The debate included a variety of topics, ranging from the age of superannuation eligibility to youth unemployment to asset sales. Peter Dunne won the debate, with Metiria Turei coming second. [47]
31 October TVNZ John Key, Phil Goff Mark Sainsbury / Guyon Espiner
Highlights – The economy, asset sales, the cost of living, education, welfare, environment and mining, crisis management and recovery, leadership and New Zealand's involvement in Afghanistan. A text poll conducted alongside gave the debate to John Key with 61%. [48]
16 NovemberTVNZDon Brash, Russel Norman, Hone Harawira, Tariana Turia, Winston Peters, Peter DunneMark Sainsbury / Guyon Espiner
Highlights – The debate included the economy, the age of superannuation eligibility, Māori affairs, the environment, the Emissions Trading Scheme, the Tea Tape scandal, the voting system referendum, and potential partners after the election. A text poll conducted alongside gave the debate to Winston Peters with 36%, with Hone Harawira coming second with 27%. [49] [50]
21 NovemberTV3John Key, Phil Goff John Campbell
Highlights – A studio audience of undecided voters gave positive or negative reactions to the leaders, which showed up on a reactor worm. Aside from claims that the studio audience was biased, Phil Goff won the debate. [51]
23 NovemberTVNZJohn Key, Phil GoffMark Sainsbury / Guyon Espiner
Highlightsto be completed

Pre-election coalition preferences

The National Party ruled out working with New Zealand First's Winston Peters after the election. [52] ACT confirmed it would work with National after the elections.

The Labour Party leader Phil Goff ruled out a coalition agreement with Hone Harawira's new Mana Party, but left open the possibility of reaching an agreement with New Zealand First. [53]

In the 16 November minor parties debate, leaders from the minor parties stated their preferences: [48]

Media bias

A Massey University study released in November 2012 suggested newspaper coverage was favourable towards National and John Key. In the month leading up to the election, the big four newspapers in New Zealand – The New Zealand Herald , The Herald on Sunday, The Dominion Post and The Sunday Star-Times – printed 72 percent more photos of Key than his opponent, Phil Goff, and devoted twice as many column inches of text coverage. [54]

Opinion polling

Graphical representation of poll results NZ opinion polls 2009-2011 -parties.png
Graphical representation of poll results

The nature of the Mixed Member Proportional voting system, whereby the share of seats in Parliament a party gets is determined by its share of the nationwide party vote, means aside from normal polling bias and error, opinion polling in New Zealand is fairly accurate in predicting the outcome of an election compared with other countries.

Opinion polls were undertaken periodically since the 2008 election by MediaWorks New Zealand (3 News Reid Research), The New Zealand Herald (Herald Digipoll), Roy Morgan Research, and Television New Zealand ( One News Colmar Brunton), with polls having also being conducted by Fairfax Media (Fairfax Media Research International) since July 2011. The graph on the right shows the collated results of all five polls for parties that have polled above the 5% electoral threshold.

After the 2008 election, National gained in popularity, and since 2009 has regularly polled in the 50-55% range, peaking at 55% in August 2009 and October 2011, before falling to 51% in the week before the election. Labour and Green meanwhile kept steady after the election at 31-34% and 7-8% respectively until July 2011, when Labour started to lose support, falling to just 26% before the election. The majority of Labour's loss was the Green's gain, rising to 13% in the same period. No other party peaked on average above 5% in the period.

Results

Parliamentary parties

Party vote percentage

   National (47.31%)
   Labour (27.48%)
   Green (11.06%)
   NZ First (6.59%)
   Conservative (2.65%)
   Māori (1.43%)
   Mana (1.08%)
   ACT (1.07%)
   United Future (0.60%)
  Other (0.73%)
Seating diagram, after 2011 election NZ Parliament seats, 2011.svg
Seating diagram, after 2011 election
e    d  Summary of the 26 November 2011 election result for the New Zealand House of Representatives [55]
PartyVotes% of VotesSeats
%ChangeElectorateListTotalChange
National 1,058,63647.31+2.38421759+1
Labour 614,93727.48-6.50221234-9
Green 247,37211.06+4.3301414+5
NZ First 147,5446.59+2.53088+8
Māori 31,9821.43-0.96303-2
Mana 24,1681.08+1.08101+1
ACT 23,8891.07-2.58101-4
United Future 13,4430.60-0.27101±0
other parties75,4933.37-3.17000-1a
total2,237,464 [56] 100.007051121-1b
National minority government 1,127,95050.414717640
Opposition parties1,034,02146.212334570
party informal votes19,872 [56]
disallowed special votes21,263 [56]
disallowed ordinary votes390 [56]
total votes cast2,278,989 [56]
turnout74.21% [56]
total electorate3,070,847 [56]

a The loss of one MP is due to the Progressive Party not contesting the election.
b The loss of one seat is due to the reduction of the overhang, with the Maori Party only getting one electorate seat surplus to its party vote this election.

