All 87 seats for New Zealand House of Representatives
44 seats were needed for a majority
The 1975 New Zealand general election was held on 29 November to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament. It was the first general election in New Zealand where 18- to 20-year-oldsand all permanent residents of New Zealand were eligible to vote, although only citizens were able to be elected.
The 38th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1975 general election on 29 November of that year.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.
The incumbent Labour Party, following the sudden death of Labour leader Norman Kirk, was led by Bill Rowling, a leader who was characterised as being weak and ineffectual by some political commentators. Labour's central campaign was the so-called "Citizens for Rowling" petition which attacked National leader Robert Muldoon's forthright leadership style. This campaign was largely seen as having backfired on Labour.
Norman Eric Kirk was a New Zealand politician who served as the 29th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in 1974.
Sir Wallace Edward Rowling, commonly known as Bill Rowling, was a New Zealand politician who was the 30th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1974 to 1975. He held office as the parliamentary leader of the Labour Party.
The Citizens for Rowling campaign was a failed campaign to stop Robert Muldoon winning the 1975 New Zealand election. It was named after then Labour Prime Minister Bill Rowling in the lead-up to the 1975 general election. Members of the campaign publicly signed the "Citizens for Rowling" petition warning against a National government led by Muldoon. The campaign was largely organised by David Exel, a former television producer and current affairs interviewer.
The National Party responded with the formation of "Rob's Mob". As former Minister of Finance in the previous National government, Muldoon focused on the economic impact of Labour's policies; National's campaign advertising suggested that Labour's recently introduced compulsory personal superannuation scheme would result in the government owning the New Zealand economy by using the worker's money, akin to a communist state. Muldoon argued that his New Zealand superannuation scheme could be funded from future taxes rather than an additional tax on current wages.
In July 1974, Muldoon as opposition leader had promised to cut immigration and to "get tough" on law and order issues. He criticized the Labour government's immigration policies for contributing to the economic recession and a housing shortage which undermined the New Zealand "way of life."
Migration to New Zealand began with Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, then uninhabited, about 1250 to 1280. European migration provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, the Americas and Asia.
During the 1975 general elections, the National Party had also played an electoral advertisement that was later criticized for stoking negative racial sentiments about Polynesian migrants.
The campaign also achieved notoriety due to an infamous television commercial featuring "Dancing Cossacks", which was produced by Hanna Barbera on behalf of National's ad agency Colenso.
The "Dancing Cossacks" television advertisement was a 1975 electoral advertisement for the New Zealand National Party, produced by advertising agency Colenso. The first half of the advertisement was animated by Hanna-Barbera, with the second half featuring National Party leader Robert Muldoon. The advert was produced to be highly critical of the governing New Zealand Labour Party's recently introduced compulsory superannuation scheme, implying the scheme would eventually turn New Zealand into a Soviet-style communist state, and urged people to vote for National in the upcoming general election.
A consummate orator and a skilled television performer, Muldoon's powerful presence on screen increased his popularity with voters.
The final results of election: National won 55 seats, and Labour 32 seats. Thus Robert Muldoon replaced Bill Rowling as Prime Minister, ending the term of the Third Labour government, and beginning the term of the Third National government. The party seat numbers were an exact opposite of the 1972 election. No minor parties won seats, though the election saw the best ever result for New Zealand's first green political party, Values. There were 1,953,050 electors on the roll, with 1,603,733 (82.11%) voting.
Notable electorate results included the election of two Māori MPs to general seats; the first time that any Māori had been elected to a non-Māori seat since James Carroll in 1893. The MPs in question were Ben Couch in Wairarapa and Rex Austin in Awarua.
In Palmerston North and Western Hutt, Labour was first on election night but lost when special votes were counted.
