All 87 seats for New Zealand House of Representatives
44 seats were needed for a majority
Results of the election.
The 1975 New Zealand general election was held on 29 November to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament. It was the first general election in New Zealand where 18- to 20-year-oldsand all permanent residents of New Zealand were eligible to vote, although only citizens were able to be elected.
The National Party, led by Rob Muldoon, won 55 of the 87 seats over the Labour Party, led by Bill Rowling. The election saw the defeat of the Third Labour Government after only three years in office and the formation of the Third National Government.
The incumbent Labour Party, following the sudden death of Labour leader Norman Kirk, was led by Bill Rowling, a leader who was characterised as being weak and ineffectual by some political commentators. Labour's central campaign was the so-called "Citizens for Rowling" petition which attacked National leader Robert Muldoon's forthright leadership style. This campaign was largely seen as having backfired on Labour.
The National Party responded with the formation of "Rob's Mob". As former Minister of Finance in the previous National government, Muldoon focused on the economic impact of Labour's policies; National's campaign advertising suggested that Labour's recently introduced compulsory personal superannuation scheme would result in the government owning the New Zealand economy by using the worker's money, akin to a communist state. Muldoon argued that his New Zealand superannuation scheme could be funded from future taxes rather than an additional tax on current wages.
In July 1974, Muldoon as opposition leader had promised to cut immigration and to "get tough" on law and order issues. He criticized the Labour government's immigration policies for contributing to the economic recession and a housing shortage which undermined the New Zealand "way of life."
During the 1975 general elections, the National Party had also played an electoral advertisement that was later criticized for stoking negative racial sentiments about Polynesian migrants.
The campaign also achieved notoriety due to an infamous television commercial featuring "Dancing Cossacks", which was produced by Hanna Barbera on behalf of National's ad agency Colenso.
A consummate orator and a skilled television performer, Muldoon's powerful presence on screen increased his popularity with voters.
Four National MPs and Three Labour MPs intended to retire at the end of the 37th Parliament.
|National||Percy Allen||Bay of Plenty|
|Labour||Norman Douglas||Auckland Central|
|Ethel McMillan||Dunedin North|
|1975 election result||29 Nov 1975||47.59||39.56||7.43||5.19||8.03|
|TVNZ Heylen||Nov 1975||44||43||7||5||1|
|TVNZ Heylen||Sep 1975||51||42||5||3||9|
|TVNZ Heylen||Jul 1975||50||42||5||3||8|
|TVNZ Heylen||May 1975||49||42||5||4||7|
|TVNZ Heylen||Feb 1975||48||46||5||2||2|
|TVNZ Heylen||Sep 1974||45||47||5||3||2|
The final results saw National win 55 seats, and Labour 32 seats. Thus Robert Muldoon replaced Bill Rowling as Prime Minister, ending the term of the Third Labour government, and beginning the term of the Third National government. The party seat numbers were an exact opposite of the 1972 election. No minor parties won seats, though the election saw the best ever result for New Zealand's first green political party, Values. There were 1,953,050 electors on the roll, with 1,603,733 (82.11%) voting.
While Muldoon would be re-elected twice, this would be the only time between 1969 and 1990 that National polled more votes than Labour.
Notable electorate results included the election of two Māori MPs to general seats; the first time that any Māori had been elected to a non-Māori electorate since James Carroll in 1893. The MPs in question were Ben Couch in Wairarapa and Rex Austin in Awarua.
In Palmerston North and Western Hutt, Labour was first on election night but lost when special votes were counted.
|Party||Candidates||Total votes||Percentage||Seats won||Change|
The table below shows the results of the 1975 general election:
Labour Social CreditNational
|Auckland Central||Norman Douglas||Richard Prebble||289||Murray McCully|
|Avon||Mary Batchelor||5,503||Tom George|
|Awarua||Aubrey Begg||Rex Austin||2,150||Aubrey Begg|
|Bay of Plenty||Percy Allen||Duncan MacIntyre||3,960||Robert Frederick McKee|