Non-parliamentary parties

e    d  Summary of party vote for minor
unrepresented registered parties.
PartyVotes%Change
Conservative 59,2372.65+2.65
Legalise Cannabis 11,7380.52+0.12
Democrats 1,7140.08+0.03
Libertarianz 1,5950.07+0.02
Alliance 1,2090.05-0.03
Minor parties, total75,4933.37-3.17

Votes summary

Popular Vote
National
47.31%
Labour
27.48%
Green
11.06%
NZ First
6.59%
Conservative
2.65%
Māori
1.43%
Mana
1.08%
ACT
1.07%
United Future
0.60%
Others
3.37%
Parliament seats
National
48.76%
Labour
28.09%
Green
11.57%
NZ First
6.61%
Māori
2.47%
Mana
0.83%
ACT
0.83%
United Future
0.83%

Electorate results

Party affiliation of winning electorate candidates. New Zealand electorates 2011 election (insets).svg
Party affiliation of winning electorate candidates.

Prior to the election, the National Party held the majority of the electorate seats with 41. Labour held 20 seats, Māori held four seats, and ACT, Mana, Progressive, United Future and an ex-Labour independent held one seat each.

After the election, National gained one seat to hold 42 seats, Labour gained three seats to hold 23 electorates, Māori lost one seat to hold three, and ACT, Mana, and United Future held steady with one seat each. [57] A National or Labour candidate took second place in all the general electorates except Rodney, where it was Conservative Party leader Colin Craig. [58]

In eleven electorates, the incumbents did not seek re-election, and new MPs were elected. In Coromandel, North Shore, Northland, Rangitikei, Rodney and Tāmaki, the seats were passed from incumbent National MPs to new National MPs; in Epsom, the seat was passed from the incumbent ACT MP to the new ACT MP; and in Dunedin North and Manurewa, the seats were passed from incumbent Labour MPs to new Labour MPs. Labour also won Te Atatu from the retiring ex-Labour independent, and Wigram from the retiring Progressive MP.

Of the 59 seats where the incumbent sought re-election, four changed hands. In West Coast-Tasman, Labour's Damien O'Connor regained the seat from National's Chris Auchinvole, who defeated him for the seat in 2008. In Waimakariri, National's Kate Wilkinson defeated Labour MP Clayton Cosgrove, and in Te Tai Tonga, Labour's Rino Tirikatene defeated Maori Party MP Rahui Katene. Christchurch Central on election night ended with incumbent Labour MP Brendon Burns and National's Nicky Wagner tied on 10,493 votes each, and on official counts, swung to Nicky Wagner with a 45-vote majority, increasing to 47 votes on a judicial recount. [59] [60] Despite losing their electorate seats, Chris Auchinvole and Clayton Cosgrove were re-elected into parliament via the party list.

On election night, Waitakere was won by incumbent National MP Paula Bennett with a 349-vote majority over Labour's Carmel Sepuloni. On official counts, it swung to Sepuloni with a majority of 11 votes, and Bennett subsequently requested a judicial recount, and on the recount, the seat swung back to Bennett with a majority of nine votes. [61] Bennett was declared elected, and Sepuloni was not returned via the party list due to her list ranking, being replaced in the Labour caucus with Raymond Huo.

Five electorates returned with the winner having a majority of less than one thousand – Waitakere (9), Christchurch Central (47), Waimakariri (642), Auckland Central (717) and Tāmaki Makaurau (936). [57]

The table below shows the results of the 2011 general election:

Key:

  National     Labour     NZ First     ACT   
  United Future     Māori     Mana   
Electorate results of the New Zealand general election, 2011 [62]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
Auckland Central Nikki Kaye 717 Jacinda Ardern
Bay of Plenty Tony Ryall 17,760Carol Devoy-Heena
Botany Pansy Wong Jami-Lee Ross 10,741Chao-Fu Wu
Christchurch Central Brendon Burns Nicky Wagner 47 Brendon Burns
Christchurch East Lianne Dalziel 5,334 Aaron Gilmore
Clutha-Southland Bill English 16,168Tat Loo
Coromandel Sandra Goudie Scott Simpson 12,740 Hugh Kininmonth
Dunedin North Pete Hodgson David Clark 3,489 Michael Woodhouse
Dunedin South Clare Curran 4,175 Joanne Hayes
East Coast Anne Tolley 4,774 Moana Mackey
East Coast Bays Murray McCully 14,641Vivienne Goldsmith
Epsom Rodney Hide John Banks 2,261 Paul Goldsmith
Hamilton East David Bennett 8,275Sehai Orgad
Hamilton West Tim Macindoe 4,418 Sue Moroney
Helensville John Key 21,066Piers Jeremy Greenbrook-Held
Hunua Paul Hutchison 16,797 Richard Hills
Hutt South Trevor Mallard 4,825 Paul Quinn
Ilam Gerry Brownlee 13,312John Parsons
Invercargill Eric Roy 6,263 Lesley Soper
Kaikōura Colin King 11,445Liz Collyns
Mana Kris Faafoi 2,230 Hekia Parata
Māngere William Sio 15,159 Claudette Hauiti
Manukau East Ross Robertson 15,838 Kanwaljit Singh Bakshi
Manurewa George Hawkins Louisa Wall 8,610 Cam Calder
Maungakiekie Peseta Sam Lotu-Iiga 3,021 Carol Beaumont
Mt Albert Helen Clark David Shearer 10,021 Melissa Lee
Mt Roskill Phil Goff 7,271 Jackie Blue
Napier Chris Tremain 3,701 Stuart Nash
Nelson Nick Smith 7,088 Maryan Street
New Lynn David Cunliffe 5,190 Tim Groser
New Plymouth Jonathan Young 4,270 Andrew Little
North Shore Wayne Mapp Maggie Barry 15,228Ben Clark
Northcote Jonathan Coleman 9,379Paula Gillon
Northland John Carter Mike Sabin 11,362Lynette Stewart
Ōhariu Peter Dunne 1,392 Charles Chauvel
Ōtaki Nathan Guy 5,231 Peter Foster
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson 13,846Sunny Kaushal
Palmerston North Iain Lees-Galloway 3,285Leonie Hapeta
Papakura Judith Collins 9,890Jerome Mika
Port Hills Ruth Dyson 3,097 David Carter
Rangitata Jo Goodhew 6,537Julian Blanchard
Rangitīkei Simon Power Ian McKelvie 9,382Josie Pagani
Rimutaka Chris Hipkins 3,286Jonathan Fletcher
Rodney Lockwood Smith Mark Mitchell 12,222 Colin Craig
Rongotai Annette King 9,047 Christopher Finlayson
Rotorua Todd McClay 7,357 Steve (Stephanie) Chadwick
Selwyn Amy Adams 19,451Jo Mclean
Tāmaki Allan Peachey Simon O'Connor 17,786Nick Iusitini Bakulich
Taranaki-King Country Shane Ardern 15,089 Rick Barker
Taupō Louise Upston 14,115Frances Campbell
Tauranga Simon Bridges 17,264Deborah Mahuta-Coyle
Te Atatū Chris Carter Phil Twyford 5,416 Tau Henare
Tukituki Craig Foss 9,660Julia Haydon-Carr
Waikato Lindsay Tisch 14,198 Kate Sutton
Waimakariri Clayton Cosgrove Kate Wilkinson 642 Clayton Cosgrove
Wairarapa John Hayes 7,135Michael Bott
Waitakere Paula Bennett 9 Carmel Sepuloni
Waitaki Jacqui Dean 14,143Barry Monks
Wellington Central Grant Robertson 6,376 Paul Foster-Bell
West Coast-Tasman Chris Auchinvole Damien O'Connor 2,539 Chris Auchinvole
Whanganui Chester Borrows 5,046Hamish Mcdouall
Whangarei Phil Heatley 12,447 Pat Newman
Wigram Jim Anderton Megan Woods 1,500Sam Collins
Māori Electorates
Hauraki-Waikato Nanaia Mahuta 5,935 Angeline Greensill
Ikaroa-Rāwhiti Parekura Horomia 6,541Na Raihania
Tāmaki Makaurau Pita Sharples 936 Shane Jones
Te Tai Hauāuru Tariana Turia 3,221Soraya Waiata Peke-Mason
Te Tai Tokerau Hone Pani Tamati Waka Nene Harawira 1,165 Kelvin Davis
Te Tai Tonga Rahui Katene Rino Tirikatene 1,475 Rahui Katene
Waiariki Te Ururoa James Flavell 1,883Annette Te Imaima Sykes
  • ^†  These people entered Parliament at the election as list MPs
Notes

^†  These people subsequently entered Parliament at the election as list MPs

List results

Highest polling party in each electorate. New Zealand party vote map, 2011.svg
Highest polling party in each electorate.