|Party||Candidates||Total votes||Percentage||Seats won||Change|
The table below shows the results of the 1975 general election:
National Labour Social Credit
|Auckland Central||Norman Douglas||Richard Prebble||289||Murray McCully|
|Avon||Mary Batchelor||5,503||T P George|
|Awarua||Aubrey Begg||Rex Austin||2,150||Aubrey Begg|
|Bay of Plenty||Percy Allen||Duncan MacIntyre||3,960||R F McKee|
|Birkenhead||Norman King||Jim McLay||2,816||Norman King|
|Christchurch Central||Bruce Barclay||2,973||T G B Armitage|
|Clutha||Peter Gordon||4,735||F A O'Connell|
|Coromandel||Leo Schultz||4,724||R L Bradley|
|Dunedin Central||Brian MacDonell||1,428||A R Bright|
|Dunedin North||Ethel McMillan||Richard Walls||958||Brian Arnold|
|East Coast Bays||Frank Gill||5,594||Rex Stanton|
|Eden||Mike Moore||Aussie Malcolm||1,331||Mike Moore|
|Egmont||Venn Young||4,120||Dennis Duggan|
|Franklin||Bill Birch||7,605||Ron Ng-Waishing|
|Gisborne||Trevor Davey||Bob Bell||1,321||Trevor Davey|
|Grey Lynn||Eddie Isbey||2,839||Jens Meder|
|Hamilton East||Rufus Rogers||Ian Shearer||2,246||Rufus Rogers|
|Hamilton West||Dorothy Jelicich||Mike Minogue||2,069||Dorothy Jelicich|
|Hastings||Richard Mayson||Robert Fenton||491||Richard Mayson|
|Hawkes Bay||Richard Harrison||3,805||David Butcher|
|Henderson||Martyn Finlay||401||Warren Adams|
|Heretaunga||Ron Bailey||336||Julie Cameron|
|Hobson||Logan Sloane||Neill Austin||4,101||Howard Manning|
|Hutt||Trevor Young||1,019||Brett Newell|
|Invercargill||J. B. Munro||Norman Jones||2,533||J. B. Munro|
|Island Bay||Gerald O'Brien||1,274||Bill Nathan|
|Kapiti||Frank O'Flynn||Barry Brill||2,222||Frank O'Flynn|
|Karori||Jack Marshall||Hugh Templeton||4,830||Margaret Shields|
|King Country||Jim Bolger||4,316||T D Varnam|
|Lyttelton||Tom McGuigan||Colleen Dewe||999||Tom McGuigan|
|Manawatu||Allan McCready||2,918||Alan Charles Eyles|
|Mangere||Colin Moyle||1,604||S A Lawson|
|Manukau||Roger Douglas||678||B R Leaming|
|Manurewa||Phil Amos||Merv Wellington||1,358||Phil Amos|
|Marlborough||Ian Brooks||Edward Latter||3,010||Ian Brooks|
|Miramar||Bill Young||1,749||John Wybrow|
|Mt Albert||Warren Freer||247||Frank Ryan|
|Napier||Gordon Christie||931||J K W Isles|
|Nelson||Stanley Whitehead||1,093||I D McWhannel|
|New Lynn||Jonathan Hunt||890||B J O'Connor|
|New Plymouth||Ron Barclay||Tony Friedlander||1,935||Ron Barclay|
|North Shore||George Gair||5,247||Wyn Hoadley|
|Oamaru||Bill Laney||Jonathan Elworthy||2,196||Bill Laney|
|Onehunga||Hugh Watt||Frank Rogers||1,044||K A O'Brien|
|Otago Central||Ian Quigley||Warren Cooper||2,371||Ian Quigley|
|Otahuhu||Bob Tizard||3,785||Mrs L E Morris|
|Pahiatua||Keith Holyoake||6,769||P R Thornicroft|
|Pakuranga||Gavin Downie||7,016||Geoff Braybrooke|
|Palmerston North||Joe Walding||John Lithgow||142||Joe Walding|
|Papanui||Bert Walker||2,985||Rod Garden|
|Petone||Fraser Colman||2,834||B. Robert Gluyas|
|Piako||Jack Luxton||6,174||Helen Clark|
|Porirua||Gerard Wall||2,265||Ross Doughty|
|Raglan||Douglas Carter||Marilyn Waring||3,756||Bill Pickering|
|Rakaia||Colin McLachlan||5,237||Graeme Lowrie|
|Rangiora||Kerry Burke||Derek Quigley||1,386||Kerry Burke|
|Rangitikei||Roy Jack||1,756||Bruce Beetham|
|Remuera||Allan Highet||8,656||G B Mead|
|Riccarton||Eric Holland||4,766||D A Johnson|
|Rodney||Peter Wilkinson||7,817||John Prebble|
|Roskill||Arthur Faulkner||530||John Maurice Priestley|
|Rotorua||Harry Lapwood||3,605||Peter Tapsell|
|Ruahine||Les Gandar||2,763||Rex Willing|
|St Albans||Roger Drayton||1,570||Ms P R Rotherberg|
|St Kilda||Bill Fraser||1,890||Gordon Heslop|
|South Canterbury||Rob Talbot||4,301||N B Lambert|
|Stratford||David Thomson||5,667||P P Hopkins|
|Sydenham||John Kirk||3,817||Paul Matheson|
|Tamaki||Robert Muldoon||6,735||C T Kaye|
|Tasman||Bill Rowling||529||Peter Malone|
|Taupo||Jack Ridley||Ray La Varis||1,614||Jack Ridley|
|Tauranga||Keith Allen||4,843||Richard Hendry|
|Timaru||Basil Arthur||1,011||David Arthur John Walker|
|Waikato||Lance Adams-Schneider||7,073||Brian West|
|Wairarapa||Jack Williams||Ben Couch||1,468||Jack Williams|
|Waitemata||Michael Bassett||Dail Jones||1,385||Michael Bassett|
|Wallace||Brian Talboys||6,978||Ian Lamont|
|Wanganui||Russell Marshall||1,244||J G Rowan|
|Wellington Central||Ken Comber||1,076||David Shand|
|West Coast||Paddy Blanchfield||2,401||Barry Dallas|
|Western Hutt||Henry May||Brian Lambert||109||Henry May|
|Whangarei||Murray Smith||John Elliott||2,710||Murray Smith|
|Wigram||Mick Connelly||1,967||Neil Russell|
|Eastern Maori||Paraone Reweti||6,261||M Searancke|
|Northern Maori||Matiu Rata||4,151||Winston Peters|
|Southern Maori||Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan||6,452||Willard Amaru|
|Western Maori||Koro Wētere||8,925||E S Rangi|
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