1943 New Zealand general election

Last updated
1943 New Zealand general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1938 24 (Māori) & 25 September (general) 1943 1946  

All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
 First partySecond party
  Peter Fraser.jpg Sidney George Holland (1951).jpg
Leader Peter Fraser Sidney Holland
Party Labour National
Leader since 4 April 1940 26 November 1940
Leader's seat Wellington Central Christchurch North
Last election53 seats, 55.8%25 seats, 40.3%
Seats won4534
Seat changeDecrease2.svg 8Increase2.svg 9
Percentage47.6%42.8%
SwingDecrease2.svg 8.2%Increase2.svg 2.5%

Prime Minister before election

Peter Fraser
Labour

Elected Prime Minister

Peter Fraser
Labour

The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 27th term. With the onset of World War II, elections were initially postponed, but it was eventually decided to hold a general election in September 1943, around two years after it would normally have occurred. The election saw the governing Labour Party re-elected by a comfortable margin, although the party nevertheless lost considerable ground to the expanding National Party.

New Zealand Parliament legislative body of New Zealand

The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.

27th New Zealand Parliament

The 27th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1943 general election in September of that year.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Contents

Background

The Labour Party had formed its first government after its resounding victory in the 1935 elections and had been re-elected by a substantial margin in the 1938 elections. Michael Joseph Savage, the first Labour Prime Minister, died in 1940; he was replaced by Peter Fraser, who was widely viewed as competent even if he was less popular than Savage. In the same year as Fraser took power, however, the opposition National Party had replaced the ineffectual Adam Hamilton with Sidney Holland, and was beginning to overcome the internal divisions that had plagued Hamilton's time as leader.

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.

1935 New Zealand general election

The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 25th term. It resulted in the Labour Party's first electoral victory, with Michael Joseph Savage becoming the first Labour Prime Minister. The governing coalition, consisting of the United Party and the Reform Party, suffered a major defeat, attributed by many to their handling of the Great Depression. The year after the election, United and Reform took their coalition further, merging to form the modern National Party.

1938 New Zealand general election

The 1938 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 26th term. It resulted in the governing Labour Party being re-elected, although the newly founded National Party gained a certain amount of ground.

As World War II continued, the issues surrounding it naturally came to dominate political debate. Shortages appeared, prompting a certain amount of dissatisfaction with the government. The matter of conscription was also contentious although both Labour and National supported it, many traditional followers of Labour were angry at their party's stance. Many early Labour leaders, including Fraser, had been jailed for opposing conscription in World War I, and were branded hypocrites for later introducing it; Fraser justified his change of position by saying that World War I was a pointless war but that World War II was necessary. A faction of Labour, dissatisfied with the mainstream party's economic and conscription policies, followed dissident MP John A. Lee to his new Democratic Labour Party.

Conscription Compulsory enlistment into national or military service

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military. Most European nations later copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and then transfer to the reserve force.

John A. Lee New Zealand politician

John Alfred Alexander Lee was a New Zealand politician and writer. He is one of the more prominent avowed socialists in New Zealand's political history.

The Democratic Labour Party (DLP) was a left-wing political party in New Zealand in the 1940s. It was a splinter from the larger Labour Party, and was led by the prominent socialist John A. Lee.

A general election was due to be held in 1941, but Fraser, who held a tight reign over the coalition war cabinet, persuaded Parliament to postpone it due to the war. [1]

By-elections

During April and May 1943, there were three deaths of sitting members:

Paraire Karaka Paikea New Zealand politician

Paraire Karaka Paikea was a New Zealand Māori politician

Alfred Ransom New Zealand politician

Sir Ethelbert Alfred Ransom was a New Zealand politician of the Liberal Party, then its successor the United Party, and from 1936, the National Party. He was a cabinet minister from 1928 to 1935 in the United Government, and was acting Prime Minister in 1930 and in 1935.

Pahiatua is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the Wairarapa region. It existed from 1896 to 1996, and was represented by nine Members of Parliament, including Prime Minister Keith Holyoake for 34 years.