The election was notable for the entry in Parliament of New Zealand's first ever profoundly deaf MP, Mojo Mathers, number 14 on the Green Party's list. [63] [64]

National Labour Green NZ First
Lockwood Smith (03)
Chris Finlayson (09)
David Carter (10)
Tim Groser (12)
Steven Joyce (13)
Hekia Parata (18)
Michael Woodhouse (31)
Melissa Lee (34)
Kanwal Singh Bakshi (35)
Jian Yang (36)
Alfred Ngaro (37)
Katrina Shanks (38)
Paul Goldsmith (39)
Tau Henare (40)
Chris Auchinvole (43)
Jackie Blue (46)
Cam Calder (50)
David Parker (04)
Maryan Street (07)
Clayton Cosgrove (08)
Sue Moroney (10)
Charles Chauvel (11)
Jacinda Ardern (13)
Andrew Little (15)
Shane Jones (16)
Darien Fenton (18)
Moana Mackey (19)
Rajen Prasad (20)
Raymond Huo (21)
Metiria Turei (01)
Russel Norman (02)
Kevin Hague (03)
Catherine Delahunty (04)
Kennedy Graham (05)
Eugenie Sage (06)
Gareth Hughes (07)
David Clendon (08)
Jan Logie (09)
Steffan Browning (10)
Denise Roche (11)
Holly Walker (12)
Julie Anne Genter (13)
Mojo Mathers (14)
Winston Peters (01)
Tracey Martin (02)
Andrew Williams (03)
Richard Prosser (04)
Barbara Stewart (05)
Brendan Horan (06)
Denis O'Rourke (07)
Asenati Taylor (08)