|Birkenhead||Norman King||Jim McLay||2,816||Norman King|
|Christchurch Central||Bruce Barclay||2,973||Tim Armitage|
|Clutha||Peter Gordon||4,735||F A O'Connell|
|Coromandel||Leo Schultz||4,724||Raymond C. Bradley|
|Dunedin Central||Brian MacDonell||1,428||Ian Bright|
|Dunedin North||Ethel McMillan||Richard Walls||958||Brian Arnold|
|East Coast Bays||Frank Gill||5,594||Rex Stanton|
|Eden||Mike Moore||Aussie Malcolm||1,331||Mike Moore|
|Egmont||Venn Young||4,120||Dennis Duggan|
|Franklin||Bill Birch||7,605||Ron Ng-Waishing|
|Gisborne||Trevor Davey||Bob Bell||1,321||Trevor Davey|
|Grey Lynn||Eddie Isbey||2,839||Jens Meder|
|Hamilton East||Rufus Rogers||Ian Shearer||2,246||Rufus Rogers|
|Hamilton West||Dorothy Jelicich||Mike Minogue||2,069||Dorothy Jelicich|
|Hastings||Richard Mayson||Bob Fenton||491||Richard Mayson|
|Hawkes Bay||Richard Harrison||3,805||David Butcher|
|Henderson||Martyn Finlay||401||Warren Adams|
|Heretaunga||Ron Bailey||336||Julie Cameron|
|Hobson||Logan Sloane||Neill Austin||4,101||Howard Manning|
|Hutt||Trevor Young||1,019||Brett Newell|
|Invercargill||J. B. Munro||Norman Jones||2,533||J. B. Munro|
|Island Bay||Gerald O'Brien||1,274||Bill Nathan|
|Kapiti||Frank O'Flynn||Barry Brill||2,222||Frank O'Flynn|
|Karori||Jack Marshall||Hugh Templeton||4,830||Margaret Shields|
|King Country||Jim Bolger||4,316||Thomas Varnam|
|Lyttelton||Tom McGuigan||Colleen Dewe||999||Tom McGuigan|
|Manawatu||Allan McCready||2,918||Alan Charles Eyles|
|Mangere||Colin Moyle||1,604||Stanley Lawson|
|Manukau||Roger Douglas||678||Brian Leaming|
|Manurewa||Phil Amos||Merv Wellington||1,358||Phil Amos|
|Marlborough||Ian Brooks||Ed Latter||3,010||Ian Brooks|
|Miramar||Bill Young||1,749||John Wybrow|
|Mt Albert||Warren Freer||247||Frank Ryan|
|Napier||Gordon Christie||931||John Isles|
|Nelson||Stan Whitehead||1,093||Ian McWhannel|
|New Lynn||Jonathan Hunt||890||Barry O'Connor|
|New Plymouth||Ron Barclay||Tony Friedlander||1,935||Ron Barclay|
|North Shore||George Gair||5,247||Wyn Hoadley|
|Oamaru||Bill Laney||Jonathan Elworthy||2,196||Bill Laney|
|Onehunga||Hugh Watt||Frank Rogers||1,044||Kevin O'Brien|
|Otago Central||Ian Quigley||Warren Cooper||2,371||Ian Quigley|
|Otahuhu||Bob Tizard||3,785||Lois Morris|
|Pahiatua||Keith Holyoake||6,769||Paul Thornicroft|
|Pakuranga||Gavin Downie||7,016||Geoff Braybrooke|
|Palmerston North||Joe Walding||John Lithgow||142||Joe Walding|
|Papanui||Bert Walker||2,985||Rod Garden|
|Petone||Fraser Colman||2,834||Brel Gluyas|
|Piako||Jack Luxton||6,174||Helen Clark|
|Porirua||Gerry Wall||2,265||Ross Doughty|
|Raglan||Douglas Carter||Marilyn Waring||3,756||Bill Pickering|
|Rakaia||Colin McLachlan||5,237||Graeme Lowrie|
|Rangiora||Kerry Burke||Derek Quigley||1,386||Kerry Burke|
|Rangitikei||Roy Jack||1,756||Bruce Beetham|
|Remuera||Allan Highet||8,656||G B Mead|
|Riccarton||Eric Holland||4,766||Don Johnson|
|Rodney||Peter Wilkinson||7,817||John Prebble|
|Roskill||Arthur Faulkner||530||John Maurice Priestley|
|Rotorua||Harry Lapwood||3,605||Peter Tapsell|
|Ruahine||Les Gandar||2,763||Rex Willing|
|St Albans||Roger Drayton||1,570||Prudence Rotherberg|
|St Kilda||Bill Fraser||1,890||Gordon Heslop|
|South Canterbury||Rob Talbot||4,301||Neville Lambert|
|Stratford||David Thomson||5,667||P P Hopkins|
|Sydenham||John Kirk||3,817||Paul Matheson|
|Tamaki||Robert Muldoon||6,735||Tim Kaye|
|Tasman||Bill Rowling||529||Peter Malone|
|Taupo||Jack Ridley||Ray La Varis||1,614||Jack Ridley|
|Tauranga||Keith Allen||4,843||Richard Hendry|
|Timaru||Sir Basil Arthur||1,011||Dave Walker|
|Waikato||Lance Adams-Schneider||7,073||Brian West|
|Wairarapa||Jack Williams||Ben Couch||1,468||Jack Williams|
|Waitemata||Michael Bassett||Dail Jones||1,385||Michael Bassett|
|Wallace||Brian Talboys||6,978||Ian Lamont|
|Wanganui||Russell Marshall||1,244||John Rowan|
|Wellington Central||Ken Comber||1,076||David Shand|
|West Coast||Paddy Blanchfield||2,401||Barry Dallas|
|Western Hutt||Henry May||Bill Lambert||109||Henry May|
|Whangarei||Murray Smith||John Elliott||2,710||Murray Smith|
|Wigram||Mick Connelly||1,967||Neil Russell|
|Eastern Maori||Paraone Reweti||6,261||Monty Searancke|
|Northern Maori||Matiu Rata||4,151||Winston Peters|
|Southern Maori||Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan||6,452||Willard Amaru|
|Western Maori||Koro Wētere||8,925||Emerson Studholme Rangi|
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