This would have required three by-elections in a year where the government was planning to hold a general election, and in fact, the writ for the Northern Maori by-election was issued on 19 May. On 11 June, the government announced that a general election would be held in September, and at the same time they introduced legislation that postponed the three by-elections. [5] The By-elections Postponement Act 1943 [6] was passed, and amongst other things it revoked the writ issued for the Northern Maori by-election. This was the first time that legislation had been used to postpone by-elections (it happened once more in 1969). [7]

The election

The date for the main 1943 election was 25 September, a Saturday. The election to the four Māori electorates was held the day before. 1,021,034 civilians and an uncertain number of serving military personnel were registered to vote special legislation provided voting rights to all serving members of the armed forces regardless of age, and they voted over several days prior to 25 September. [8] [9] Among the civilian population, there was a turnout of 82.8%. The number of seats in Parliament was 80, a number that had been fixed since 1902. [8]

There were three minor movements participating with 45 candidates: the People's Movement or Independent People's Group (25), the Real Democracy Movement (17) and the Fighting Forces League (3). However these groups got only 12,867 votes (provisional count: PM or IPG 7,389 (0.89%); RDM 4,421 (0.53%); others or FFL 1,057 (0.13%)). [10] Two of the three Fighting Forces League candidates were also supported by the Real Democracy Movement, [11] which had been formed by the Social Credit Association.

Two seats were uncontested: Awarua and Matarura. Both seats were held for the National Party by serving officers; James Hargest (Awarua) was interned in Switzerland, and Tom Macdonald (Mataura) had just been invalided home. [12] Labour did not contest those two electorates or Nelson where Harry Atmore stood. National did not contest three electorates: Kaipara and Palmerston North where Independent Nationalists stood, or Buller. 1943 was the last general election when some candidates were elected unopposed. [13]

With seamen's and servicemen's votes taking time to come in, it took until mid-October before all results were finalised. Initially, the outcome in at least ten electorates was in doubt: Oamaru, Eden, Raglan, New Plymouth, Otaki, Wairarapa, Waitemata, Hamilton, Nelson, and Motueka. [14] In its 27 September edition, The New Zealand Herald posted profiles of new members of parliament. This included National's T. R. Beatty, a building contractor from Oamaru who had supposedly beaten Arnold Nordmeyer, a sitting cabinet minister. [15] In initial results, Beatty had a majority of just six votes, [16] but incumbents had strong support by military staff, [17] and Nordmeyer had a final majority of 125 votes. [18]

Election results

The leaders of National and Labour, plus the 24 new MPs following the 1943 general election Auckland Weekly News, 6 Oct 1943.jpg
The leaders of National and Labour, plus the 24 new MPs following the 1943 general election

The 1943 election saw the governing Labour Party retain office by a ten-seat margin, winning forty-five seats to the National Party's thirty-four, with one independent. The popular vote was considerably closer Labour won 47.6%, while National won 42.8%. Holland was stunned by the result, and called for a Commission of Inquiry to look at the servicemens’ vote, but was answered by a report from the Chief Electoral Officer. The Labour vote dropped, particularly in rural areas where the now more prosperous farmers returned to their normal political allegiance. There were strikes by the miners, and resentment at wartime restrictions. Lee’s "Democratic Soldier Labour" party took votes in closely contested seats, and there was a "vast and weird variety of miscellaneous candidates under strange labels". However the forces vote favoured both Labour and Democratic Soldier Labour, see table below. And 22 seats were won on a minority vote. [19]

On the morning of election day, overseas counts from London, Ottawa and the Middle East indicated a majority for Labour, but domestic results coming in during the evening suggested to several government officials and even to Walter Nash thal Labour would lose. By 10.30 pm only 35 of the 80 seats were certain for Labour, with Barclay (Marsden) defeated and even Nordmeyer (Oamaru) uncertain. But with 73,000 servicemens’ votes that came in during the day, Lowry (Otaki), Hodgens (Palmerston North) and Roberts (Wairarapa) scraped in. Over subsequent days with 60,000 special votes plus over 20,000 more servicemens’ votes, both Nordmeyer and Anderton (Eden) also scraped in. Fraser, who had campaigned among the troops, quipped that it was not only North Africa that the Second Division had saved. [20] [21] By 7 October, National's lead in four seats had been overturned by the services votes, [22] and by 12 October, it was apparent that the result in six seats (Eden, Nelson, Oamaru, Otaki, Palmerston North and Wairarapa) had been overturned by the services vote. [23]