Unsuccessful list candidates

National Aaron Gilmore*, Paul Quinn, Paul Foster-Bell*, Claudette Hauiti*, Jo Hayes*, Leonie Hapeta, Sam Collins, Jonathan Fletcher, Heather Tanner, Denise Krum, Carolyn O'Fallon, Viv Gurrey, Karen Rolleston, Brett Hudson, Linda Cooper, Karl Varley
Labour Carol Beaumont*, Kelvin Davis*, Carmel Sepuloni, Rick Barker, Deborah Mahuta-Coyle, Stuart Nash, Brendon Burns, Michael Wood, Steve Chadwick, Kate Sutton, Jerome Mika, Josie Pagani, Lynette Stewart, Jordan Carter, Christine Rose, Glenda Alexander, Susan Zhu, Sehai Orgad, Mea'ole Keil, Richard Hills, Anahila Suisuiki, Hamish McDouall, Louis Te Kani, Tat Loo, Soraya Peke-Mason, Julian Blanchard, Peter Foster, Pat Newman, Julia Haydon-Carr, Michael Bott, Vivienne Goldsmith, Nick Bakulich, Chris Yoo, Barry Monks, Hugh Kininmonth, Jo Kim, Paula Gillon, Carol Devoy-Heena, Ben Clark, Chao-Fu Wu
Green James Shaw, David Hay, Richard Leckinger, Aaryn Barlow, Jeanette Elley, Sea Rotmann, Michael Gilchrist, Dora Langsbury, David Kennedy, Tane Woodley, Joseph Burston, Mikaere Curtis, Shane Gallagher, Saffron Toms, Stephen Tollestrup, Zachary Dorner, Paul Bailey, Rick Bazeley, Maree Brannigan, Caroline Conroy, Sue Coutts, Pauline Evans, Rachael Goldsmith, Cameron Harper, John Kelcher, Alex Kruize, Tom Land, Gerrie Ligtenberg, Jim MacDonald, Nick Marryatt, Zane McCarthy, Jack McDonald, Ian McLean, John Milnes, Darryl Monteith, Robert Moore, Teresa Moore, David Moorhouse, Todd Ross, Brett Stansfield, Geoff Steedman, Gary Stewart, Vernon Tava, Corrina Tucker, Pieter Watson, Charmaine Watts, Richard Wesley
NZ First Helen Mulford, Hugh Barr, Fletcher Tabuteau, Pita Paraone, Brent Catchpole, Ben Craven, Jerry Ho, Bill Gudgeon, Kevin Gardener, Ray Dolman, David Scott, Randall Ratana, Mahesh Bindra, Edwin Perry, Dion Jelley, John Hall, Kevin Stone, Doug Nabbs, Brett Pierson, Olivia Ilalio, Gordon Stewart, Tamati Reid, Ian Brougham, Bill Woods, Allen Davies
Conservative Colin Craig, Kathy Sheldrake, Larry Baldock, Fa'avae Gagamoe, Brian Dobbs, Roy Brown, Simonne Dyer, Simon Kan, Litia Simpson, Kevin Campbell, Paul Young, Leighton Baker, Feleti Key, Claire Holley, Frank John Naea, Frank Poching, Jesse Misa, Bob Daw, Lance Gedge, Robyn Jackson, Pat Gregory, Timothy de Vries, Melanie Taylor, Cynthia Liu, Craig Jensen, Oliver Vitali, Danny Mountain, Ivan Bailey, Brent Reid, Michael Cooke
Māori Waihoroi Shortland, Kaapua Smith, Wheturangi Walsh-Tapiata, Tina Porou, Awanui Black, Davina Murray, Josie Peita, Paora Te Hurihanganui, Fallyn Flavell, Daryl Christie, Tom Phillips, Tim Morrison, Tamai Nicholson, Aroha Rickus
ACT Don Brash, Catherine Isaac, Don Nicolson, David Seymour, Chris Simmons, Stephen Whittington, Kath McCabe, Robyn Stent, John Thompson, John Ormond, Lyn Murphy, Kevin Moratti, Robin Grieve, Pratima Nand, Dominic Costello, Toni Severin, Richard Evans, Ian Cummings, Gareth Veale, Toby Hutton, Daniel Stratton, Robert Burnside, Hayden Fitzgerald, Alex Speirs, Peter McCaffrey, Shane Atkinson, Allan Birchfield, Robin Boom, Stephen Boyle, Barry Brill, Ian Carline, Tom Corbett, Casey Costello, Alwyn Courtenay, Alan Daniel Davidson, Kimberly Hannah, Beth Houlbrooke, Paul Hufflett, Rosanne Jollands, Nick Kearney, Tim Kronfeld, Joel Latimer, Jonathan Macfarlane, Garry Mallett, Guy McCallum, Colin Nicholls, John Norvill, David Peterson, James Read, Geoff Russell, Andrew Sharrock, Barbara Steinijans, Michael Warren, Vince Ashworth
United Future Doug Stevens, Rob Eaddy, Sultan Eusoff, Alan Simmons, Bryan Mockridge, Vanessa Roberts, Pete George, Ram Prakash, Martin Gibson, Clyde Graf, Damian Light, Andrew McMillan, Diane Brown, Brian Carter, Johnny Miller, Ian Gaskin
Mana Annette Sykes, John Minto, Sue Bradford, Misty Harrison, James Papali’i, Tawhai McClutchie, Angeline Greensill, Jayson Gardiner, Richard Shortland Cooper, Peter Cleave, Val Irwin, Sharon Stevens, Keriana Reedy, Pat O'Dea, Rod Paul, Grant Rogers, Te Nguha Huirama-Patuwai, Barry Tumai, Ngawai Herewini
Legalise Cannabis Michael Appleby, Michael Britnell, Maki Herbert, Julian Crawford, Jeff Lye, Jasmin Hewlett, Emma-Jane Mihaere-Kingi, Steven Wilkinson, Richard Goode, Fred MacDonald, Leo Biggs, Jay Fitton, Romana Manning, Geoff McTague, Jamie Dombroski, Christine Mitchell, Dwayne Sherwood, Abe Gray, Sean Norris, Adrian McDermott, Philip Pophristoff, Neville Yates, Mark Bradford, Blair Anderson, Kevin O'Connell, Paula Lambert, Irinka Britnell, Paul McMullan
Democrats Stephnie de Ruyter, John Pemberton, Warren Voight, Katherine Ransom, Carolyn McKenzie, Hessel van Wieren, Heather Smith, Jeremy Noble, Barry Pulford, John McCaskey, Huia Mitchell, Ken Goodhue, Les Port, Robert Mills, Harry Alchin-Smith, Errol Baird, Peter Adcock-White, John Ring, Kelly Balsom, David Espin, Ross Hayward, Gary Gribben, Ron England, David Tranter
Libertarianz Richard McGrath, Sean Fitzpatrick, Peter Cresswell, Reagan Cutting, Peter Osborne, Michael Murphy, Shane Pleasance, Robert Palmer, Bernard Darnton, Helen Hughes, Colin Cross, Nik Haden, Luke Howison, Phil Howison, Andrew Couper, Mike Webber, Bruce Whitehead, Donald Rowberry, Ken Riddle, Peter Linton, Allan Munro, Ian Hayes, Shirley Riddle, Callum McPetrie, Elahrairah Zamora, Euan McPetrie, Mitch Lees
Alliance Kay Murray, Andrew McKenzie, Kevin Campbell, Jim Flynn, Paul Piesse, Victor Billot, Mary O'Neill, Kelly Buchanan, Robert van Ruyssevelt, Jen Olsen, Tom Dowie, Thomas O'Neill, Eunice Billot, Norman MacRitchie
Notes
  1. These party list members would eventually enter parliament in the term as other list MPs elected resigned from parliament.
  2. These party list members have since resigned.

