1975 New Zealand general election

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1975 New Zealand general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1972 29 November 1975 (1975-11-29) 1978  

All 87 seats for New Zealand House of Representatives
44 seats were needed for a majority
 First partySecond party
  Muldoon 1978.jpg Bill Rowling, 1962.jpg
Leader Robert Muldoon Bill Rowling
Party National Labour
Leader since 9 July 1974 6 September 1974
Leader's seat Tamaki Tasman
Last election32 seats, 41.5%55 seats, 48.4%
Seats won5532
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 23Decrease2.svg 23
Popular vote763,136634,453
Percentage47.6%39.6%
SwingIncrease2.svg 6.1%Decrease2.svg 8.8%

1975 New Zealand general election - Results.svg
Results of the election.

Prime Minister before election

Bill Rowling
Labour

Subsequent Prime Minister

Robert Muldoon
National

The 1975 New Zealand general election was held on 29 November to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament. It was the first general election in New Zealand where 18- to 20-year-olds [1] and all permanent residents of New Zealand were eligible to vote, although only citizens were able to be elected.

Contents

The National Party, led by Rob Muldoon, won 55 of the 87 seats over the Labour Party, led by Bill Rowling. The election saw the defeat of the Third Labour Government after only three years in office and the formation of the Third National Government.

Background

The incumbent Labour Party, following the sudden death of Labour leader Norman Kirk, was led by Bill Rowling, a leader who was characterised as being weak and ineffectual by some political commentators. Labour's central campaign was the so-called "Citizens for Rowling" petition which attacked National leader Robert Muldoon's forthright leadership style. This campaign was largely seen as having backfired on Labour.

The National Party responded with the formation of "Rob's Mob". As former Minister of Finance in the previous National government, Muldoon focused on the economic impact of Labour's policies; National's campaign advertising suggested that Labour's recently introduced compulsory personal superannuation scheme would result in the government owning the New Zealand economy by using the worker's money, akin to a communist state. Muldoon argued that his New Zealand superannuation scheme could be funded from future taxes rather than an additional tax on current wages.

In July 1974, Muldoon as opposition leader had promised to cut immigration and to "get tough" on law and order issues. He criticized the Labour government's immigration policies for contributing to the economic recession and a housing shortage which undermined the New Zealand "way of life."

During the 1975 general elections, the National Party had also played an electoral advertisement that was later criticized for stoking negative racial sentiments about Polynesian migrants. [2]

The campaign also achieved notoriety due to an infamous television commercial featuring "Dancing Cossacks", which was produced by Hanna Barbera on behalf of National's ad agency Colenso. [3]

A consummate orator and a skilled television performer, Muldoon's powerful presence on screen increased his popularity with voters. [4]

MPs retiring in 1975

Four National MPs and Three Labour MPs intended to retire at the end of the 37th Parliament.

PartyNameElectorate
National Percy Allen Bay of Plenty
Logan Sloane Hobson
Jack Marshall Karori
Douglas Carter Raglan
Labour Norman Douglas Auckland Central
Ethel McMillan Dunedin North
Hugh Watt Onehunga

Opinion polling

[5] [6] [7]

PollDate [nb 1] National Labour Social Credit Values Lead
1975 election result29 Nov 197547.5939.567.435.198.03
NRBNov 19754644642
TVNZ HeylenNov 19754443751
NRBSep 197552395413
TVNZ HeylenSep 19755142539
TVNZ HeylenJul 19755042538
NRBJul 197551405411
TVNZ HeylenMay 19754942547
NRBMar 19754642664
TVNZ HeylenFeb 19754846522
NRBNov 1974444474Tie
TVNZ HeylenSep 19744547532
NRBSep 197440505410
NRBMay 1974444455Tie
NRBNov 19734447613
NRBMay 197339515112

Results

Celebrating on election night Celebrating on election night, November 29 1975.jpg
Celebrating on election night

The final results saw National win 55 seats, and Labour 32 seats. Thus Robert Muldoon replaced Bill Rowling as Prime Minister, ending the term of the Third Labour government, and beginning the term of the Third National government. The party seat numbers were an exact opposite of the 1972 election. No minor parties won seats, though the election saw the best ever result for New Zealand's first green political party, Values. There were 1,953,050 electors on the roll, with 1,603,733 (82.11%) voting.