John A. Lee's new Democratic Labour Party won only 4.3% of the vote, and no seats. Bill Barnard and Colin Scrimgeour were formerly on the Labour left. Barnard had left the Labour Party with John A. Lee but had fallen out with him and left Lee's Democratic Labour Party, standing as an independent. Scrimgeour stood as an independent against Prime Minister Peter Fraser in Wellington Central and polled well, reducing Fraser's majority so that Fraser only sneaked back on a minority vote.

Albert Davy the organiser of the Independent People’s Group (IPG) or People's Movement complained that the election was decided on "strictly party" lines, and said that the effect of the Democratic Labour Party standing was to give six seats to the National Party. [24]

Two defeated Labour MPs, James Barclay and Charles Boswell, were appointed to diplomatic posts in Australia and Russia, respectively.

The election was also notable for the defeat of Āpirana Ngata a renowned Māori statesman and member for Eastern Maori after 38 years in parliament, by Rātana–Labour candidate Tiaki Omana. Labour now held all four Māori electorates and would continue to do so until 1993.

One independent was re-elected: Harry Atmore from Nelson this was the last electoral victory by a candidate not from the major parties until the 1966 election. Atmore had the tactical support of Labour who (as in 1935 and 1938) did not stand a candidate against him, and he generally voted with Labour. [25] The slight margin to National in Nelson on civilian votes was reversed by the service votes. [26]

Party standings

Election results
PartyCandidatesVotesPercentageSeats wonchange
Labour 77447,91947.5645-8
National 77402,88742.7834+9
Democratic Labour 5440,4434.290±0
People's Movement 257,3890.890±0
Real Democracy 254,4210.530±0
Independents 3838,7893.951-1
Total291941,82880

Votes summary

Popular Vote
Labour
47.60%
National
42.80%
Democratic Labour
4.30%
Independent
3.90%
Others
1.50%
Parliament seats
Labour
56.25%
National
42.50%
Independent
1.25%

Initial MPs

The table below shows the results of the 1943 general election:

Key

  Labour     National     Democratic Labour     Real Democracy     Independent   

Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1943 [18]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
General electorates
Auckland Central Bill Parry 4,769William George Stanley Swabey [27]
Auckland East Frederick Schramm 962Harry Tom Merritt [28]
Auckland Suburbs Rex Mason 3,028Thomas Augustus Bishop [27]
Auckland West Peter Carr 5,402 John W. Kealy
Avon Dan Sullivan 4,460James Neil Clarke [29]
Awarua James Hargest Uncontested
Bay of Islands Charles Boswell Sidney Walter Smith 1,276 Charles Boswell
Bay of Plenty Bill Sullivan 1,679Walter William Jonasen [30]
Buller Paddy Webb 4,635E W Nicolaus
Central Otago William Bodkin 2,723James McIndoe Mackay [31]
Christchurch East Mabel Howard 5,537Reginald Gilbert Brown [29]
Christchurch North Sidney Holland 2,645 George Manning [32]
Christchurch South Robert Macfarlane 4,416 Ron Guthrey [33]
Clutha James Roy 1,587Herbert Kerr Edie
Dunedin Central Peter Nielson 2,155Leonard James Tobin Ireland
Dunedin North James Wright Munro 2,798Alexander Cassie
Dunedin South Fred Jones 3,061David Murdoch
Dunedin West Gervan McMillan Phil Connolly 1,338Alexander Smith Falconer
Eden Bill Anderton 14 Wilfred Fortune
Egmont Charles Wilkinson Ernest Corbett 2,422 Edwin Thoms Cox [34]
Franklin Jack Massey 3,285Aaron Best [35] [36]
Gisborne David William Coleman 572 Harry Barker [37]
Grey Lynn John A. Lee Fred Hackett 6,059 John A. Lee
Hamilton Charles Barrell Frank Findlay 454 Charles Barrell
Hauraki Andrew Sutherland 2,723Edmund Colin Nigel Robinson [35]
Hawke's Bay Ted Cullen 1,636Eric N. Pryor [38]
Hurunui George Forbes William Gillespie 1,566James William Morgan [29]
Hutt Walter Nash 5,260John H. Hogan
Invercargill William Denham 987William Bell [39]
Kaiapoi Morgan Williams 761William Harold Overton [40]
Kaipara Gordon Coates Clifton Webb 2,800 John Stewart [27]
Lyttelton Terry McCombs 1,374 Ted Taylor [33] [41]
Manawatu John Cobbe Matthew Oram 2,305William Henry Oliver [nb 1]
Marlborough Edwin Meachen 450 Tom Shand
Marsden Jim Barclay Alfred Murdoch 1,006 Jim Barclay
Masterton John Robertson Garnet Hercules Mackley 494 John Robertson
Mataura Tom Macdonald Uncontested
Mid-Canterbury Mary Grigg Richard Gerard 634 David Barnes [33]
Motueka Jerry Skinner 301J R Haldane
Napier Bill Barnard Tommy Armstrong 1,273Morris Spence [43]
Nelson Harry Atmore 191Frederick William Huggins [44] [45] [46]
New Plymouth Frederick Frost Ernest Aderman 1,276 Frederick Frost
Oamaru Arnold Nordmeyer 125Thomas Ross Beatty
Onehunga Arthur Osborne 3,324John Park
Otahuhu Charles Petrie 464Gordon Hamilton [27]
Otaki Leonard Lowry 191 Bert Cooksley
Pahiatua Alfred Ransom Keith Holyoake 1,825George Anders Hansen
Palmerston North Joe Hodgens 212 Gus Mansford
Patea Harold Dickie William Sheat 912Alex Langslow [36]
Raglan Lee Martin Robert Coulter 108Robert James Glasgow [47]
Rangitikei Edward Gordon 1,612R Freeman [36]
Remuera Bill Endean Ronald Algie 4,183 Martyn Finlay
Riccarton Herbert Kyle Jack Watts 1,322Harold Ernest Denton [29]
Roskill Arthur Richards 962 Roy McElroy [48]
Rotorua Alexander Moncur Geoffrey Sim 715 Alexander Moncur [35]
Stratford William Polson 2,059Brian Richmond [49]
Tauranga Frederick Doidge 3,625Dudley Alexander Hill [30]
Temuka Jack Acland 1,690George Harris [50]
Thames Jim Thorn 935William Alexander Clark [47]
Timaru Clyde Carr 1,701Jack Satterthwaite [51]
Waikato William Goosman 4,615Charles Croall [52]
Waimarino Frank Langstone 1,404Roger Oswald Montgomerie
Waipawa Cyril Harker 2,091Archie Low [53]
Wairarapa Ben Roberts 151 James Joseph Maher
Waitaki David Campbell Kidd 821J S Adams
Waitemata Mary Dreaver Henry Thorne Morton 321 Mary Dreaver
Waitomo Walter Broadfoot 1,881 Ben Waters
Wallace Adam Hamilton 1,607John James Lynch [54]
Wanganui Joseph Cotterill 2,437E J Kirk
Wellington Central Peter Fraser 1,206 Will Appleton
Wellington East Bob Semple 2,588Leonard Theodor Jacobsen [55]
Wellington North Charles Henry Chapman 1,897 Thomas Hislop
Wellington South Robert McKeen 4,156 Ernest Toop
Wellington Suburbs Harry Ernest Combs 2,581 Bill Veitch
Wellington West Catherine Stewart Charles Bowden 1,183 Catherine Stewart
Westland James O'Brien 2,600E Frank Chivers [56] [57]
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Āpirana Ngata Tiaki Omana 240Āpirana Ngata
Northern Maori Paraire Karaka Paikea Tapihana Paraire Paikea 2,438Eru Moka Pou [28]
Southern Maori Eruera Tirikatene 558John Piuraki Tikao-Barrett
Western Maori Toko Ratana 3,309 Pei Te Hurinui Jones

Table footnotes:

  1. Father of the historian W. H. Oliver [42]

Notes

  1. King 2003, pp. 395f.
  2. Wilson 1985, p. 225.
  3. Wilson 1985, p. 228.
  4. Wilson 1985, p. 189.
  5. "Early Election". The New Zealand Herald . 80 (24607). 11 June 1943. p. 2. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  6. "By-elections Postponement Act 19431". New Zealand Law online.
  7. "By-elections Postponement Act 1943 (7 GEO VI 1943 No 7)". Parliamentary Counsel Office . Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  8. 1 2 "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  9. Wood 1996, p. 108.
  10. "Party Support: Results analysed". Papers Past. 27 September 1943.
  11. "Election Today". The New Zealand Herald . 25 September 1943.
  12. "To-Morrow's Election". Bay of Plenty Beacon. 7 (9). 24 September 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  13. Wilson 1985, pp. 285–286.
  14. "Ten in Doubt". Auckland Star . LXXIV (230). 28 September 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  15. "The New Parliament". The New Zealand Herald . 80 (24699). 27 September 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  16. "Not Definite". The New Zealand Herald . 80 (24699). 27 September 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  17. "The Election". The Press . LXXIX (24082). 19 October 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  18. 1 2 "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. pp. 1–12. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  19. Lipson 2011, p. 218-19.
  20. Atkinson 2003, p. 154.
  21. Bassett 2000, p. ?.
  22. "Turned the Scales: Servicemen's Votes". Papers Past. 7 October 1943.
  23. "Election Result: State of Parties". Papers Past. 12 October 1943.
  24. "On Party Lines: Mr Davys' analysis". Papers Past. 27 September 1943.
  25. Milne 1966, p. 76.
  26. "Big Influence: Service votes". Papers Past. 7 October 1943.
  27. 1 2 3 4 "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald . 80 (24713). 13 October 1943. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  28. 1 2 "Electoral". Auckland Star . LXXIV (290). 7 December 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  29. 1 2 3 4 "Public Notices". The Press . LXXIX (24076). 12 October 1943. p. 1. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  30. 1 2 "Public Notices". Bay of Plenty Beacon. 7 (15). 15 October 1943. p. 5. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  31. "Declaration of Result of Poll for the Electoral District of Central Otago". Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette. 13 October 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  32. Sharfe, Jean. "Manning, George". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 17 February 2010.
  33. 1 2 3 "Public Notices". The Press . LXXIX (24077). 13 October 1943. p. 1. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  34. "Labour Candidate for Egmont". The Press. LXXIX (24021). 9 August 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  35. 1 2 3 "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald . 80 (24714). 14 October 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  36. 1 2 3 "Labour Candidates". The Evening Post . CXXXVI (24). 28 July 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  37. Milton-Tee, Ann. "Harry Heaton Barker". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  38. Gustafson 1986, p. 382.
  39. "General Election". Auckland Star . LXXIV (148). 24 June 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  40. "Public Notices". The Press . LXXIX (24076). 12 October 1943. p. 1. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  41. Gustafson 1986, p. 387.
  42. "William Henry Oliver". Auckland War Memorial Museum . Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  43. "General Election". Auckland Star . LXXIV (161). 9 July 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  44. "Nelson Seat". The Evening Post . CXXXVI (13). 15 July 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  45. "Obituary". The Evening Post . CXL (126). 24 November 1945. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  46. "Frederick William Huggins". New Zealand War Graves Project. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  47. 1 2 "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald . 80 (24764). 11 December 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  48. Gustafson 1986, p. 375.
  49. "General Election". The Press . LXXIX (23989). 2 July 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  50. "General Election". The Press . LXXIX (23981). 23 June 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  51. "Timaru Electorate". The Press . LXXIX (23941). 7 May 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  52. "Candidates Chosen". Auckland Star . LXXIV (177). 28 July 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  53. "General Election". The Evening Post . CXXXVI (48). 25 August 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  54. "Declaration of Result of Poll for the Electoral District of Wallace". Lake Wakatip Mail (4637). 7 October 1943. p. 5. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  55. "Public Notices". The Evening Post . CXXXVI (136). 6 December 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  56. "General Election". Auckland Star . LXXIV (203). 27 August 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  57. "Chivers, E Frank, DSM, MID". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum . Retrieved 3 November 2014.

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