Changes in MPs

In total, 25 new MPs were elected to Parliament, and three former MPs returned.

New MPs: Scott Simpson, Maggie Barry, Mike Sabin, Ian McKelvie, Mark Mitchell, Simon O'Connor, Alfred Ngaro, Jian Yang, Paul Goldsmith, David Clark, Rino Tirikatene, Megan Woods, Andrew Little, Eugenie Sage, Jan Logie, Steffan Browning, Denise Roche, Holly Walker, Julie Anne Genter, Tracey Martin, Andrew Williams, Richard Prosser, Denis O'Rourke, Asenati Taylor, Brendan Horan

Returning MPs: John Banks, Winston Peters, Barbara Stewart

Defeated MPs: Paul Quinn, Steve Chadwick, Stuart Nash, Carmel Sepuloni, Rick Barker, Rahui Katene

Defeated MPs who later returned during the 50th Parliament Aaron Gilmore, Carol Beaumont, Kelvin Davis

Election expenses

The Electoral Commission released party electoral expense returns on 21 March 2012, stating how much each party spent on campaigning between 26 August and 25 November 2011. Candidate only expenses were excluded. [65]

Of note in the party expenses was the $1.88 million spent by the Conservative Party, spending more than but gaining less than one-tenth of the votes of the Labour Party. Translated into dollars spent per party vote gained, the Conservatives spent $31.71 per vote, compared to Labour's $2.91 and National's $2.19.

PartyCampaign expenditureParty votes receivedExpenditure per party vote
National $2,321,2161,058,636$2.19
Conservative $1,878,48659,237$31.71
Labour $1,789,152614,937$2.91
Green $779,618247,372$3.15
ACT $617,03523,889$25.83
NZ First $155,903147,544$1.06
Māori $72,17331,982$2.26
Mana $60,08224,168$2.49
Democrats $34,6761,714$20.23
United Future $27,71913,443$2.06
Legalise Cannabis $4,00311,738$0.34
Libertarianz $2,7601,595$1.73
Alliance $2,4071,209$1.99
Total/Average$7,745,0812,237,464$3.46

Post-election events

Changes in party leadership

For the ACT party the mediocre election results on 26 November 2011 (1.1% of the party vote, with no list MPs, 1 electorate MP) resulted in Don Brash tendering his resignation as leader, stating that he took full responsibility for the party's poor performance. [66] [67]

On 29 November the leader of the Labour party Phil Goff and the deputy leader Annette King tendered their resignations to a meeting of the caucus, effective on Tuesday 13 December 2011. [68] After a fortnight-long leadership campaign and election, David Shearer, with deputy Grant Robertson, won Labour caucus support over the ticket of David Cunliffe and Nanaia Mahuta. [69]

Related Research Articles

New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. It was founded in July 1993, following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. It has formed governments with both major parties in New Zealand, first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to present.

1999 New Zealand general election

The 1999 New Zealand general election was held on 27 November 1999 to determine the composition of the 46th New Zealand Parliament. The governing National Party, led by Prime Minister Jenny Shipley, was defeated, being replaced by a coalition of Helen Clark's Labour Party and the smaller Alliance. This marked an end to nine years of the Fourth National Government, and the beginning of the Fifth Labour Government which would govern for nine years in turn, until its loss to the National Party in the 2008 general election.

United Future New Zealand political party

United Future New Zealand, usually known as United Future, was a centrist political party in New Zealand. The party was in government between 2005 and 2017, first alongside Labour (2005–2008) and then supporting National (2008–2017).

1996 New Zealand general election Election on 12 October 1996

The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.

Māori electorates

In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; there are currently seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.

48th New Zealand Parliament

The 48th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined at a general election held on 17 September 2005. The new parliament met for the first time on 7 November 2005. It was dissolved on 3 October 2008.

Electoral system of New Zealand

The New Zealand electoral system has been mixed-member proportional (MMP) since 1996. MMP was introduced after a referendum in 1993. MMP replaced the first-past-the-post (FPP) system New Zealand had previously used for most of its history.

2008 New Zealand general election election

The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand Parliament. The liberal-conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government which governed for the next nine years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.

Epsom (New Zealand electorate) Current New Zealand electorate

Epsom is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. As of the 2017 general election, its member of parliament is David Seymour.

Mount Roskill (New Zealand electorate) New Zealand electorate

Mount Roskill is a parliamentary electorate in Auckland, New Zealand, returning one Member of Parliament (MP) to the New Zealand House of Representatives. Phil Goff of the Labour Party held the seat from the 1999 election until he resigned from Parliament on 12 October 2016 after contesting and being elected Mayor of Auckland on 8 October 2016 in the 2016 mayoral election. His resignation necessitated a byelection in this electorate which was won by Michael Wood.