While Muldoon would be re-elected twice, this would be the only time between 1969 and 1990 that National polled more votes than Labour.

Notable electorate results included the election of two Māori MPs to general seats; the first time that any Māori had been elected to a non-Māori electorate since James Carroll in 1893. The MPs in question were Ben Couch in Wairarapa and Rex Austin in Awarua.

In Palmerston North and Western Hutt, Labour was first on election night but lost when special votes were counted.

1975 nz parliament.svg
PartyCandidatesTotal votesPercentageSeats wonChange
National 87763,13647.5955+23
Labour 87634,45339.5632-23
Social Credit 87119,1477.430±0
Values 8783,2415.190±0
Socialist Unity 154080.030±0
Independent 673,7560.230±0
Total4151,603,73387

    Votes summary

    Popular Vote
    National
    47.59%
    Labour
    39.56%
    Social Credit
    7.43%
    Values
    5.19%
    Independents
    0.23%
    Parliament seats
    National
    63.22%
    Labour
    36.78%

    The table below shows the results of the 1975 general election:

    Key

      National     Labour     Social Credit   

    Electorate results for the 1975 New Zealand general election [8]
    ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
    General electorates
    Auckland Central Norman Douglas Richard Prebble 289 Murray McCully
    Avon Mary Batchelor 5,503Tom George
    Awarua Aubrey Begg Rex Austin 2,150 Aubrey Begg
    Bay of Plenty Percy Allen Duncan MacIntyre 3,960Robert Frederick McKee
    Birkenhead Norman King Jim McLay 2,816Norman King
    Christchurch Central Bruce Barclay 2,973Tim Armitage
    Clutha Peter Gordon 4,735F A O'Connell
    Coromandel Leo Schultz 4,724Raymond C. Bradley
    Dunedin Central Brian MacDonell 1,428Ian Bright
    Dunedin North Ethel McMillan Richard Walls 958Brian Arnold
    East Coast Bays Frank Gill 5,594Rex Stanton
    Eden Mike Moore Aussie Malcolm 1,331 Mike Moore
    Egmont Venn Young 4,120Dennis Duggan
    Franklin Bill Birch 7,605Ron Ng-Waishing
    Gisborne Trevor Davey Bob Bell 1,321 Trevor Davey
    Grey Lynn Eddie Isbey 2,839Jens Meder
    Hamilton East Rufus Rogers Ian Shearer 2,246 Rufus Rogers
    Hamilton West Dorothy Jelicich Mike Minogue 2,069 Dorothy Jelicich
    Hastings Richard Mayson Bob Fenton 491 Richard Mayson
    Hawkes Bay Richard Harrison 3,805 David Butcher
    Henderson Martyn Finlay 401Warren Adams
    Heretaunga Ron Bailey 336Julie Cameron [9]
    Hobson Logan Sloane Neill Austin 4,101Howard Manning [nb 2]
    Hutt Trevor Young 1,019Brett Newell
    Invercargill J. B. Munro Norman Jones 2,533 J. B. Munro
    Island Bay Gerald O'Brien 1,274Bill Nathan
    Kapiti Frank O'Flynn Barry Brill 2,222 Frank O'Flynn
    Karori Jack Marshall Hugh Templeton 4,830 Margaret Shields
    King Country Jim Bolger 4,316Thomas Varnam
    Lyttelton Tom McGuigan Colleen Dewe 999 Tom McGuigan
    Manawatu Allan McCready 2,918Alan Charles Eyles
    Mangere Colin Moyle 1,604Stanley Lawson
    Manukau Roger Douglas 678Brian Leaming
    Manurewa Phil Amos Merv Wellington 1,358 Phil Amos
    Marlborough Ian Brooks Ed Latter 3,010 Ian Brooks
    Miramar Bill Young 1,749 John Wybrow
    Mt Albert Warren Freer 247 Frank Ryan
    Napier Gordon Christie 931John Isles
    Nelson Stan Whitehead 1,093Ian McWhannel
    New Lynn Jonathan Hunt 890Barry O'Connor
    New Plymouth Ron Barclay Tony Friedlander 1,935 Ron Barclay
    North Shore George Gair 5,247 Wyn Hoadley