Te Tai Tokerau Current New Zealand Māori electorate

Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was first held by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.

Te Tai Hauāuru

Te Tai Hauāuru is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives, that was first formed for the 1996 election. The electorate was represented by Tariana Turia from 2002 to 2014, first for the Labour Party and then for the Māori Party. Turia retired and was succeeded in 2014 by Labour's Adrian Rurawhe who again retained the seat in 2017.

Stuart Nash New Zealand politician

Stuart Alexander Nash is a politician from New Zealand. He was a list member of the House of Representatives for the Labour Party from 2008 to 2011, and was re-elected in the 2014 election as representative of the Napier electorate. He entered Cabinet in October 2018, with the portfolios of Police, Revenue, Small Business and Fisheries.

2014 New Zealand general election

The 2014 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 20 September 2014 to determine the membership of the 51st New Zealand Parliament.

2010 Mana by-election New Zealand by-election

A by-election was held in the New Zealand electorate of Mana on 20 November 2010. The seat was vacated by former Labour Pacific Island Affairs Minister Luamanuvao Winnie Laban, who announced her resignation from the New Zealand Parliament on 10 August 2010 following her appointment as Assistant Vice Chancellor Pasifika at Victoria University. According to provisional results, the by-election was won by Kris Faafoi, also of the Labour Party.

51st New Zealand Parliament

The 51st New Zealand Parliament was elected at the 2014 general election. This Parliament consists of 121 members and was in place from September 2014 until August 2017, followed by the 2017 New Zealand general election. Following the final vote count John Key was able to continue to lead the Fifth National Government.

2013 Ikaroa-Rāwhiti by-election New Zealand by-election

A by-election was held in the New Zealand electorate of Ikaroa-Rāwhiti on 29 June 2013. The seat was vacated by the death of incumbent member of parliament Parekura Horomia two months earlier, who had represented the electorate for the Labour Party since its inception for the 1999 election. The election was won by Labour's Meka Whaitiri.

2017 New Zealand general election Election on 23 September 2017

The 2017 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 23 September 2017 to determine the membership of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament. The previous parliament was elected on 20 September 2014 and was officially dissolved on 22 August 2017. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives under New Zealand's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 71 members were elected from single-member electorates and 49 members were elected from closed party lists. Around 3.57 million people were registered to vote in the election, with 2.63 million (79.8%) turning out. Advance voting proved popular, with 1.24 million votes cast before election day, more than the previous two elections combined.

Next New Zealand general election

The next New Zealand general election will be held after the currently elected 52nd New Zealand Parliament is dissolved or expires. The current Parliament was elected on Saturday, 23 September 2017. The last possible date for the next general election to be held is Saturday, 21 November 2020.

References

  1. 1 2 "Key confirms election date". The New Zealand Herald. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  2. "MMP referendum to be held with 2011 election". The New Zealand Herald . 20 October 2009.
  3. "Overall Results - 2011 Referendum on the Voting System". Electoral Commission. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  4. "Party Votes and Turnout by Electorate -- Statistics -- 2011 General Election". Electoral Commission (New Zealand). Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  5. Otago Daily Times "Decision 2011":Election Special Issue, 28 November 2011, p. 2.
  6. "Dunne, Banks secure ministerial roles in coalition deals". Television New Zealand. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  7. "Dunne, Banks get Govt roles". New Zealand Herald. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  8. "Key finalises Maori coalition deal". Television New Zealand. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  9. Armstrong, John; Young, Audrey (3 January 2011). "Challenges ahead but first, a break". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  10. "Electoral Act 1993, Sec. 125". Legislation.co.nz. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  11. CEO (4 June 2010). "2008 General Election Timetable". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 4 June 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  12. 1 2 "Electoral Act 1993, Sec. 139". Legislation.co.nz. 17 August 2011. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  13. "New Zealand's system of government - an overview". The New Zealand Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 14 May 2010.
  14. "2011 general election and referendum timetable". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 14 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
  15. "Sir Roger Douglas to quit parliament". Radio New Zealand . 19 February 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  16. "Hide won't contest general election". The New Zealand Herald . 3 May 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  17. "Hide refuses to give traditional farewell". The New Zealand Herald . 1 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  18. Vance, Andrea (25 June 2011). "Roy to quit - on her own terms". The Dominion Post . Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  19. Edwards, Bryce (29 August 2011). "Hilary Calvert, ideal politician". National Business Review . Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  20. "Nix NAIT Says Nicolson | ACT New Zealand". Act.org.nz. 6 September 2011. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  21. "Kedgley sprints to the 2011 finish line". Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand. 17 September 2010. Archived from the original on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  22. "Kedgley confirms resignation". 17 September 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  23. "Locke to retire at election". Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  24. Sachdeva, Sam (12 October 2010). "Anderton will retire from House in 2011". The Press . Fairfax New Zealand . Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  25. "Labour's list 'not trusted' by MP". Manawatu Standard . 11 April 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  26. Trevett, Claire (9 December 2010). "Labour in turmoil over MP's threat to resign". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  27. Makenzie, Dene (5 June 2010). "Hodgson exits politics on 'own terms'". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  28. "Lynne Pillay confirms she will stand down in 2011". Scoop Media. 3 December 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
  29. "Mita Ririnui: Time for new challenges". New Zealand Labour Party. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  30. "McCully names new High Commissioner to the Cook Islands". New Zealand Government. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  31. "Coromandel MP Sandra Goudie to retire". New Zealand Herald. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
  32. Liz Willis (15 December 2010). "National MP Wayne Mapp to retire".
  33. Martin Kay (2 March 2011). "Justice Minister Simon Power to retire". Stuff.co.nz . Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  34. John Hartevelt (5 October 2011). "Nationals Allan Peachey steps down". Stuff.co.nz . Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  35. "Georgina te Heuheu to retire from politics". The New Zealand Herald . 10 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
  36. "Government to allow voters to enrol via Internet". New Zealand Government. 17 September 2010.
  37. Gamble, Warren (18 November 2011). "Campervans collect early votes in Christchurch". The Press . Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  38. 1 2 "Candidates locked in for election". The New Zealand Herald. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  39. "Registered political parties - overview & register". Electoral Commission. 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  40. "Party lists for the 2011 General Election". Electoral Commission. 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  41. Danya Levy (18 October 2011). "New Citizens Party joins with Conservatives". Stuff. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  42. McMahon, Lyle (11 November 2011). "PM and Banks have their Epsom cup of tea". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  43. "Paul Goldsmith - Candidate profile". New Zealand National Party. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  44. Wilson, Peter (16 November 2011). "Key may face more teapot tape accusations". 3 News . New Zealand. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  45. "TV ONE election debates announced". Television New Zealand. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  46. Drinnan, John (26 August 2011). "Worm returns for leaders' debate". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  47. Cheng, Derek (30 October 2011). "Dunne wins debate by a hair". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  48. 1 2 "Goff and Key clash in fiery opening debate". Television New Zealand . 31 October 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  49. "Multi party debate: As it happened". Television New Zealand . 16 November 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  50. Vance, Andrea (17 November 2011). "Winston Peters winner in minor party debate" . Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  51. Watkins, Tracy; Small, Vernon (22 November 2011). "The worm turns for Goff in leaders' debate". Fairfax Media (via Stuff.co.nz). Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  52. "PM rules out any NZ First deal". The New Zealand Herald. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  53. "Goff rules out deal with Hone Harawira". Stuff.co.nz. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  54. "Election coverage biased towards Key, National - study". 3 News NZ. 27 November 2012.
  55. "Official Count Results -- Overall Status". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  56. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Party Votes and Turnout by Electorate -- Statistics -- 2011 General Election". Electoral Commission (New Zealand). Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  57. 1 2 "Official Count Results -- Electorate Status". Electoral Commission. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  58. Young, Audrey (29 November 2011). "10 things you didn't know about the election results". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  59. "Christchurch Central Judicial Recount Official Results". Electoral Commission. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  60. Chapman, Kate (14 December 2011). "Recount confirms Christchurch Central seat". Fairfax Media (via Stuff.co.nz). Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  61. "Waitakere Judicial Recount Official Results". Electoral Commission. 17 December 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
  62. http://www.electionresults.govt.nz/electionresults_2011/electoratestatus.html
  63. "Greens 'ecstatic' to have 14 MPs". Television New Zealand. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  64. "First deaf MP to join Parliament". New Zealand Herald. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  65. "Party expense returns - Election '11". Electoral Commission. 21 March 2012. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  66. Don Brash resigns leadership of ACT Radio New Zealand, 27 November 2011. Retrieved: 27 November 2011
  67. Don Brash interview Radio New Zealand, 26 November 2011. Retrieved: 27 November 2011
  68. Phil Goff tenders resignation Radio New Zealand, 29 November 2011. Retrieved: 29 November 2011
  69. Shearer routs Cunliffe for Labour leadership: Duncan Garner 3 News, 13 December 2011. Retrieved: 13 December 2011

Further reading

Election broadcast