    Oamaru Bill Laney Jonathan Elworthy 2,196 Bill Laney
    Onehunga Hugh Watt Frank Rogers 1,044Kevin O'Brien
    Otago Central Ian Quigley Warren Cooper 2,371 Ian Quigley
    Otahuhu Bob Tizard 3,785Lois Morris
    Pahiatua Keith Holyoake 6,769Paul Thornicroft
    Pakuranga Gavin Downie 7,016 Geoff Braybrooke
    Palmerston North Joe Walding John Lithgow 142 Joe Walding
    Papanui Bert Walker 2,985Rod Garden
    Petone Fraser Colman 2,834Brel Gluyas
    Piako Jack Luxton 6,174 Helen Clark
    Porirua Gerry Wall 2,265Ross Doughty
    Raglan Douglas Carter Marilyn Waring 3,756Bill Pickering
    Rakaia Colin McLachlan 5,237Graeme Lowrie
    Rangiora Kerry Burke Derek Quigley 1,386 Kerry Burke
    Rangitikei Roy Jack 1,756 Bruce Beetham
    Remuera Allan Highet 8,656G B Mead
    Riccarton Eric Holland 4,766Don Johnson
    Rodney Peter Wilkinson 7,817John Prebble
    Roskill Arthur Faulkner 530John Maurice Priestley [10]
    Rotorua Harry Lapwood 3,605 Peter Tapsell
    Ruahine Les Gandar 2,763Rex Willing
    St Albans Roger Drayton 1,570Prudence Rotherberg
    St Kilda Bill Fraser 1,890Gordon Heslop
    South Canterbury Rob Talbot 4,301Neville Lambert
    Stratford David Thomson 5,667P P Hopkins
    Sydenham John Kirk 3,817 Paul Matheson
    Tamaki Robert Muldoon 6,735Tim Kaye
    Tasman Bill Rowling 529 Peter Malone
    Taupo Jack Ridley Ray La Varis 1,614Jack Ridley
    Tauranga Keith Allen 4,843Richard Hendry
    Timaru Sir Basil Arthur 1,011Dave Walker
    Waikato Lance Adams-Schneider 7,073Brian West
    Wairarapa Jack Williams Ben Couch 1,468 Jack Williams
    Waitemata Michael Bassett Dail Jones 1,385 Michael Bassett
    Wallace Brian Talboys 6,978Ian Lamont
    Wanganui Russell Marshall 1,244John Rowan
    Wellington Central Ken Comber 1,076 David Shand
    West Coast Paddy Blanchfield 2,401 Barry Dallas
    Western Hutt Henry May Bill Lambert 109 Henry May [nb 3]
    Whangarei Murray Smith John Elliott 2,710 Murray Smith
    Wigram Mick Connelly 1,967Neil Russell
    Māori electorates
    Eastern Maori Paraone Reweti 6,261Monty Searancke
    Northern Maori Matiu Rata 4,151 Winston Peters
    Southern Maori Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 6,452Willard Amaru
    Western Maori Koro Wētere 8,925Emerson Studholme Rangi

    Table footnotes:

    1. These are the survey dates of the poll, or if the survey dates are not stated, the date the poll was released.
    2. David Lange came third for Labour in Hobson
    3. Henry May was first on election night, but lost when special votes were included

    Notes

    1. Levine & Lodge 1976, p. ?.
    2. National Party advertisement (documentary). TVNZ Television New Zealand, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 1975.
    3. "Dancing Cossacks political TV ad". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
    4. Atkinson 2003, pp. 188f.
    5. "Historical Pollling Data 1974–2021". Patrick Leyland. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
    6. Calderwood, David (2010). Not a Fair Go: A History and Analysis of Social Credit's Struggle for Success in New Zealand's Electoral System (PDF) (MA). University of Waikato. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
    7. "Poll shows National lead". The Press . Vol. CXV, no. 33979. 21 October 1975. p. 20.
    8. Norton 1988, pp. ?.
    9. Gustafson 1986, p. 358.
    10. Gustafson 1986, p. 382.

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